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Pandey et al. UJP 2013, 02 (02): Page 1-3
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Review Article
Universal Journal of Pharmacy
ISSN 2320-303X
TREATMENT FOR CERTAIN PARASITIC DISEASES OF FISHES
*Professor/Principal Scientist & In-Charge,
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Rewa The Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University (NDVSU), Jabalpur, MP, India Received 26-02-2013; Revised 10-03-2013; Accepted 12-04-2013 ABSTRACT
The parasitic infection may cause severe morbidity and mortality in fish. For example, the flagellates of the
“Hexamita” parasite are often associated with high mortality in fish. The flagellate parasites interfere with nutrition
by competing for essential nutrients and/or by damaging the intestinal epithelium. The ‘hexamitosis’ is probably the
most frequent internal flagellate parasitosis of fish, notably in the young salmonids. The H. salmonis infected fish pass
both trophozoites and cysts in faeces. Several drugs have been investigated for the treatment of parasite infection in
different species of fish. However, the only oral pharmacological treatment of H. salmonis determined to date have
been the drugs of nitroimidazole group, which show the activity against different protozoan groups, including
flagellates and ciliates. The current treatment of choice is dimetridazole or metronidazole in the feed. The H. salmonis
infection in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fish was completely eradicated not only by the metronidazole,
but also by benznidazole, ronidazole and secnidazole. The four nitroimidazoles, e.g., albendazole, aminosidine,
diethylcarbamazine and nitroscanate completely eliminated the parasite infection in the fish. Three drugs have been
also been recommended for the treatment of protozoan parasitoses of fish, viz., amprolium, bithionol and toltrazuril.
Among these three (amprolium, bithionol and toltrazuril), amprolium was found to be effective after oral
administration; indeed, its administration by this route is recommended for myxosporidiosis. Bithionol and toltrazuril
have been effective only in the bath treatments.
Keywords: Disease, Antiparasitic Drugs, Fish, Parasites, Treatment.
INTRODUCTION
often pathogenic only when the number of parasites present is very high3. The intestinal infection of fish by many parasites can The hexamitosis is probably the most frequent internal cause severe morbidity and mortality. For instance, the flagellate parasitosis of fish, notably in the young flagellates of the Hexamita parasite are often salmonids, though also in carp, aquarium species and associated with high mortality in fish. Some workers various marine fish. Heavily infected fish are weak, have suggested that the pathological effects arise when listless, anorexic and emaciated, so that the head of a the host is weakened by other factors like inadequate particular fish appears large with respect to the body diet, change in diet, low oxygen content in the water, (‘pinhead fish’). The affected fish typically swim on overcrowding, inappropriate handling and/or keeping their side, or with corkscrew movements. Populations fish of different sizes together1. It has been suggested affected by the acute hexamitosis show high mortality that the flagellate parasites interfere with nutrition by over a very short period, due to rapid multiplication of competing for essential nutrients and/or by damaging the parasite and associated damage to the intestinal the intestinal epithelium2. In both salmonids and epithelium. The chronic form of hexamitosis is likewise tropical aquarium fish, the intestinal parasitoses are common, and generally occurs between spring and autumn; mortality per unit time is only slightly higher than in healthy fish, but severe losses may occur Dr. Govind Pandey
Professor/Principal Scientist & In-Charge,

because the situation continues for a period of weeks4. Deptt. of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, In trout and other salmonid fish infected with Hexamita College of Veterinary Science & AH, Rewa salmonis parasite, the adverse effects commonly (NDVSU, Jabalpur), MP. E-mail: drgovindpandey@rediffmail.com observed are anaemia, weight loss5, dark coloration, enteritis, excessive body mucus and yellowish intestinal Universal Journal of Pharmacy, 02(02), Mar-Apr 2013
Pandey et al. UJP 2013, 02 (02): Page 1-3
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mucus (attributable to modified release of bile into the niclosamide, nitroxynil, oxibendazole, parbendazole, piperazine, praziquentel, tetramisole, thiophanate, haemorrhage and liver cell necrosis may also be toltrazuril, trichlorfon and triclabendazole) were found observed3. It is worth noting that the H. salmonis not effective. The four nitroimidazoles (albendazole, infected fish pass both trophozoites and cysts in faeces4. The fish that appear to be heavily infected completely eliminated the infection @ 5 g/kg feed for 2 (i.e., numerous parasites in the pyloric caecae and the days 4. All nitroimidazoles except metronidazole were intestine) may show no signs of damage to the mucosa, effective even at the lower dose of 2 g/kg feed for 2 and no evidence of invasion of the epithelium by the days. These results confirm the efficacy of these drugs parasite. Cysts were not observed at any stage, even when administered for a shorter period and at much after subjecting samples to concentration methods lower doses than the other drugs tested. The only non- such as the Bailinger method. Cysts thus appear to be nitroimidazole drugs that completely eliminated infection were albendazole, aminosidine, diethyl Several drugs have been investigated for the treatment carbamazine and nitroscanate. Out of albendazole, of parasite infection in different species of fish. aminosidine, diethylcarbamazine and nitroscanate However, the only oral pharmacological treatment of H. salmonis determined to date have been the drugs of recommended for the treatment of infection by H. nitroimidazole group7-8, which show the activity against salmonis is aminosidine (15 g/kg feed for 3 consecutive different protozoan groups, including flagellates and days)13. Nitroscanate appears to have a rather broad ciliates. Therefore, the current treatment of choice is activity spectrum, since it has been shown to be dimetridazole or metronidazole in the feed3-4,9. effective for bath treatment of Gyrodactylus14. Neither Further, there have been few studies of the possible albendazole nor diethylcarbamazine has previously anti-Hexamita or antiparasitic effect of the drugs of been shown to be effective for treatment of protozoan other groups. Treatment for ectoparasitic diseases in parasitoses of fishes. None of the antiparasitic drugs, freshwater fish with formalin seems at present to be viz., albendazole, aminosidine, diethylcarbamazine and ineffective. Formalin possibly leaves toxic residues in nitroscanate showed the negative effects (signs of fish flesh and in the environment which are eventually toxicity, behavioural effects, including anomalous harmful to the consumers. The alternative way to solve swimming movements, rejection of food), suggesting this problem is to use traditional medicinal plants that all four nitroimidazoles are viable options for the instead10. The treatment with medicinal plants having treatment of infection of salmonids by H. salmonis. antibacterial activity is a potentially beneficial This is of particular interest in view of the fact that H. alternative in the aquaculture. These herbs mitigate salmonis strains apparently resistant to metronidazole many of the side effects which are associated with synthetic antimicrobials. Additionally, the plant- Three drugs have been also been recommended for the derived phytomedicines provide a cheaper source for treatment of protozoan parasitoses of fish, viz., treatment and greater accuracy than chemotherapeutic amprolium8-9,13, bithionol6 and toltrazuril8-9,15. Of these, agents. Recently, research has been initiated to toltrazuril has been most widely used for the treatment evaluate the feasibility of herbal drugs in fish of parasitoses of fish, and indeed this drug has been In view of the above facts, the present article microsporidian and myxosporidian infections15. This elucidates regarding some of the antiparasitic drugs drug is not, however, effective for the treatment of which have been cited for the treatment of certain infestation by the ectoparasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifilils16. Among the amprolium, bithionol and Some Antiparasitic Drugs against Fish Parasites: t
The results a study6 confirm the efficacy of oral administration; indeed, its administration by this nitroimidazoles against the parasitic diseases of fish. In route is recommended for myxosporidiosis. Bithionol this study, the H. salmonis infection in the rainbow and toltrazuril have been shown to be effective only in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fish was completely bath treatments. In a study of efficacy for the eradicated not only by the metronidazole (which has treatment of infestation by the flagellate Ichthyobodo been recommended earlier for the treatment of necator, complete elimination of infestation in all fish hexamtosis), but also by benznidazole, ronidazole and assayed was achieved after bathing with bithionol at secnidazole (which have not been assayed previously). 25g 1-1 for 3 hr on 2 consecutive days, but not after The non-nitroimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, amnosidine, bathing with amprolium or toltrazuril17. completely eliminated the infection. The remaining recommended for oral treatment of H. salmonis non-nitroimidazoles tested (amprolium, bithionol, dimetndazole at the dose of 1.5 g/kg feed for 3 days13, Universal Journal of Pharmacy, 02(02), Mar-Apr 2013
Pandey et al. UJP 2013, 02 (02): Page 1-3
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or at 15 g/kg feed for 4 to 7 days8. Metronidazole has Oncorhynchus mykiss. I: Hexamita salmonis. Dis. been recommended at doses of 0.5 mg/kg feed for 2 days7, 20 mg per/kg feed for 2 days4, or 1.5 g per/kg 7. Imamovic V. Parasites and parasitoses in fish in feed for 3 days. Bath treatment with metronidazole has some salmonid hatcheries in Bosnia-Hercegovina, I. been recommended for infections with Trichodina, Ichthyobodo and Hexamita infections. Veterinaria CONCLUSION
Chemotherapy of fish parasites. Parasitol. Res., Severe morbidity and mortality have been noticed by the parasitic infection in fish. The ‘hexamitosis’ 9. Stoskopf MK. Fish medicine. Philadelphia, PA: WB (caused by H. salmonis parasite) is probably the most frequent internal flagellate parasitosis of fish, 10. Chitmanat C, Tongdonmuan K, Nunsong W. The use particularly in the young salmonids. The H. salmonis of crude extracts from traditional medicinal plants infected fish pass both trophozoites and cysts in faeces. to eliminate Trichodina sp. in tilapia (Oreochromis The oral treatment of this parasite can be done with niloticus) fingerlings. Songklanakarin J. Sci. the nitroimidazole group, which shows the activity 11. Madhuri S, Mandloi AK, Pandey Govind, Sahni YP. flagellates and ciliates. Presently, the treatment of Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants parasitic infection in fish can be done by dimetridazole against fish pathogens. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2012; or metronidazole given with feed. The nitroimidazoles, e.g., albendazole, aminosidine, diethylcarbamazine 12. Madhuri S, Shrivastav AB, Sahni YP, Pandey Govind. and nitroscanate can completely eliminate the parasite Overviews of the treatment and control of common infection in the fish. Three drugs, viz., amprolium, fish diseases. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2012; 3(7): 123- bithionol and toltrazuril have been also been recommended for the treatment of protozoan 13. Herwig N, Garibaldi L, Wolke RE. Handbook of drugs and chemicals used in the treatment of fish diseases. CC Thomas, Springfield, IL; 1979. REFERENCES
14. Santamarina MT, Tojo J, Ubeira FM, Quintero P, Sanmartin ML. Anthelmintic treatment against Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dis. Aquat. Org., 1991; 10: Melkanian M, Chapman D, editors. Handbook of Protoctista. Boston: Jones and Barlett; 1989; p. Schnlahl G, Mehlhorn H. Treatment of fish parasites. 7 Effects of Sym Triazinone (Toltrazuril) 2. Gratzek JB. Parasites associated with ornamental on development stages of Myxobolus sp Biietschli, fish. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract., 1988; 1882 (Myxosporea, Myxozoa): a light and electron microscopic study. Eur. J. Protistol., 1989; 25: 26- Sarcomastigophora). In: Woo PTK, editor. Fish Tojo J, Santamarina MT, Ubeira FM, Leiro J, diseases and disorders, Vol. 1. Protozoan and Ichthyophthiriosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathol., 1994; 14(5): 4. Woo PTK. Flagellate parasites of fish. In: Kreier JP, editor. Pdrasitic Protozoa, Vol. 8. New York: Tojo JL, Santamarina MT, Leiro J, Ubeira FM, Sanrnartin ML. Pharmacological treatments against Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) in rainbow 5. Naich M, Bilgees FM. Effect of Hexarnita salmonis trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walhaum). J. Fish on the length and weight of Salmo gairdneri (Rlchardson). Proc. Parasitol., 1992; 13: 23-8. 6. Tojo JL, Santamarina MT. Oral pharmacological treatments for parasitic diseases of rainbow trout Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
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