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Overview of Medications
Glucophage –mild weight loss effect, works through the liver, and at the receptors, making your own
insulin more effective. Eventually the pancreas may no longer produce enough insulin without assistance, and additional meds will be needed.
Starlix – helps produce rise of insulin at meal times. Its advantage is that it works with food, producing
↑ insulin at mealtimes when most needed, and does not drop blood sugar too low, even when you take it and get called away before you eat. Disadvantage: must take 3 times daily.
GlucotrolXL or Amaryl – helps produce more insulin, taken 1 0r 2 times daily, releases insulin all day
long (so you can get too low, especially if you miss meals, also some weight gain tendency.)
Precose – taken with meals to block the absorption of sugar – mild blood sugar lowering effect, sugar
blocked from absorption can produce intestinal gas and/or loose stools.
Avandia or Actos – works through the liver and on insulin receptors to lower blood sugar by making
your own insulin more effective. The 1st drug in this group Rezulin was taken off the market due to liver failures, so far newer ones ok.
Insulin – taken as injection, usually reserved for Type I or in Type 2 severe, uncontrolled diabetics or
after many years the oral drugs are no longer effective. Causes weight gain, must time the insulin shots and meals carefully to avoid low blood sugar (insulin reactions).
Diabetes Care Guidelines
Take care of yourself Everyday! (not just sometimes).
See your Doctor every 3 months
Test your blood sugar levels daily, one or more times, usually 1st AM and
Test blood at lab 1 week before each doctor visit (Basic Metabolic Panel, fasting; lipid panel,
glycohemoglobin level, microalbumin/urinalysis.
See the opthalmologist at least once a year, more if eye complications already present. Check your feet daily (get looked at right away if you see even a little sore – these can turn to gangrene
Control cholesterol to reduce heart attack and stroke risk 1) Eat less 2) Lose weight 3) Exercise 4) High
fiber 5) Cholarest, Niacin (never > 500 mg), or statin drugs (Lipitor, Zocor or Pravachol).
Control Blood pressure. 1) Exercise 2) low salt 3) meditation 4) medication.
Vision – Retinal damage, cataracts, blindness. High sugar in blood causes lens to swell so vision blurs,
later blockages to small blood vessels destroy retina.
Circulation – Feet/Skin Ulcerations/Gangrene/Heart Attack and Stroke Risk Increased. Nerve damage – causes loss of sensation to feet, and/or hands, and in men the genitalia (causes
Kidneys – high sugar loads cause strain, gradual decline in kidney ability to filter. Diabetes is the
leading cause of need for dialysis. High sugar = over 120-140!
Multiple studies have now shown that all of these complications are completely preventable by keeping
blood sugars in non-diabetic range. ( I.e. FBS 100-120 and HgbA1c< 7.
Biosketch Catherine A. Peterson Department of Nutrition& Exercise Physiology CURRENT POSITION 2009- present Associate Professor of Nutritional Sciences, Department Nutritional Sciences, University EDUCATION Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin- Madison. Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Division of Nutritiona
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