Using synergies – How active agents and cream published in Kosmetische Praxis 2010 (3), 10-12 No doubt – the grey area between pharmaceutical and cosmetic skin care products is expanding. Dermaceuticals and dermocosmetics are keywords which demonstrate that the cosmetic product market is gaining grounds in the pharmaceutical field, not least because of legal claims for a proof of efficiency. harmaceutical agents, on the other hand, a gradual difference to transdermal pharma- ceutical applications like e.g. the nicotine patch P products by now. It seems, however, that or creams against rheumatism. That is why high standards in terms of purity, creams came to a standstill whereas otherwise, physiological tolerance and degradability of the innovative cosmetic cream bases have made cosmetic ingredients are required. Furthermore, their way into medical prescriptions in the it has to be ensured that they will not cause systemic effects. Many of the formulations are not in compliance with today’s requirements if used in combination with the above mentioned equipment-based techniques. Hence, the cos- Dermatology and cosmetics have identical ob- metic industry it requested to completely elimi- jectives: the healthy and physiologically intact nate problem substances or provide warning skin. The respective approach to achieve this labels as for instance “Do no use during ultra- goal, however, is subject to different legal regulations. Pharmaceutical creams are li- censed for medical therapy, cosmetic products are allowed for the supportive prevention of skin problems, which means for the care of the skin. The connecting link between dermatological In Germany, with a few exceptions only, phar- therapy and preventive skin care are base maceuticals are subject to strict regulations and creams which are suitable for both applications. hence only available on prescription and in Typical pharmacological agents for the derma- pharmacies. There is also a risk of side effects tological therapy are for instance antibiotics, involved. A detailed overview covering the un- desired effects of such active agents on the skin was published in Kosmetische Praxis 2009 aesthetics and vitamins. Typical cosmetic agents are extracts, essential fatty acids, lipids Also the substances used in cosmetics may (emollients), moisturizers (NMF, gelling agents), have immediate or long term side effects. Among those, irritations and allergies are the How important the formulation of base creams easiest to diagnose, though (see Beauty Forum is in this concept is shown by the fact that the 2008 (9), 114-116). In this context, some also use of inappropriate cream bases will immedi- hold the opinion that cosmetic ingredients, in ately lead to relapses after the application has contrast to pharmaceuticals, should not pene- been stopped. The mineral oil containing DAC trate into the deeper layers of the skin. Use and base cream which is frequently prescribed may mechanism of action of vitamins or essential be stated as an example in this context. oils already show that this idea is quite unre- alistic, though. With the exception of high mo- lecular or polymer substances that remain on the skin, practically every substance will more or less penetrate the skin. Even highly polar substances are made available for the dermis with the help of modern transport systems like liposomes and nanodispersions. In addition to that, techniques like peelings microdermabra- sion, microneedling and ultrasound facilitate the permeation of cosmetic products. There is only Kosmetik Konzept KOKO GmbH & Co.KG • D-42799 Leichlingen • Moltkestr. 25 • • page 1 of 3 Using synergies – How active agents and cream bases interlink cosmetics and pharmacy page 2 of 3 This cream is rather inappropriate for the treat- persistent irritations and infections due to exter- ment of the neurodermitic or acne-prone skin nal influences. This therapy is recommended when mixed with corticoids or antibiotics for Mineral oil containing products like vaseline and paraffin oil, polyethylene glycols (PEG), emulsi- fiers, preservatives like parabens and benzyl alcohol as well as perfumes and silicones also are frequent ingredients of pharmaceutical base creams. Empirical data recorded by profes- sional cosmeticians who have experienced the problems with these ingredients for quite some Adequate formulations may also have immedi- time now, could be helpful in this context. As a ate effects. A mixture of urea, nanodispersed matter of fact, there has been a change of evening primrose oil (contains gamma linolenic thinking, not least because of the more frequent acid) in an emulsifier free cream base is a quick cooperation with professionals and experts from and effective way to cure pruritus, inflamma- the cosmetic field. This also explains the fact tions and swellings after mosquito bites. Phar- that innovative base creams developed by the maceutical antihistamines, local anaesthetics cosmetic industry, without emulsifiers, mineral and inflammation inhibitors are not required in oils, preservatives and perfumes are more and more frequently used in the pharmaceutical The direct combination of pharmaceutical- practice. Studies show that they significantly based therapy and corneotherapy is called accelerate the recovery of the skin barrier and “adjuvant” corneotherapy. “Enhanced” corneo- frequently lead to a long-term improvement in therapy means that the skin barrier is purpose- fully opened with specific penetration- enhanc- ing substances to improve the passage of ac- Based on clinically significant results, the doyen of the US-American dermatology, Professor Albert M. Kligman, Ph.D., could show that the On the other hand there is a whole variety of use of appropriate cosmetic compounds for the cosmetic active agents which originate from the care of the problem skin could even replace the pharmaceutical field. Some of them, as e.g. pharmaceutical active agents. He founded the preservatives, may cause side effects as shown corneotherapy which, just like the base creams described above, aims primarily at the recovery of the barrier function and hence actively avoids used against skin irritations and dry skin (like urea) consistency agent (licensed up to 1 %) in benzalkonium chlori- antibacterial and preservative effects in eye products and throat drops) sodium carbomer: thickening agent (consis- tency agent), ingredient of ultrasound gels skin moistening, skin smoothing, stimulating cell proliferation, anti-itching, antibacterial effect wound healing, immune stimula- used in skin care products for the treatment tion of couperosis, rosacea and perioral dermati-tis Kosmetik Konzept KOKO GmbH & Co.KG • D-42799 Leichlingen • Moltkestr. 25 • • page 2 of 3 Using synergies – How active agents and cream bases interlink cosmetics and pharmacy page 3 of 3 essential fatty acids: anti-inflammatory effect, neuro- dry skin, barrier disorders, anti-inflammatory prevention of bad and hyperactive skin in stimulation of microcirculation; astringent mild astringent: ingredient of tonics, lotions wrinkle smoothing, forms elastic moisture local anaesthetic (polidocanol) in emulsifier for creams and cleansing products cases of neurodermatitis, der- (cf. annotation of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment – BfR- dated 15-10-2003: antimicrobial and keratolytic activity, peeling (ß-hydroxy acid). Up to max. 2 % are al- lowed in skin care creams and 3 % in sham-poos. skin whitening, not licensed in the EU, how- preservative (allowed up to 0.3 %) in tooth- pastes, deodorants and cleansing products moisturizer, soothing of irritations, powder banned from cosmetic products. Vitamin-A- palmitate is allowed (will transform into vita- min-A-acid in the skin). Used for collagen formation and recovery of the atrophic skin, treatment of acne, cornification disorders. Of course, identical substances have identical effects, no matter whether they are used in cosmetics or pharmaceutical creams. The only difference is, that the cosmetic market is not allowed to use the terms healing or soothing of diseases. The prevailing public understanding may decide in specific cases whether the ap-plication falls under the pharmaceutical guide-lines or the cosmetic decree. Sometimes the dosage in cosmetic products is higher than in pharmaceutical formulations (e.g. D-pan-thenol). On the other hand, the cosmetic in-dustry also successfully uses fractions of the required active agent concentrations only and combines it with a potent carrier system like liposomes or nanodispersions. Both the bio-logically degradable carrier systems are only rarely used in the pharmaceutical sector be-cause of their complicated and costly stan-dardization procedures. In isolated cases also precursor substances of banned active agents are used in cosmetic formulations. An example in this context is vitamin-A-palmitate which is metabolized in the skin into vitamin-A-acid (see table). Dr. Hans Lautenschläger Kosmetik Konzept KOKO GmbH & Co.KG • D-42799 Leichlingen • Moltkestr. 25 • • page 3 of 3


1-¿Qué es la influenza porcina? La influenza porcina es una enfermedad respiratoria aguda altamente contagiosa que ocurre en los cerdos, y que es causada por uno de los varios virus de influenza tipo A que circulan en estos animales. Este tipo de virus tiende a causar alta morbilidad en los cerdos pero baja mortalidad (1 a 4%). El virus se trasmite entre los cerdos a través de aerosol

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