Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook Industry Description and Practices
and the treated wood storage areas. Some of themajor pollutants present in drips, surface runoff, Wood preserving involves imparting protective and contaminated soil include polynuclear aro- properties to wood to guard against weathering matic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, pesti- and attack by pests. Three main types of preser- cides, dioxins, chrome, copper, and arsenic.
vatives are used: water based (for example, so-dium phenylphenoxide, benzalconium chloride, Pollution Prevention and Control
guazatin, and copper chrome arsenate); organicsolvent based (for example, pentachlorophenol Wood preserving involves different combinations and such substitutes as propiconazol, tebuco- of a wide variety of processes, and there are many nazol, lindane, permethrin, triazoles, tributyltin opportunities to improve on the traditional prac- compounds, and copper and zinc naphthenates); tices in the industry. The following improvements borates; and tar oils (such as creosote). Note that should be implemented where feasible.
some of the preservatives mentioned here (for example,lindane, tributyltin, and pentachlorophenol) are • Do not use pentachlorophenol, lindane, banned in some countries and are not to be used. tributyltin, or copper chrome arsenate (or its The preservatives are applied to the surface of wood by pressure impregnation, with a pressure • Give preference to pressurized treatment pro- range of 800 kilopascals (kPa) to 1,400 kPa; by cesses to minimize both wastage of raw materi- deluging (mechanical application by flooding or als and the release of toxics that may be present.
spraying), by dipping or immersion; and by ther- • Minimize drippage by effective removal of mal processing (immersion in a hot bath of pre- extra preservative from the wood surface by servative). Application of vacuum helps to mechanical shaking until no drippage is no- improve the effectiveness of the process and to ticeable. Provide sufficient holding time af- recover some of the chemicals used. Pesticides ter preservative application to minimize free are applied using appropriate protective cloth- ing, including gloves, aprons, overalls, and in- • Recycle collected drips after treatment, if • Heat treated wood when water-based preser- Waste Characteristics
• Use concrete pads for the wood treatment area Any or all of the substances used in wood pre- serving, such as preservatives and solvents, can proper collection of drippage. Treated wood be found in the drips and the surface runoff should be sent for storage only after drippage streams. Air emissions of solvents and other vola- tile organics result from the surface treatment • Minimize surface runon by diversion of steps, drying of the treated wood, and storage stormwater away from the process areas.
and transfer of chemicals. Soil contamination • Cover process areas and collect surface runoff may result from the drippage and surface run- for recycling and treatment. Where water- off, and this may happen near the process areas based preservatives are used, prevent freshly PROJECT GUIDELINES: INDUSTRY SECTOR GUIDELINES treated wood from coming into contact with ronmental assessment (EA) process on the basis of country legislation and the Pollution Prevention and • Sites should be selected that are not prone to Abatement Handbook, as applied to local conditions.
flooding or adjacent to water intake points or The emissions levels selected must be justified in the EA and acceptable to the World Bank Group.
• Preservatives and other hazardous substances The guidelines given below present emissions should be stored safely, preferably under a roof levels normally acceptable to the World Bank Group in making decisions regarding provision • Proper labels should be applied, and used of World Bank Group assistance. Any deviations packaging should be returned to the supplier from these levels must be described in the World for reuse or sent for other acceptable uses or Bank Group project documentation. The emis- sions levels given here can be consistentlyachieved by well-designed, well-operated, and Target Pollution Loads
well-maintained pollution control systems.
The guidelines are expressed as concentrations Minimize contamination of surface runoff and to facilitate monitoring. Dilution of air emissions soil. Have a closed system for managing liquids or effluents to achieve these guidelines is un- to avoid the discharge of liquid effluents.
All of the maximum levels should be achieved Treatment Technologies
for at least 95% of the time that the plant or unitis operating, to be calculated as a proportion of Exhaust streams should be treated, using carbon filters that allow the reuse of solvents, to reducevolatile organic compounds (VOCs) to acceptable The maximum air emission level from wood im- levels before venting to the atmosphere. Where pregnation areas for VOC is 20 milligrams per VOC recovery is not feasible, destruction is carried out in combustion devices or bio-oxidation systems.
Wood-preserving plants should use closed sys- The main treatment process is recycling of col- tems, where feasible, or should attain the efflu- lected drips and surface runoff after evaporation.
Other processes include detoxification (using ul-traviolet oxidation) and precipitation or stabili- Wherever possible, generation of sludges and contaminated soil should be minimized. Con-taminated soil and sludges must be treated, sta- Contaminated soil may contain heavy metals and bilized, and disposed of in an approved, secure toxic organics and should normally be managed landfill. The levels of toxics in the leachate should as hazardous waste. Treatment methods include be the same as for liquid effluents.
incineration of toxic organics and stabilization ofheavy metals.
Emissions Guidelines
Noise abatement measures should achieve eitherthe levels given below or a maximum increase in Emissions levels for the design and operation of background levels of 3 decibels (measured on the each project must be established through the envi- A scale) [dB(A)]. Measurements are to be taken Table 1. Effluents (Including Surface Runoff)
operating standards so that any necessary correc- from the Wood-Preserving Industry
tive actions can be taken. Records of monitoring results should be kept in an acceptable format. Theresults should be reported to the responsible au- thorities and relevant parties, as required.
Key Issues
The key production and control practices that will lead to compliance with emissions guidelines can • Do not use pentachlorophenol, lindane, tributyltin, copper chrome arsenate, or other preservatives that are considered toxic and for which less toxic alternatives are available for • Use pressurized treatment processes.
• Heat treated wood when water-based preser- Note: Effluent requirements are for direct discharge to surface • Minimize drippage carryover by ensuring that drippage has completely stopped before re- at noise receptors located outside the project area. Collect and recycle drip solutions, andput in place total recycle systems for liquids • Use concrete pads for the wood treatment and • Divert stormwater away from process areas.
• Recycle solvent vapors, where feasible; other- wise, they should be destroyed in a combus- tion device or in a bio-oxidation system.
• Manage contaminated soil and sludges as haz- Monitoring and Reporting
Daily monitoring of the parameters listed in this United States. 1990. “Wood Preserving; Identification document, except for metals, should be carried and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Final Rule.” Fed- out to provide an indication of overall treatment eral Register, vol. 55, no. 235, December 6.
reliability. Metals should be sampled at least World Bank. 1995. “Industrial Pollution Prevention and monthly. More frequent sampling may be re- Abatement: Wood Preserving Industry.” Draft Tech- quired for certain batches and during wet nical Background Document. Environment Depart- Monitoring data should be analyzed and re- viewed at regular intervals and compared with the

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