Final libwatch nicotine

'I've never ever let anyone hold the kids while
they've got ciggies': Moral tales of maternal
relationships, natural functions of organs and smoking practices.
awareness of bodily functions. Bupropion SR (n = Holdsworth C; Robinson JE. Sociology of Health & 413) was increased to 150 mg twice daily over 1 week Illness 30(7): 1086-1100, 2008. (42 refs.) and given over a 8-week period. Twelve-month Smoking in the home is, potentially, the next frontier continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon in tobacco control in the developed world. As smoking monoxide (CO) of 9 parts per million (p.p.m.) or less regulations in public space are extended, attention is at all interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months. turning to private spaces and the contribution of Intention-to-treat analysis revealed Russell standard parental, particularly maternal, smoking to children's 12-month continuous abstinence rates of 39.1% in the health and socio-economic inequalities in family psychotherapy group versus 12.3% in the bupropion health. Yet relatively little is known about mothers' SR group (P < 0.001) with a relative benefit (RB) of smoking practices within the home and the social 3.16 (2.38-4.26). Completer analysis revealed 12- meanings of smoking that are constructed by these month continuous abstinence rates of 39.9% in the practices. In this paper we explore how mothers who psychotherapy group versus 22.5% in the bupropion smoke construct moralities of their smoking group [P < 0.001; RB 1.78 (1.35-2.34)]. Of note, behaviour, particularly in relation to where and with bupropion abstinence rates were comparable to whom they smoke. Drawing on in-depth Biographic previous medications/placebo-only comparisons in Narrative Interpretative Method, in interviews with 12 geographically different samples. The 1.5-day smoking mothers, and their partners, we consider how these moral tales involve comparisons with other presenting an alternative to pharmacological smoking cessation aids, especially for smokers who reject drugs endorsement of smoking practices, particularly around to treat their substance dependence, at a similar cost children. We also consider the role of children in the (350) as the bupropion treatment (355). Copyright 2008, home and how children are actively involved in the Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs. regulation of smoking behaviours. Finally, we consider the implications of these moral tales for Advance and retreat: Tobacco control policy in the
interventions around smoke-free homes. Copyright 2008, US military.
Arvey SR; Malone RE. Military Medicine 173(10): A randomized trial of short psychotherapy versus
This archival study explored why military tobacco sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation.
control initiatives have thus far largely failed to meet Zernig G; Wallner R; Grohs U; Kriechbaum N; their goals. We analyzed more than 5,000 previously Kemmler G; Saria A. Addiction 103(12): 2024-2031, undisclosed internal tobacco industry documents made public via an online database and additional To compare the efficacy and safety of a novel documents obtained from the U.S. military. In four psychological intervention for smoking cessation case studies, we illustrate how pressures exerted by called psychodynamic model (PDM) training to an multiple political actors resulted in weakening or rescinding military tobacco control policy initiatives. bupropion. Randomized controlled clinical trial with Our findings suggest that lowering military smoking allocation concealment. Private psychiatric practice. rates will require health policymakers to better Seven hundred and seventy-nine adult smokers anticipate and counter political opponents. The recruited by advertising. PDM training (n = 366 findings also suggest that effective tobacco control participants) consisted of a very brief (1.5 days) policies may require strong, explicit implementation psychoeducation and a supervised training in instructions and high-level Department of Defense autosuggestion techniques (guided imageries) aimed at Support. Finally, policy designers should also consider ways to reduce or eliminate existing perverse incentives to increase tobacco consumption, such as model provides an enormous theoretical and empirical allowing exchange store tobacco sales to fund variability of tailoring. However, tailoring for a major recreation, and welfare programs. Copyright 2008, subgroup of smokers, i.e. those who do not intend to quit, needs improvement. Conceptual ideas for Alcohol, tobacco and other drug use by addictions
professionals: Historical reflections and suggested
Effect of household children on adult ED smokers'
White WL. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 26(4): motivation to quit.
Mills AM; Rhodes KV; Follansbee CW; Shofer FS; Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use by Prusakowski M; Bernstein SL. American Journal of individuals working in the addictions field has existed Emergency Medicine 26(7): 757-762, 2008. (34 refs.) as a complex, controversial personal and professional Objective: We hypothesized adult parenting smokers practice issue for more than 150 years. The central in the emergency department (ED) have a higher debate within this history involves the concept of interest in quitting and may be more amenable to nexus—the boundary that distinguishes rights to tobacco cessation counseling than smokers without personal privacy from professional duties and children. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey study obligations. Ambiguities related to this point of of adult smokers in 8 US academic EDs. Results: One demarcation have contributed to misjudgments related thousand one hundred sixty-eight smokers enrolled, to ATOD use by addictions professionals that have 441 (37.8%) with household children (total of 973 injured multiple parties. This essay reviews the history exposed children). Compared to smokers without of ATOD use as a professional practice issue in the household children, smokers with children were addictions field; discusses clinical, ethical, and legal younger (mean age, 37.4 vs 42.8 years), more female issues related to ATOD use by addiction service (60.3% vs 40.3%), and nonwhite (57.5% vs 44.5%) professionals; and offers guidance on ATOD use (all P < .006). Groups did not differ in nicotine decision making. Copyright 2008, Haworth Press. addiction (median Fagerstrom score, 4 vs 4; P = .31). Parenting smokers were more interested in quitting Computer-generated tailored feedback letters for
(rnean Ladder of Contemplation score, 4.8 vs 5.1 [P = smoking cessation: Theoretical and empirical
.02]), felt it more important to quit (median score, 9 vs variability of tailoring.
8 [P = .01]), and more confident to quit (7 vs 6 [P = Schumann A; John U; Ulbricht S; Ruge J; Bischof G; .004]) than nonparenting smokers. Smoking inside the Meyer C. International Journal of Medical Informatics home was banned by 45% of smokers with children vs 30% without household children (P < .001). Purpose: This study examines tailored feedback letters Conclusions: Adult ED parenting smokers are of a smoking cessation intervention that is interested in quitting and taking steps to limit their conceptually based on the transtheoretical model, from children's secondhand smoke exposure. Asking adult a content-based perspective. Methods: Data of 2 ED smokers about household children may enhance motivation to quit. Copyright 2008, W B Saunders. randomized controlled trials, with total N = 1044 were used. The procedure of the intervention, the tailoring Effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions
principle for the feedback letters, and the content of among adults: A systematic review of reviews.
the intervention materials are described in detail. (review).
Theoretical and empirical frequencies of unique Valery L; Anke O; Inge KK; Johannes B. European feedback letters are presented. Results: The Journal of Cancer Prevention 17(6): 535-544, 2008. intervention system was able to generate a total of 1040 unique letters with normative feedback only, and The objective of this study was to identify the most almost half a million unique letters with normative and effective intervention strategies and policies for ipsative feedback. Almost every single smoker in smoking cessation among adults. The Medline and contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance Cochrane Library databases were searched, limited to had an empirically unique combination of tailoring publications since January 2000. A 'review of reviews' variables and received a unique letter. In contrast, approach was followed. Systematic reviews and meta- many smokers in precontemplation shared a analyses were included. Reviews aimed at adolescents combination of tailoring variables and received or specific subgroups were excluded. Two reviewers identical letters. Conclusion: The trans theoretical independently assessed titles and abstracts. For every intervention strategy, only the most recent publication complication. Results: An intention-to-treat analysis was included. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion showed that the overall complication rate in the criteria. The included intervention strategies and control group was 41%, and in the intervention group, policies were ranked according to their effect size, it was 21% (P = 0.03). Relative risk reduction for the taking into account the number of original studies, the primary outcome of any postoperative complication proportion of studies with a positive effect and the was 49% and number needed to treat was 5 (95% CI, presence of a long-term effect. Evidence of 3-40). An analysis per protocol showed that abstainers effectiveness for the following strategies was found: had fewer complications (15%) than those who group behavioural therapy [odds ratio (OR) 2.17, continued to smoke or only reduced smoking (35%), confidence interval (CI) 1.37-3.45], bupropion (OR although this difference was not statistically 2.06, CI: 1.77-2.40), intensive physician advice (OR 2.04, CI; 1.71-2.43), nicotine replacement therapy (OR cessation seems to be an effective tool to reduce 1.77, CI: 1.66-1.88), individual counselling (OR 1.56, postoperative complications even if it is introduced as CI: 1.32-1.84), telephone counselling (OR 1.56, CI: late as 4 weeks before surgery. Copyright 2008, Lippincott, 1.38-1.77), nursing interventions (OR 1.47, CI: 1.29- 1.67) and tailored self-help interventions (OR 1.42, CI: 1.26-1.61). A 10% increase in price increased Heart rate and blood pressure control in infants
cessation rates by 3-5%. Comprehensive clean indoor exposed to maternal cigarette smoking
laws increased quit rates by 12-38%. These results Viskari-Lahdeoja S; Hytinantti T; Andersson S; show and confirm that a wide array of effective Kirjavainen T. Acta Paediatrica 2008(97): 11, 2008. smoking cessation intervention approaches and policies can have a large impact on smoking cessation Aim: Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome Copyright 2008, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. (SIDS). Foetal and postnatal smoke-exposure may Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation
alter cardiovascular control in infants. We studied intervention on postoperative complications: A
heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses in randomized trial.
smoke-exposed infants. Methods: Eleven infants Lindstrom D; Azodi OS; Wadis A; Tonnesen H; exposed to maternal cigarette smoking were studied at Linder S; Nasell H et al. Annals of Surgery 248(5): the age of 12 +/- 2.1 (range 10-16) weeks. Twenty healthy, age-matched infants from non-smoking Objective: To determine whether an intervention with families served as controls. During confirmed slow- smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and wave sleep (NREM3), 3-5 sec side motion and 45 sec orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of 45 degrees head-up tilt tests were performed. Results: postoperative complications. Summary Background Control infants showed consistent biphasic HR and BP Data: Complications are a major concern after elective responses to side motion, with an initial 2-5% increase surgery and smokers have an increased risk. There is followed by a 2% decrease (p < 0.0001). In smoke- insufficient evidence concerning how the duration of exposed infants, the initial HR (p = 0.009) and BP responses (p < 0.0001) were markedly reduced, and postoperative complications. Methods: A randomized the subsequent decrease in BP was more prominent controlled trial, conducted between February 2004 and (systolic blood pressure, SBP, p = 0.005; diastolic December 2006 at 4 university-affiliated hospitals in blood pressure, DBP, p = 0.03). No differences were the Stockholm region, Sweden. The outcome observed between the groups in tilt test results, HR assessment was blinded. The follow-up period for the variability or HR responses to spontaneous arousals. primary outcome was 30 days. Eligibility criteria were Conclusion: Maternal cigarette smoking may alter active daily smokers, aged 18 to 79 years. Of the 238 vestibulo-mediated cardiovascular control in early patients assessed, 76 refused participating, and 117 infancy. This may contribute to increased SIDS risk. men and women undergoing surgery for primary hernia repair, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, or a hip or knee prosthesis were enrolled. Intervention: Initial nicotine sensitivity in humans as a function
Smoking cessation therapy with individual counseling of impulsivity.
and nicotine substitution started 4 weeks before Perkins KA; Lerman C; Coddington SB; Jetton C; surgery and continued 4 weeks postoperatively. The Karelitz JL; Scott JA et al. Psychopharmacology control group received standard care. The. main outcome measure was frequency of any postoperative Rationale: Impulsivity is related to greater risk of nicotine dependence, perhaps by enhancing sensitivity genotype. Most analyses of genotype are retrospective, to nicotine's reinforcing and rewarding effects during resulting in small sample sizes for testing effects of the initial smoking experiences. Objective: We examined minor alleles for candidate genes. The purpose of this the influence of impulsivity characteristics on acute review is to provide an outline of the work in sensitivity to nicotine reward, reinforcement, and other neuroimaging, genetics, and nicotine dependence, and effects in 131 young adult nonsmokers. Materials and to explore the potential for increased integration of methods: Participants engaged in four sessions: the these approaches to improve nicotine dependence first three to assess dose-response effects of nasal treatment. Copyright 2008, Elsevier Science. spray nicotine (0, 5, 10 mu g/kg) on reward, as well as mood, physiological, and performance effects, and the Nicotine dependence symptoms among young
fourth to assess nicotine reinforcement using a choice never-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco
procedure. Five impulsivity factors, derived from factor analysis of self-report (e.g., Barratt Impulsivity Belanger M; O'Loughlin J; Okoli CTC; McGrath JJ; Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale, Novelty seeking) and Setia M; Guyon L et al. Addictive Behaviors 33(12): computer (stop-go, delay discounting, probability discounting) measures of impulsivity, were labeled Background: To extend previous observations that secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with "extraversion", "inhibition", and "probability/delay nicotine markers in children, we investigated if SHS discounting". Results: The associations of novelty exposure is associated with self-reports of nicotine seeking with nicotine reinforcement and reward tended dependence (ND) symptoms among young never- to move in opposite directions by sex, generally being smokers. Method: Data on number of persons who directly related in men but inversely or unrelated in smoke inside the home, number of days exposed to women. Similarly, response disinhibition was secondhand tobacco smoke in a motor vehicle in the associated with reward and some mood responses to past week, number of parents, siblings, and friends nicotine that differed by sex. Extraversion was who smoke, and NO symptoms, were collected from inversely associated with nicotine reinforcement. 10-12 year-old students in self-report questionnaires. Characteristics loading on to the other impulsivity The association between secondhand tobacco smoke factors had little association with nicotine sensitivity. and ND symptoms among young never-smokers was Conclusions: These results are preliminary, but they assessed in logistic regression models. Results: Sixty- suggest that characteristics broadly related to nine of 1488 never-smokers (5%) reported one or impulsivity, especially novelty seeking and response more ND symptom. After controlling for sibling and disinhibition, are associated with initial sensitivity to peer smoking, and susceptibility to initiating smoking, some effects of acute nicotine, including reinforcement exposure to SHS in a motor vehicle was independently and reward, and may do so differentially between men associated with nicotine dependence symptoms (OR, 95% CI = 1.2,1.0-1.4). The OR for number of persons who smoke inside the home was 1.1 (0.9-1.4). Neuroimaging, genetics and the treatment of
Conclusion: secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in nicotine addiction. (review).
motor vehicles may be associated with ND symptoms Ray R; Loughead J; Wang Z; Detre J; Yang E; Gur R among young never-smokers. If replicated, this finding et al. Behavioural Brain Research 193(2): 159-169, provides support for interventions that promote nonsmoking in motor vehicles. Copyright 2008, Elsevier
Advances in neuroimaging and genomics provide an Science.
unprecedented opportunity to accelerate medication development for nicotine dependence and other Relapse to smoking after 1 year of abstinence: A
addictions. Neuroimaging studies have begun to meta-analysis.
Hughes JR; Peters EN; Naud S. Addictive Behaviors neurochemistry underlying effects of nicotine and nicotine abstinence. In parallel, genetic studies, Most clinical trials use 6 months or I year follow-ups including both candidate gene and genome-wide as proxies for life-time smoking cessation. Retrospective studies have estimated 2-15% of neurobiological targets and pathways important in smokers relapse each year after the first year of addiction to nicotine. To date, only a few abstinence, but these have methodological problems neuroimaging studies have explored effects of nicotine such as memory bias. We searched for prospective or abstinence on brain activity as a function of studies of adult quitters that reported the number of participants abstinent at 1 yr follow-up and who adequately than the other models. The Brief SCQ-A remained abstinent at >= 2 year follow-ups. We (BSCQ-A) scales demonstrated good internal included studies that reported the percent which consistency (mean coefficient =.79) and convergent remained lapse-free, did not continue treatment after I validity. The BSCQ-A also showed promising validity year, and had <= 10% lost-to-follow-up. We did not in distinguishing among current smokers and ex- locate any population-based studies but did locate smokers. In a separate sample of smokers, strong and eight randomized, controlled trials, all testing nicotine medications. After deleting one trial with outlier corresponding pairs of the SCQ-A and BSCQ-A results, a meta-analysis estimated the annual incidence subscales. Copyright 2008, Taylor & Francis. of relapse after 1 year to be 10%; however, the small sample sizes resulted in a wide 95% confidence The effect of a nicotine patch on cigarette craving
interval (5-17%) suggesting this estimate is not very over the course of the day: Results from two
accurate. We conclude a non-significant amount of randomized clinical trials.
relapse occurs after I year. Better quantification of this Shiffman S; Ferguson SG. Current Medical Research relapse rate is important to improve estimates of life- and Opinion 24(10): 2795-2804, 2008. (31 refs.) long abstinence and reductions in morbidity and Objectives: The objective of this analysis was to mortality from smoking cessation. Copyright 2008, assess the efficacy of a 21 mg/24-h nicotine patch for the reduction of craving throughout the waking day, compared both to placebo, and to a 15 mg/16-h patch Smoking cessation and serious mental illness.
differing pharmacokinetic profile over the day. The Snyder M; McDevitt J; Painter S. Archives of primary end-point was craving during the evening Psychiatric Nursing 22(5): 297-304, 2008. (36 refs.) hours, because previous research suggested that A focus group methodology was employed to identify smoking relapse was particularly likely at that time. personal, social, and environmental factors that affect Research design and methods: Data were drawn from smoking cessation in persons with serious mental two similar randomized clinical trials among nicotine- illness. Four focus groups were held: two for those dependent smokers who were quitting smoking: Study who had attempted to quit smoking and two for those 1 compared the 21 mg/24-h patch to a placebo patch, who had never attempted to quit. Smoking is central to while Study 2 compared the 21 mg/24-h patch to a 15 daily survival in patients with serious mental illness. mg/16-h nicotine patch. In both studies, subjects Social and environmental reinforcement can both (Study 1: n = 102; Study 2: n = 244) were prompted by assist and hinder efforts to stop smoking. Smoke-free an electronic diary to rate their craving multiple times environments influence decisions to quit smoking if per day during a 1 week baseline period, and for up to positive social comparisons with nonsmokers occur. 2 weeks after quitting. For analysis, the day was Peer modeling and interpersonal connections with divided into five blocks: morning (up to 10:59 a.m.), nonsmokers can offer links to forming supportive mid-day (11:00 a.m.-1:59 p.m.), afternoon (2:00 p.m.- nonsmoking relationships. Copyright 2008, WB Saunders. 4:59 p. m.), evening (5:00 p.m.-8:59 p.m.), and late night (9:00 p.m. onwards). The individual craving The Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-
ratings were divided into three intervals based on time Adult (BSCQ-A): Development of a short form of
since quitting: Days 1-3, 4-7, and 8-14. Results: The the SCQ-A.
21 mg/24-h nicotine patch resulted in significantly Rash C; Copeland A. Nicotine & Tobacco Research lower craving during all post-quit intervals, at each time of day, both compared to placebo (Study 1), and A brief form of the Smoking Consequences compared to the 15 mg/16-h nicotine patch (Study 2). Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A) was developed as an Study 2 saw a significant treatment by interval economical alternative to the 55-item SCQ-A in interaction: in later time intervals, the difference in assessing smoking outcome expectancies in adult, craving experience between 24- and 16-h patch heavy smokers. A total of 25 items (two to three items conditions shrunk - while remaining significantly per each of the 10 SCQ-A scales) were administered to different - as overall levels of craving experienced by current smokers and ex-smokers. Confirmatory factor subjects in the two groups dropped. Adverse events analysis was used to determine whether the brief form reported in both studies tended to be mild and was better accounted for by a 4- or 10-factor model. transient, consistent with the well characterized Several variants of 9- and 8-factor models also were adverse event profile of nicotine patches. Conclusions: compared. The 10-factor model, representing the 10 Study 1 demonstrated that a 21 mg/24-h patch was subscales of the full-length SCQ-A, fit the data more effective in reducing craving throughout the day, including the evening period when relapse risk is tobacco company documents to assess industry heightened. A further study comparing the 21 mg/24-h consideration of the role of smoke particle size as a patch to a 15 mg/16-h nicotine patch found that potentially controllable influence over inhalation craving was significantly lower at all times of day for patterns and lung exposure. Tobacco manufacturers smokers using the 21 mg/24-h patch. The studies were evaluated particle size manipulation both as a means limited in that craving was only monitored for the first of controlling physical and sensory product attributes 2 weeks of quitting (when craving is most prominent), and as a possible approach to reducing health hazards and cannot elucidate the impact of patch use on related to exposure. Industry scientists concluded that craving outside of this time. Also, there was the smoke aerosol particle distribution of conventional substantial attrition of the sample over time, partly due cigarettes, constructed within common parameters, to relapse in all conditions. Copyright 2008, falls within a narrow and effective inhalation range. However, the internal findings suggest that differences
The waterpipe: Time for action.
in smoke particle size distribution are possible through Maziak W. Addiction 103(11): 1763-1767, 2008. (41 less conventional approaches to product design. We propose that particle size be included among the many The waterpipe, known in many cultures under design features to be considered in emerging tobacco different shapes and names (e.g. hookah, shisha, product regulation. However, the present review does narghile), is a centuries-old tobacco use method that is not address whether particle size regulation would be a witnessing a world-wide surge in popularity. This popularity is most noticeable among youths, and is addictiveness or harmfulness of cigarettes, and surpassing cigarette smoking among this group in therefore we do not propose it as a high-priority target some societies. Many factors may have contributed to for regulation. Copyright 2008, Taylor & Francis. the recent waterpipe spread, including the introduction Using alcohol to sell cigarettes to young adults: A
of sweetened/flavored waterpipe tobacco (known as content analysis of cigarette advertisements.
Maassel), its reduced-harm perception, the thriving Belstock SA; Connolly GN; Carpenter CM; Tucker L. cafe culture, mass media and the internet. The passage Journal of American College Health 56(4): 383-389, of smoke through water on its way to the smoker underlies much of the common misperception that Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of waterpipe use is less harmful than cigarettes. The college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers health/addictive profile of waterpipe compared to aggressively market to young adults and may exploit cigarettes is largely unresearched and is likely to be their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements influenced by the properties of smoke, duration and designed to increase cigarettes appeal. Internal tobacco frequency of use, type of tobacco used, volume of industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers smoke inhaled and the contribution of charcoal. understood the popularity of alcohol among young However, the accumulation of evidence about the adults and sought to produce pertinent marketing harmful and addictive potential of waterpipe use is strategies. Methods: The authors conducted a content outpacing the public health response to this health risk. analysis of cigarette and alcohol advertisements in A timely public health and policy action is needed in young adult-oriented magazines to investigate order to curb the emerging waterpipe smoking portrayed associations between cigarettes and alcohol. epidemic. Copyright 2008, Society for the Study of Addiction Results: The content analysis revealed that 32 of 114 cigarette advertisements referenced alcohol and that Tobacco industry research and efforts to
those advertisements were more likely than others to manipulate smoke particle size: Implications for
portray active smoking. Conversely, 0 of 317 alcohol product regulation.
advertisements referenced cigarettes, and alcohol Wayne GF; Connolly GN; Henningfield JE; Farone advertisements were only slightly more likely than WA. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10(4): 613-625, cigarette advertisements feature alcohol-related Over the past half-century of cigarette design, tobacco detrimentally affect smoking patterns of college manufacturers have prioritized efficiency of delivery students. An understanding of these strategies can alongside ease of inhalation and use. As a result, the benefit on-campus tobacco control efforts. Copyright modern cigarette is uniquely effective at facilitating 2008, American College Health Association. the absorption of nicotine as well as carcinogens and other toxins. The present study draws on internal


Microsoft word - regulamento_prato do dia_promofans_riosul_final_revisto pmm.doc

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Microsoft word - biotech w2002 exam 01.doc

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