• How do you see your child behaving /what
• Develop awareness of strategies to avoid
Hypothalamus controls action of pituitary gland which produces necessary hormones
Hypothalamus like a ‘thermostat’ which regulates levels of sex hormones in the body. At puberty there is a change in the ‘setting’ of the hypothalamus requiring pituitary gland to work harder thus increasing sex hormone levels, i.e. testosterone, oestrogen, androgen and progesterone.
The brain's hypothalamus begins to release pulses of GnRH.
Cells in the anterior pituitary respond by secreting LH and FSHinto the circulation.
The ovaries or testes respond to the rising amounts of LH and FSH by growing and beginning to produce estradiol and testosterone.
Rising levels of estradiol and testosterone produce the body changes of female and male puberty.
• Spermarche in boys (11.25 – 17 years)
• Growth spurt (approx 9cm per year in girls,
• Stress/conflict in family (early onset)
• Early onset associated greater storm and
• Early maturation positive social benefits
likely to be socially awkward, insecure, variable in mood
biological/environmental factors ( e.g sleep, increased sensitivity of sensory systems)
• Combined with negative life events/stress
• Adolescents (boys and girls) consistently
more depressive moods than pre-teens, no difference with adults in clinical states
hormone changes make them susceptiblebut evidence influence of gender role, body image, sexual anxiety, expectations of success, discourse style, rumination
– Compares one’s self to one’s peers
• Adolescents ‘over identify’ with cliques
• Intolerant and cruel to others who are « different »
– Social Identity Theory/Social Categorisation
Theory – Henri Tajfell/John Turner 1987
• Adolescents categorise themselves as members of
groups, i.e. self stereotype through dress, music etc.
AUTHORITARIAN– Value obedience and forceful imposition of parents’ will.
PERMISSIVE – Believe parents should be non-intrusive but available as resources
passive and exert more control than permissive parents
AUTHORITATIVE – Warm, encourage independence and attempt to shape behaviour using rational explanation
Authoritative most positive parenting style:
They combine high responsiveness (good listeners and empathetic)and high demandedness (high expectations and enforcement of good behaviour)
charactersied by conformity to cultural and societal norms by balancing the use of both reasoning and punishment.
They value self assertion, wilfulness and independence and foster these goals by assuming active and rational parental roles.
children of authoritative parents become socially responsible because their parents cle
that are intellectually stimulating, while generating moderate amounts of tension.
BEHAVIOUR – Sameroff & Fiese (2000)
• The child/adolescent actively relates to its
environment and is being acted upon by its environment, i.e. caregivers/parents
behaves, they also modfy the environment on subsequent encounters.
• Therefore a difficult encounter will modify the
way a parent or teacher treats the child the second time around, and so on and so on….
changes going on with our kids – ALL AT THE SAME TIME!
consistent, loving discipline with limits, restrictions and rewards
• Encourage distraction (focusing on neutral/pleasing
thoughts and activities) to rumination (obsessively going over problems)
• Modeling possibilities for positive gender role
• Talk about puberty, the social and hormonal changes
Adolescent children are exploring life, but need a base to come back to. Home should be a place where they feel safe, protected, cared for and taken seriously.
Parents need to: Agree between themselves about their basic values and rules.
• Easy Listening• Adults need to be a source of advice, sympathy and
– Be clear, so everone knows where they stand– They should be agreed with the children– Be consistent so everyone sticks to the rules– Be less restrictive so the children become more responsible– You can’t and shouldn’t have rules for everything. While some
rules will not be negotiable, there should be room for bargaining on others.
– Sanctions such as grounding or loss of pocket
money will only work if they are established in advance.
– Rewards for behaving well are just as
important – probably more important, in fact.
Recent studies have shown most teenagers actually like their parents and feel that they get on well with them.
It’s not just a difficult stage, although it can feel very much like it at times. The anxiety experienced by parents is more than matched by the period of uncertainty, turmoil and unhappiness experienced by the adolescent.
Parents may sometimes start to feel they have failed. However, whatevermay be said in the heat of the moment, they play a crucial part in theirchildren’s lives.
HELPING YOUR CHILD GROW THROUGH ADOLESCENCE CAN BE PROFOUNDLY SATISFYING!!
– Despite becoming more independent, your children
will still learn a lot about how to behave from you. « Do as I say, not as I do » will just not work!
Don’t worry if your children aren’t as grateful as you’d
like, they may not be until they have their own children and realise how hard it can be!
AZOLES FOR THE TREATMENT OF INVASIVE FUNGAL INFECTIONS Authored by Dr. Daniel Thirion FLUCONAZOLE Azoles used for invasive fungal infections include two Fluconazole, an imidazole, is well absorbed when given classes, the imidazoles ( ketoconazole ) and the triazoles orally, distributes widely throughout the body and is ( itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole ). mostly
previously charged with Cu ions. Column is washed and AOAC Official Method 995.04 tetracyclines are specifically eluted with buffer containing EDTA. Multiple Tetracycline Residues in Milk Eluate is ultrafiltered to remove remaining protein and filtrate is in- Metal Chelate Affinity-Liquid Chromatographic Method jected onto LC column. Tetracyclines are adsorbed and concentrated First Act