Tobacco Cessation P A T I E N T E D U C A T I O N S E R I E S Is it worth quitting? Worried about weight gain?
If you’re having trouble getting motivated, think
Fear of weight gain prevents many people from
quitting smoking. Nicotine suppresses normal
• Within 20 minutes of your last cigarette, blood
appetite signals, but you can relearn how to eat. Learn
pressure, pulse and body temperature return
to “listen” to your body’s signals of true hunger and
• Within 8 hours of your last cigarette, carbon
• Try not to go longer than 2 to 4 hours without a
monoxide levels in the blood drop to normal
meal or snack. This prevents you from getting
and oxygen levels increase to normal.
• Within 2 days of quitting, nerve endings start
• Throughout the day, eat smaller, more frequent
to regrow and your ability to smell and taste
• Eating breakfast is critical to stabilize brain
• Within 3 months, circulation improves and
chemistry and prevent late-day carbohydrate
• Respond to your cravings if you have them, but
Quitting requires preparation
with small portions. Restricting food triggers
• Know why you are quitting. List the benefits
binges and causes guilt. Don’t put foods in “good/
that this change will bring to you. Post them.
• Emphasize unprocessed, whole foods, like whole
• Tell your friends. This helps bolster your re-
grains and fresh fruit. These foods will keep your
blood sugar stable and help your mood, too.
• Know your smoking patterns and routine and
• Specific chemicals in ex-smokers’ brains cause
cravings for fats. Include a little fat or healthy
• Break old behavior patterns (coffee, phone, on
oils in your meals. Your body chemistry needs
way to class, when out with friends).
these foods, and they will keep you from feeling
• Recruit a quitting buddy or support person.
• Cravings gradually disappear as eating patterns
• Eliminate tobacco products from your home.
normalize. Regular, moderate exercise is very
• Have low calorie snacks available.
• Collect the money you save for a special
What do most quitters have in
• Have been smokers for 10 or more years. Prepare for withdrawal symptoms
• Have developed a personal problem related to
• Tobacco craving: lasts a maximum of 3-5 min-
• Smoke one or more packs per day.
• Irritability, anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, fa-
• Have tried 3-5 times to quite before.
tigue, dizziness, and difficulty concentrating are
• Have developed a health problem related to
• Increased Appetite: Weight gain is 5-7 pounds
on average the first few weeks; only 5% gain
more than 20 pounds. You would have to gain
100 pounds to develop the same health risks
BROWN UNIVERSITY HEALTH SERVICES | www.brown.edu/health | 401.863-3953 What about relapse? How to quit Learn from it!
Many quit methods exist, but no method is clearly
• Did you make adequate preparation to quit?
1. Cold turkey: Stop smoking without seeking as-
• In what situation did you begin to use tobacco
sistance. 90% of smokers stop “on their own”.
2. Clock method: Delay gratification by increasing
the amount of time between each cigarette or
• What could you have done to avoid that ciga-
3. Slow withdrawal method: Taper/decrease the
number of cigarettes smoked each day.
• How can you deal with stress is a smoke-free
4. Behavioral modifications: This can be provided
in a group or through the use of self-help booklets.
• There is a 60% chance of relapse in the first
5. Nicotine replacement methods: Use the nicotine
patch or gum to decrease the physiologic symp-
• On average, an individual tries to quit 4-5
toms of dependency. The smoker still has to ad-
• times before acheiving sucess in staying
dress the psychological and behavioral aspects
of smoking. You must stop smoking immediately
• Changing behavior is not easy. It can take 7
when nicotine replacement is started. Combining
nicotine replacement with a behavioral program
Reasons to try to quit again
6. Hypnosis: This may be as effective as behavioral
1. To prevent damaging health effects such as:
7. Acupuncture: Randomized trials have not proved
it’s effectiveness, but some people find it works.
8. Combined medical approach: Discuss your desire
to quit with a Health Services provider who can to
2. To prevent diseases of the teeth and gums.
provide a prescription for Zyban (Wellbutrin)
3. To prevent skin wrinkling and aging.
help decrease cravings. A short course of Zyban
4. To prevent lung cancer (87% related to tobacco
in conjunction with the nicotine patch, behavior
use) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
change, and regular follow-up appointments has
(82% related to tobacco use). Damaging lung ef-
5. To decrease your risk of heart disease by 50% as
For more information contact: University Health Services 401.863-3953
6. To be rid of an inconvenient, expensive, and odor
Confidential medical care, including prescriptions
for Zyban. Pamphlets on quitting smoking available
7. To increase your self-esteem and be a good role
throughout the building. Located at 13 Brown Street
model. Side-stream smoke inhaled by friends and
on the corner of Brown and Charlesfield Streets.
family members is more damaging to them than
1-800-TRY TO STOP (1-800-879-8678)Remember: Every attempt you make improves
This helpline provides referrals to local programs,
your changes of quitting and staying quit!
phone counseling and can mail out information
packets. It is free, confidential and available in Eng-
lish and Spanish. Monday through Thursday, 9am to
BROWN UNIVERSITY HEALTH SERVICES | www.brown.edu/health | 401.863-3953
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■ Neuroaesthetics is gaining momentum. At this early junc-gence of experimental neuroaesthetics. I then suggest a few areasture, it is worth taking stock of where the field is and what lieswithin neuroaesthetics that might be pursued profitably. Finally, Iahead. Here, I review writings that fall under the rubric of neuro-raise some challenges for the field. These challenges are notaestheti