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CA-MRSA: Public F AQs I CDC Infection Control in Healthcare Community-Associated MRSA Information for the Public The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has received inquiries about infections withantibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) amongpersons who have no apparent contact with the healthcare system. This fact sheet addresses some ofthe most frequently asked questions.
 What is Staphvlococcus aureus (staph)?  What is MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphvlococcus aureus)?  What is community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA)?  How common are staph and MRSA infections?  )yhat!.l.Qe~a~laph . QrMRSA.infe~tiQnJQQ_klike?  Are certain people at increased risk for community-associated staph or MRSA  How can I prevent staph or MRSA skin infections?  Are people who are positive for the human immune deficiency virus (HIY) at increased risk for MRSA? Should they be taking special precautions?  Can I get a staph or MRSA infection at my health club?  )yhatshQuld.ldQ . iIlthin.kJ . haYeastaphQrMRSAjnle~liQn?  Are staph and MRSA infections treatable?  Is it possible that my staph or MRSA skin infection will come back after it is cured?  Ulhl:lYeastaph,QrMRSAskininle~tiQn,.wbat~apldQJQPreYentQther~[l.:Qmgetting  What should I do if someone I know has a staph or MRSA infection? What is Staphylococcus aureus (staph)? Staphylococcus aureus, often referred to simply as "staph," are bacteria commonly carried on theskin or in the nose of healthy people. Approximately 25% to 30% ofthe population is colonized(when bacteria are present, but not causing an infection) in the nose with staph bacteria. Sometimes,staph can cause an infection. Staph bacteria are one ofthe most common causes of skin infections inthe United States. Most of these skin infections are minor (such as pimples and boils) and can betreated without antibiotics (also known as antimicrobials or antibacterials). However, staph bacteriaalso can cause serious infections (such as surgical wound infections, bloodstream infections, andpneumonia).
What is MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)? http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/ar _ mrsa _ ca -public.html CA-MRSA: Public FAQs I CDC Infection Control in Healthcare Some staph bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. MRSA is a type of staph that is resistant to antibioticscalled beta-Iactams. Beta-Iactam antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibioticssuch as oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin. While 25% to 30% ofthe population is colonized withstaph, approximately 1 % is colonized with MRSA.
Staph infections, including MRSA, occur most frequently among persons in hospitals and healthcarefacilities (such as nursing homes and dialysis centers) who have weakened immune systems. Thesehealthcare-associated staph infections include surgical wound infections, urinary tract infections,bloodstream infections, and pneumonia.
What is community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA)? Staph and MRSA can also cause illness in persons outside of hospitals and healthcare facilities.
MRSA infections that are acquired by persons who have not been recently (within the past year)hospitalized or had a medical procedure (such as dialysis, surgery, catheters) are know as CAMRSAinfections. Staph or MRSA infections in the community are usually manifested as skin infections,such as pimples and boils, and occur in otherwise healthy people.
How common are staph and MRSA infections? Staph bacteria are one of the most common causes of skin infection in the United States and are acommon cause of pneumonia, surgical wound infections, and bloodstream infections. The majorityofMRSA infections occur among patients in hospitals or other healthcare settings; however, it isbecoming more common in the community setting. Data from a prospective study in 2003, suggeststhat 12% of clinical MRSA infections are community-associated, but this varies by geographic regionand population.
What does a staph or MRSA infection look like? Staph bacteria, including MRSA, can cause skin infections that may look like a pimple or boil and canbe red, swollen, painful, or have pus or other drainage. More serious infections may cause pneumonia,bloodstream infections, or surgical wound infections.
Are certain people at increased risk for community-associated staph or MRSA infections? CDC has investigated clusters ofCA-MRSA skin infections among athletes, military recruits, children,Pacific Islanders, Alaskan Natives, Native Americans, men who have sex with men, and pnsoners.
Factors that have been associated with the spread ofMRSA skin infections include: close skin-toskincontact, openings in the skin such as cuts or abrasions, contaminated items and surfaces, crowdedliving conditions, and poor hygiene.
How can I prevent staph or MRSA skin infections? 1. Keep your hands clean by washing thoroughly with soap and water or using an alcohol- 2. Keep cuts and scrapes clean and covered with a bandage until healed.
3. Avoid contact with other people's wounds or bandages.
4. A void sharing personal items such as towels or razors.
http://www .cdc.gov /ncidod/ dhqp/ ar _ mrsa _ ca -public.html CA-MRSA: Public FAQs I CDC Infection Control in Healthcare Are people who are positive for the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) at increased risk forMRSA? Should they be taking special precautions? People with weakened immune systems, which include some patients with HIV infection, may be atrisk for more severe illness if they get infected with MRSA. People with HIV should follow the sameprevention measures as those without HIV to prevent staph infections, including practice goodhygiene, cover wounds (e.g., cuts or abrasions) with clean dry bandages, avoid sharing personal itemssuch as towels and razors, and contact their doctor if they think they have an infection .
Can I get a staph or MRSA infection at my health club? In the outbreaks ofMRSA, the environment has not played a significant role in the transmission ofMRSA. MRSA is transmitted most frequently by direct skin-to-skin contact. You can protect yourselffrom infections by practicing good hygiene (e.g., keeping your hands clean by washing with soap andwater or using an alcohol-based hand rub and showering after working out); covering any open skinarea such as abrasions or cuts with a clean dry bandage; avoiding sharing personal items such as towelsor razors; using a barri~r (e.g., clothing or a towel) between your skin and shared equipment; andwiping surfaces of equipment before and after use.
What should I do ifI think I have a staph or MRSA infection? Yes. Most staph and MRSA infections are treatable with antibiotics. If you are given an antibiotic, takeall ofthe doses, even if the infection is getting better, unless your doctor tells you to stop taking it. Donot share antibiotics with other people or save unfinished antibiotics to use at another time.
However, many staph skin infections may be treated by draining the abscess or boil and may notrequire antibiotics. Drainage of skin boils or abscesses should only be done by a healthcare provider.
If after visiting your healthcare provider the infection is not getting better after a few days, contactthem again. If other people you know or live with get the same infection tell them to go to theirhealthcare provider.
Is it possible that my staph or MRSA skin infection will come back after it is cured? Yes. It is possible to have a staph or MRSA skin infection come back (recur) after it is cured. Toprevent this from happening, follow your healthcare provider's directions while you have theinfection, and follow the prevention steps after the infection is gone.
If I have a staph, or MRSA skin infection, what can I do to prevent others from getting infected? You can prevent spreading staph or MRSA skin infections to others by following these steps: 1. Cover your wound. Keep wounds that are draining or have pus covered with clean, dry bandages. Follow your healthcare provider's instructions on proper care of the wound. Pusfrom infected wounds can contain staph and MRSA, so keeping the infection covered will http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/ar _ mrsa _ ca yublic.html CA-MRSA: Public FAQs I CDC Infection Control in Healthcare help prevent the spread to others. Bandages or tape can be discarded with the regular trash.
2. Clean your hands. You, your family, and others in close contact should wash their hands frequently with soap and warm water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, especially afterchanging the bandage or touching the infected wound.
3. Do not share personal items. Avoid sharing personal items such as towels, washcloths, razors, clothing, or uniforms that may have had contact with the infected wound or bandage. Washsheets, towels, and clothes that become soiled with water and laundry detergent. Drying clothesin a hot dryer, rather than air-drying, also helps kill bacteria in clothes.
4. Talk to your doctor. Tell any healthcare providers who treat you that you have or had a What should I do ifsomeone I know has a staph or MRSA infection? If you know someone that has a staph or MRSA infection you should follow the prevention steps.
For further reading please see the list of References Date last modified: February 3, 2005Content source:Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP)National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control ofInfectious Diseases CENTERS FOR DUSEASECONTROL. AND PREVENTION llU\FER http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/ar _ mrsa _ ca yublic.html

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Microsoft word - dealing with ed spanish 7-15-09.doc

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