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Nit 153-08 - acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
It is estimated that by 2050, 19 million people in the
more developed countries will be over 65 years old.
At least 50% of them are expected to develop some
form of Alzheimer's disease.
Semi-synthetic derivatives of plant extracts that act as
Inhibit the AChE enzyme to increase the cholinergic activity of
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibitors. They can be
the Central Nervous System, controlling the symptoms of
used for the treatment of degenerative neuropathies such as
Alzheimer's disease in the areas of learning and memory.
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as other
Through this mechanism it is also possible to control muscle
disorders related to cholinergic transmission, such as
paralysis caused by chemical or biological agents, Myasthenia
, chemical-related muscle paralysis,
and scopolamine poisoning.
scopolamine intoxication, and other pathologies associated
The vegetable species in question is endemic to the Atlantic
Forest and its extracted compounds may yield 4% in alcohol
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disorder with a high
extract. In in vivo
assays, these compounds have been found
socioeconomic impact, accounting for 1.70% of deaths in
to inhibit the enzyme AChE completely (100%) when
developed countries. It is estimated that 24.3 million people
compared with the reversible inhibitor galantamine.
are affected and that 4.6 million new cases will be reported
They are also able to reverse amnesia induced
experimental y by scopolamine, unlike tacrine and
Alzheimer's is the fifth leading cause of death in developed
galantamine. The compounds do not present the toxic effects
countries, taking the lives of 168 thousand people per year
reported for the two commercial drugs used in preclinical
In the U.S., 10.9 million people are unpaid caregivers. Most of
these caregivers are close relatives of the patient, which
causes a heavy emotional and financial burden on families as
the disease progresses, ending in death. From the early
symptoms to death, the progression of the disease is 8.5 to 11
years, with an average life expectancy of 4 to 6 years
In 2009, two of the main drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's
(Alzheimer's Assoc., 2010). The estimated global cost of
disease, rivastigmine and donepezil, both AChE inhibitors,
treating Alzheimer's is approximately US$ 315 billion (Pfizer ,
reached sales of US$ 954 million and US$ 432 million,
respectively. There is a high demand for new drugs, as
indicated by the R&D lines on Alzheimer's of the major players
in the pharmaceutical industry. In Brazil, the federal
Exceptional Medicines Program and that of several state
governments covers the costs of medications for pathologies
such as Alzheimer's. The budget increase from 2004 to 2008
was 345%, corresponding to R$ 2.3 billion last year.
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NJSIAA Banned-Drug Classes 2012 - 2013 The term “related compounds” comprises substances that are included in the class by their pharmacological action and/or chemical structure. No substance belonging to the prohibited class may be used, regardless of whether it is specifically listed as an example. Many nutritional/dietary supplements contain NJSIAA banned substances. In additi
Sobre el Acto Formativo de la educación superior* El acto formativo es la unidad de análisis del proceso educativo y expresa ante todo una significativa relación e interacción humana de los agentes y actores educativos entre sí (estudiantes, profesores y directivos académicos) respecto de los propósitos y objetivos de formación de los programas de formación técnic