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Doctor’s blog (http://doctor70.exblog.jp/) 2. If you have found abandoned or feral kittens and wish to rescue and raise them, you probably have more than a few questions about 3. Here is a guide that will hopefully give you the 4. You should also consult our "Basics" section, which expands on the initial guidelines. 5. Should I Take in an Abandoned Kitten? 6. Be certain kittens are really abandoned before 7. A momcat can be harder to spot than the stealth bomber, but just because she’s not there now doesn’t mean she’s not around. 8. If the kittens are clean, plump, and sleeping quietly in a heap, odds are that they’ve got an attentive mom and should be left alone. 9. Abandoned kittens will be dirty and the nest will be soiled, and they will cry continuously because they’re hungry. 10. Ideally, kittens should not be taken from the mother until they are 5 to 6 weeks of age. 11. However, kittens born to feral mothers should be taken away, if possible, at about 4 weeks old. 12. At this age, it is easy to tame them and they have gotten 4 weeks' worth of the precious antibodies mother's milk provides. 13. As they get older, it gets increasingly harder to tame them; kittens over the age of 8 weeks who have had no human contact will probably take months to tame.if it can be done at all. 15. If a rescued kitten feels cold, warm it 16. Place it on a heating pad wrapped in towels and on the lowest setting, or warm a hot water bottle to about 100 degrees (wrapped in 17. Many veterinarians have incubators to warm 18. Do not feed a kitten until it is warm, since it can't properly digest when cold. It is okay, though, to syringe feed a few drops of 5% sugar water or to rub a little bit of Karo syrup on the kittens’ lips. 19. Kittens under 3 weeks can’t control their 20. Keep them on a heating pad, set on low, wrapped in towels (at least 2 layers of towels-- or one towel folded over-- should cover the pad. 21. You'll know if it's too hot if the kittens tend to 22. The heating pad should be used until the kittens are about 4-5 weeks old, or until you notice that they're avoiding it. 23. An alternative that many fosters prefer is a 24. Kittens should be kept in a box or cat carrier in a warm, draft-free place, completely isolated from other animals. 25. Keep the container covered with a towel or blanket; a small towel or cloth inside the carrier will also keep them cozy. 26. Change the bedding of their "nest" daily, since 27. As they get older, they will need more room to 29. It is a very, very, very smart idea to take them immediately to a veterinarian to be checked for dehydration and general condition. 30. Bring a stool sample if possible to be tested for 31. Young kittens are always at risk for being dehydrated and it can happen very quickly; a dose ("subcutaneously") is necessary in this case. 32. Ask your vet or vet technician to show you how 33. This will be convenient if your kitten becomes dehydrated rapidly or in the middle of the 34. Even the most squeamish fosters have mastered this and it's not as horrible as it Many vets will give you a courtesy (free) office visit if you tell them this is a rescued kitten you are fostering; their staff can give you lots of advice and supplies along the road as well. 38. You can also contact your local shelter or rescue group and ask if you can become an official "foster parent" through their organization Many of these organizations help cover the cost of necessary medical care as the kitten grows If you're planning to raise your kitten(s) yourself, the best idea is to find a "foster" momcat who is 41. Your local animal shelter and rescue 41. organizations will probably be able to help you 43. The immunity against disease that mother's milk provides kittens lasts until they are 6 to 14 44. Kittens who don't get this immunity (from their mom's antibodies) are at a huge disadvantage and you might be in for a great deal of medical Local shelters and rescue groups can help you place the momcat after the kittens are weaned. 46. Feeding
47. Unfortunately, cow’s milk is not nutritious enough for kittens--they will slowly starve to death on it. 48. If you can't get to a pet store right away, consult our recipes for Emergency Kitten Formula. 49. Your first purchase should be a pet nursing kit and kitten formula, available at pet stores. 50. The nursing kit usually includes a bottle, several 51. Cut an "X" in the tip of your first nipple with 52. Kitten formula (brands include KMR and Just Born) is more economical if purchased in 53. Pet supply catalogs offer very good values on 55. Some fosters prefer the Catac brand kitten feeders, which feature a specially shaped bottle and nipple, but these are harder to find. 56. You know that you have made the nipple opening just big enough if, when the bottle is held upside-down, formula drips slowly from it. 57. Too small an opening will make kittens work too hard to get their formula, tiring them out before 58. Too large an opening will force too much 59. Before each feeding, sterilize the bottles and Formula should be warmed to room 60. temperature. 61. You can do this by microwaving it in the bottle for no longer than 10 seconds (never let it boil), or placing the bottle in a bowl of hot water for a few minutes. 62. Before each feeding, you should also sterilize your hands with antibacterial sanitizer or water with a touch of bleach added. 63. It's a good idea to re-sterilize after you're done 64. This way, the kittens and your own pets will be 65. An alternative to this is to purchase a box of latex surgical gloves and use a new pair for each feeding. 66. Many fosters like to keep a special t-shirt, sweatshirt, or apron in the room where the kittens are kept, and slip it on before feeding. Kitten positioning for feeding is very 68. important; this is where the crucial surrogate-mom bonding happens. 69. Different people have different "styles" of 70. Kittens are most comfortable in a position similar to the position they'd be in if they were nursing from a momcat. 71. One position is simply to place the kitten on its stomach on a towel or cloth on which it can cling; it will "knead" its paws on instinct. 72. You can also sit cross-legged on the floor with the kitten inside your legs, and let the kitten place its paws on your leg as it nurses. 73. Remember to keep a towel on your lap for this-- 74. Open the mouth gently with the tip of your 75. Once your kitten gets the hang of it, they will 76. You will feel a real "vacuum effect" when the 77. To keep air from getting into the kitten's stomach, hold the bottle at a 45-degree angle, 78. The kitten should be allowed to suck at its own 79. If a kitten refuses to take the nipple or won't suckle, try rubbing it vigorously on its forehead or stroking its back. 80. This replicates the activity of a momcat's cleaning and can effectively stimulate the kitten to nurse. 81. Sometimes you will hear a "clicking" noise which means the kitten's nursing instinct is in gear and should be ready for the nipple. 82. Sometimes a kitten is simply picky; there are two kinds of nipples out there, one shorter and one longer, so you might have to make sure they don't prefer one or the other. 83. Kittens who seem too weak to nurse can often be stimulated by rubbing some Karo syrup on 84. If a kitten still refuses to nurse, and this happens beyond the first few "getting the hang of it" times, it indicates illness and you must take the kitten to a vet immediately. 85. Kittens have been known to accidentally suck formula into the lungs; if this happens, hold the kitten upside down until it stops choking. 86. A kitten should eat about 8cc's of formula per ounce of body weight per day; nursing bottles are marked with measurements so it's easy to keep track. 87. Weigh the kittens daily or every other day to calculate the amount of formula they need; a kitchen or small postal scale should be used. 88. Kittens under one week old should be fed every 2 - 3 hours; at two weeks old they can be fed every 4 - 6 hours; after three weeks old, until they are weaned, they should be fed every 6 - 8 hours. 89. Divide their needed daily intake by the number of required daily feedings, and you'll know how 90. Kittens who are extra weak or recovering from a "crash" may need to eat more frequently. 91. Keep in mind that the younger kittens are, the more accustomed they are to staying "latched onto" a momcat's nipple all the time, nursing small amounts periodically. 92. If you notice that your kittens are not eating enough in one feeding, increase the frequency of feedings. 93. If you're feeding multiple kittens, you'll have better luck with them eating the required amount if you feed them each several times, 94. Feed the first kitten until it stops nursing, feed 95. Then go back to the first and repeat this 96. Usually after 2 or 3 nursing turns, a kitten has 97. When a kitten has had enough formula, it will usually get some bubbles around its mouth and its tummy will be very rounded to give it a real "Bartlett Pear" shape. 98. After feeding, you should burp the kitten just like you'd burp a human baby; hold it upright against your shoulder and pat it on the back. 99. Do not overfeed kittens, since this can cause 100. Kittens under four weeks will go happily to 100. sleep after they're fed and full; older kittens will want some serious play and cuddle time. 101. It's natural for kittens to suckle on each other or on your fingers, even after they're finished 101. eating. This is harmless unless you notice that this kind of activity is causing irritation to other kittens' fur or skin. 102. Stimulation and Litter Box Training 103. By nature, momcats lick the "back end" of their 103. babies to stimulate the bowels and bladder on a 104. If you are the babies' new momcat, guess who 104. 105. After each feeding, gently rub the kitten on its 105. low abdomen, as well as the genitals and rectum, with a cotton ball, cotton pad, or tissues moistened with warm water. 106. Make sure you rub only enough to get them to eliminate; overstimulation will irritate the area. 107. Keep an eye out for chafing and lingering dirt. 108. Kittens should (and almost always will) 109. They should defecate at least once a day. One trick is to slowly count to 60 while you're 118. A simple "butt-bath" will usually do the trick, 118. but if you must get a kitten wet over more than half of its body, it's safe to dry kittens over one week old with a hair dryer set on low and used carefully, avoiding their faces. 119. You should also check their ears regularly for 119. dirt and, especially after initial rescue, ear mites. 120. Dirt can be cleaned gently with a cotton ball or 120. swab; consult your vet if you find the telltale ear mite "coffee-ground" type dirt. 121. If you find fleas or flea dirt on kittens of any 121. age, you must get them flea-free as soon as possible. 122. Young kittens can easily get anemia from flea 122. infestation and really endanger its life. 123. First, use a flea comb to remove as much of the 123. 124. Ask your vet for a flea spray that's okay to use 124. on very young kittens; always read the warnings on any flea product to confirm at which age it is safe. 125. Place the kitten on a towel for about 20 125. minutes; then discard the towel with the dead and dying fleas that have come from the kitten. 126. After using a spray, you can give the kitten a 126. bath in gentle or surgical soap; make sure water temperature is lukewarm so as not to chill the kitten. 127. Dry the kitten, if old enough, with a blow dryer 127. or you can towel-dry it, then put it in a carrier and aim the blow dryer into it to gently dry the kitten with warm, circulating air. 128. Other skin irritations to look for are ringworm 128. 129. If a kitten is scratching excessively and there 129. are bare patches where fur is missing, isolate the kitten from littermates and consult a vet immediately for treatment. 131. Kittens should gain about 1/2 ounce every day 131. 132. Weigh them at the same time every day with a 132. 133. Lack of gain or weight loss beyond 24 hours is 133. 134. Their bellies should always be rotund-- if you 134. squeeze them between two fingers and slowly try to bring the fingers together, you should NOT be able to do it! 135. You can check to make sure a kitten is properly 135. hydrated by pulling up the skin at the scruff of the neck. 136. If it bounces back nicely, hydration is good. 137. If it doesn't bounce back, or goes back down 137. slowly, they will need at least one dose of subcutaneous (under-the-skin) fluids. 139. Weaning occurs at about 4 weeks, but keep in 139. mind that some kittens take a bit longer, especially without a momcat to show them the wonders of eating solid food. 140. You will know that a kitten is ready for the 140. weaning process when it is (a) biting its nipple often and forcefully, and (b) able to lick formula 141. The next step is to get the kitten to lap up 141. 142. Once they've mastered that, try putting it in a 142. 143. At that point, you can mix the kitten formula 143. Chicken Baby Food) into a gruel and try to get the kittens to lap it up from a dish or a spoon. 144. You can also try using Dr. Hill's "a/d" brand. 145. Eventually, you can mix canned kitten food (we 145. recommend Iams, Science Diet, and Nutro Max Kitten) with formula, gradually reducing the amount of formula until they're eating just the food. 146. It is not uncommon for weight gain to slow and 146. minor, temporary diarrhea to occur during 147. Some kittens grasp the concept right away; 147. 148. Keep bottle feeding while weaning to make 148. 149. Reduce bottle feeding as their solid-food 149. 150. If you give dry food, moisten it, because kittens 150. can’t chew dry food well until about 8 weeks. 151. Remember that changes in diet can quickly 151. cause diarrhea, so keep an eye on your kitten's stools. 152. Consult our guide to stool and urine in the 152. “ "Basics" section. Diarrhea can be life-threatening to a kitten if left untreated; usually, a dose of one or more types of antibiotics prescribed by your vet will get them back on track. 154. Kittens weigh about 2 to 4 ounces at birth; they 154. should double their body weight in the first week. 155. Annie, the kitten you see here, is under 1 week 155. 157. If eyes seem to be pus-filled or sealed shut, 157. open and clean with a warm wet cloth and apply Terramycin ointment (sold at pet stores) until the infection clears up; if it doesn't, consult your vet as it may be a more serious eye infection. 158. Eyes will stay blue until they are about 3 to 4 158. weeks old, but true eye color won't settle in 159. At 2 weeks of age, the ears will start to stand 159. 160. At about 3 weeks, they will try to walk. 161. At 4 weeks, they'll start to play with each other 161. 162. A first dose of roundworm medication should be 162. 6 given at 6 weeks; a second dose for roundworms, as well as a dose for tapeworms, 163. The first FVRCP (4-in-1) vaccination should be 163. 164. A first FELV (Leukemia) vaccination should be 164. 165. Consult your veterinarian for schedule of 165. follow-up vaccinations; these vary with vaccination brands and types. 166. When the kitten weighs two pounds (usually at 166. 8 - 9 weeks old) and is healthy, they are old enough to be spayed and neutered. 167. At this age, they are also old enough to be 167. adopted; if you plan to put your kittens up for adoption, you must not do this before they are 8 weeks old. Here's Annie all "grown up"! 170. Emotional and physical closeness to you is as 170. important to a kitten as food and warmth. 171. Pet the kitten often, letting it snuggle. 172. You'll be surprised how this early cuddle 172. activity will stay a basic instinct as the cat grows into an adult. 173. We've found that hand-raised kittens have a 173. much deeper bond to their owners and are highly loyal, intelligent, and affectionate. 174. Playing with the kitten with a variety of toys is 174. also important; this will help them develop motor skills and also help them bond to you. 175. Exercise will keep their energy up and make 175. them happy, healthy, and extra-adorable. 176. Once kittens are about six weeks old and 176. healthy, it's okay to let them interact with 178. All this sounds much harder than it really is. 178. Raising "bottle-babies" is a labor of love for almost everyone who takes it on. Keep in mind, though, that it can be a difficult process and 179. If you "lose" a kitten, you should never blame 179. 180. Taking on an abandoned kitten is a wonderful 180. 181. Recipes for Emergency Kitten Fomula 182. The pet store is closed, and you have hungry 182. 183. In a pinch, the Cornell Book of Cats says that 183. 184. if made up to double the normal strength 184. (human baby formula is normally not nutritious enough for kittens). 185. As with the below formulas, please remember 185. that any emergency formula should only be Formula (such as KMR or Just Born) can be purchased at the pet store. 186. None of these are nutritionally complete for the 186. 1 drop liquid pediatric vitamins (optional) 189. Mix well and warm before using. Keep 189. 1 part boiled water to 5 parts evaporated milk 191. Mix well, refrigerate, warm before using . 193. All three mixed well and kept in tightly sealed 193. 194. At feeding time mix 1/2 of the estimated 194. Equal amount of boiling water (once a day mix 1 drop of human infant liquid vitamins in each kitties formula) 195. If constipation occurs: add 1 drop of vegetable 195. oil to each kitties formula no more than once daily till problem is eased. 196. Test temperature before feeding (the 196. combination of boiling water and chilled formula should be just about right). 198. You are going to read quite a bit in this manual 198. 199. Why is monitoring so important for fosters and 199. 200. It’s because domestic cats are fairly unique in 200. nature, in that they are a small, solo predators in a world filled with bigger or pack structured predators. 201. As a survival technique they have the ability to 201. hide any disease until practically the last 202. If they revealed that they were weak or sick out 202. in nature they would be picked off by the first larger predator. 203. This solution works great in nature but hinders 203. us in fostering because cats are sooo good at hiding their disease. 204. That’s why you’re going to see a ton of 204. 205. It’s always best to be on the safe side and 205. 206. Most of the time it will be nothing, but 206. 207. If you already own cats, then you’ve got 9/10ths 207. 208. Even if you’ve never owned cats before, most of 208. the information in this guideline is pretty straightforward and common sense. 209. The most important thing to remember is, 209. these kids have had a hard life before they reached our doors. 210. Most likely they have had inadequate nutrition, 210. lousy living conditions, and someone just dumped them. 212. Our goal is to show them that people 212. 213. We need to nurture them and show them the 213. 214. So read on and good cat parenting to you all. 215. There are some basic principles that can be 215. 216. Listed below are the fundamentals with their 234. That seems silly (and we’re certainly not going definition and explanation following: WARM to ask you to actually do this!) but it forces you to take a good hard look and find those little 218. Although not as important in cats over 6 weeks, 236. Glad you asked! 237. There are several crucial health concerns that 219. We cannot overemphasize the need for warmth 238. Cats and kittens both groom themselves and 220. If there is nothing else you can do or provide for 239. If you have feces, old food or mucous stuck in 221. Babies are used to their mom providing a nice the hair, the animal could ingest them and 103 degree environment for them, and we must 240. Guck on the fur can irritate the skin and make 222. In the bottle-baby section we will explore this 223. Warm also includes providing a non-drafty 241. Feces, urine, milk and food left on the skin can cause burns or scalds that are difficult to treat 224. For an older animal, all you need do, is make sure it has a nice warm, cozy spot to retreat to. 242. Kittens, especially, learn to groom themselves 225. For younger pets (less than 4 months) the entire environment should be draft-free and a 243. If they are left dirty as kittens, the kittens refuge (box/crate/closet where there is accept this and become poor groomers their barricading against drafts and retains heat) for 244. We need to set an example for them so they can 226. If you are having trouble keeping the kids carry on the habit the rest of their lives. warm and comfy, please contact your vet. 245. Although intangible, we all know how we feel if 228. This may sound like a big ‘DUH’ instruction, 246. Certainly cats/kittens seem to feel the same 229. No animal can stay healthy if it isn’t clean. 247. Just as we would want any human baby 230. Really though, we should use the word immaculately clean at all times, we want our 231. Each and every animal should be in pristine, 248. And, let’s face it. 249. Who wants to cuddle and love up a dirty ‘icky’ 232. It’s certainly rougher when you have some sick kittens, but still they need to be perfectly clean 250. They’ve got to be clean so we can snuggle ‘em as soon as you are done with them. 233. The criteria should be: Can you kiss the 251. 3. WELL HYDRATED kitten/cat over its entire body (including 252. Okay, this sounds intimidating, but it’s not. rectum) and not gag? 253. Hydration is basically how much water we 279. White - Grossly abnormal color, usually 254. Since water drives all of our metabolic indicates, severe bacterial imbalance and functions, you can see why adequate hydration 280. Kitten at risk of dying, needs medical attention, 255. Checking hydration is a lot simpler than trying 281. Consistency: Dry/hard - Abnormal, usually 256. If you pull up on your own skin, you will see the 257. This is called skin turgor (how well it snaps 283. Firm - Normal, be happy. 284. Formed but soft - Low range of ‘normal’. If 258. A well hydrated animal will have quick skin stools change from firm to soft you should seek 259. [Listed below] are some guidelines. 285. Toothpaste - Still has somewhat tubular form 260. For healthy kids with no signs of illness, just but falls apart once touched. Abnormal, needs 261. It should be quick and immediate, if not, seek 286. Cow-patty - Never formed but thick enough it 287. Abnormal, animal is at significant risk and 263. Let’s summarize and say: Poop should be 288. Liquidy - Just fluid that falls out of rectum, 265. Guide to the Rainbow of Poop and Urine Colors 289. Abnormal, animal is at severe risk and must be 266. Color: Bloody - Actual red blood seen in stool. 290. The ‘Squirts’ - Animal has no control over 267. Could indicate panleukepenia. 268. Grossly abnormal, must be seen ASAP. 269. Mucous - yellowish/white/clear slimy 270. Indicates severe bowel irritation. 271. Grossly abnormal and needs immediate care. 272. Black - True dark black color to stool. 273. Usually indicates bleeding high in the bowel. 274. Severe sign, needs immediate attention. 275. Brown - Normal color. Be happy! 276. Orange - Usually indicates way too much bile in stool, can occur with reflux. Seek medical advice. 277. Yellow - Almost always indicates bacterial 278. If has diarrhea also, usually related to coccidia. 300. Red/Dark Orange - Severe sign. Severe at-risk, 320. This is why we require a 7 day in-home quarantine, which sounds far more foreboding 321. Basically keep the new kid in a bathroom or 302. Either way it’s BAD! Needs immediate spare room, separate from your other cats. Even if you don’t have other cats, if the kitty 303. Intense yellow - Concentrated urine. Animal is should break with a cold we don’t want the rest 322. The bathroom works great because you’re in there a lot on, well - your own ‘business’ which 305. Yellow - Mildly concentrated urine. Monitor involves significant ‘sit-down’ time. closely and if ANY other signs, seek care 323. Plenty of opportunity to socialize with the kitty immediately. 306. Light yellow - Mildly dilute urine. 307. Overall body hydration should be adequate if 325. Because most cold and flu viruses have a 3-6 308. With sick/injured or at-risk animals, this is the 326. Therefore if it doesn’t show signs of illness with 7 days, it’s probably free of anything it picked 309. Pale yellow - Dilute urine. Hydration should be up at the pound and we can allow it to start mingling with the rest of the household. 310. With any significantly debilitated or severe 327. Another advantage of isolation of other cats is risk animal, this is the color we shoot for. 311. Be aware however of possible over-hydration 328. It sounds strange that we should keep cats and keep urine this color, only if under medical apart, so they get along better, but it is 312. Almost clear - Severely dilute urine. Risk of 329. When cats first meet, it seems they take an insta-matic picture of the other cats response. 313. Urine should only be this dilute if under 330. If their first meeting includes: arching, hissing, and spitting, it’s not going to be a pretty 315. This category includes anybody over 4 months 331. They seem to carry this image of the other cat around with it and hold a grudge, sometimes 316. We need to remember that even though they are healthy, they’ve had a very stressful life 332. It’s as if each time they come into contact with lately and most are just out of the pound. the newer cat, they pull out the picture (even if 317. Just like us, after extreme stress like finals or a the newer cat is being nice and calm at the big presentation at work, it’s not until we’re moment) and say ‘see, I don’t like ya and I done and relaxing at home that we come down 333. If, however, you let them introduce under the door first as they sniff each other, you have a 348. The benefit of twice daily feeding over free-feed far greater chance of getting them to accept systems (leaving the food down all the time) is that you absolutely KNOW the cat’s appetite 334. They may hiss and spit at each other, but since they can’t see each other, they don’t take this 349. Most cats will run to the bowl, eager to eat. In ‘grudge’ picture. 335. Usually within their 7-day isolation period they will stop aggressing towards each other under 350. If we allow free-feeding, it can takes sometimes the door, you can let them see each other, since days to figure out if the kitty isn’t eating they have already gotten use to each other’s 351. Which, as we discussed earlier, is important 336. If either cat starts acting cranky, just shut the since cats hide their illness very well and it is door and try again later. It’s that simple. extremely important to catch problems as early 337. This technique is especially helpful if you plan 338. If each time you bring a new cat into the 353. No, put the sprinkler away. household and (in your resident cat’s opinion) 354. We’re talking about putting water out for the the new cats are always spitty, hissy buttheads, your resident cat is going to resent any visitor 355. This may seem way basic, but the water bowl and could get stressed out. should be cleaned out and re-filled with fresh 339. So we must make sure your resident cat feels: 340. They are the king/queen of the universe 356. Some foster cats may be a tad, shall we shall, 341. This new cat is only a minor inconvenience to 357. Some cats will only drink from glasses (human 342. The new cats really aren’t thaaattt bad, they type glasses and sometimes only if it has ice 343. If these introductions go well, resident cats 358. Another favorite trick is to only drink from usually adopt a non-chalant (read: kitty arrogant) approach to these new invaders and 359. To these individuals, we usually cater. simply ignore the peons. 360. Just be sure everybody has the fresh water they crave (condiments are optional ), at least 345. If they want to make friends and be buds, that’s cool, but most older cats will simply be 361. LITTER PAN DUTY tastefully disdainful and ignore the 362. The litter should be scooped twice daily. newcomers. 363. This way you can check stool consistency and be sure the kitty is urinating appropriate 347. Feedings should be twice daily with the food left down for about an hour (ex: put it down 364. Most cats will defecate once to twice daily and when you first get up, then pick it up before you go to work and do the same around dinner 365. Each amount of urine should be about the same time). 366. If the kitty is urinating frequently (either large 393. The 7-day isolation period is even more or small amounts), you may want to consult important for kittens than it is for cats. 367. If the cat ever cries, strains or spends an 395. Imagine a child starting kindergarten. inordinate amount of time in the litter box, 396. Everybody usually comes home with a cold of your vet must be notified IMMEDIATELY. 397. The same holds will kittens that have been 369. We use high quality food and urinary tract problems are rare, but can happen so we must 398. Plus they are younger and have weaker be alert for them. immune systems and are more likely to come 370. Anything other than nice normal brown, formed poop and nice yellow urine, should be 399. Once the kitten is out and about in the noted and addressed. household, it is very important to not allow it to harass your resident kitties (at least not too 372. If the kitty does any of these things, even once, much, after all this is the sworn duty of the 373. It most instances, it will be nothing, but again 400. If your resident cat gets too bent out of shape and aggressive towards new kitties, it can 401. Again, make sure your resident kitty is queen 403. Depending on their age, kittens should be feed 404. You'll be able to tell how hungry they are and 405. It is essential that we monitor kittens’ eating habits and if ever there is a decrease, you 406. Kittens have far less reserve than adult cats and we need to support them even more than 387. Or any other problem or concern that you have! 388. How To Get the Most Out of Adopting a New 407. WATERING 408. Same as the adult, but usually at this age they 389. This one’s simple. Love ‘em and know you’ve haven’t quite developed such ‘interesting’ habits, therefore a typical water dish usually 390. Healthy Kittens 6 Weeks to 4 Months: 391. Many of the same principles hold for kittens as 409. LITTER PAN well as cats, so we’ll only discuss the unique 410. For the most part in adults, stool consistency circumstances that apply to younger kids. and urine volume can fluctuate without much 411. This is not the case with kittens and any change of stool or urine production needs to be 426. Most pet stores will give you samples of foods addressed. so you can make sure your cat gives it the 412. We really can’t take any chances with these "paws up" before investing in a whole case or 427. You will find that not only does your cat eat 414. The same as listed for adult cats, we’re just less of these foods, but they will produce less even more astute and alert to any change in the 428. Kittens should be fed kitten food until they are 416. At Kitten Rescue, many people ask us what we 429. Sometimes this is difficult if you also have an consider "the best" brand of cat food. 417. Most of us have different preferences, usually 430. If it proves impossible to get your kitten to eat dictated by the whims of our own cats, but kitten food when there's adult food around, there are some universals we have discovered eating adult food will not hurt your kitten; through experience and consultations with our 431. she will probably just eat more of it to get the vets. proper nutrition, and if she's active she'll burn 418. What you may hear about "supermarket" cat foods being the equivalent of "junk food" for 432. Elderly or very sedentary cats should be given cats is not just a ploy to get you to buy the more 433. Pregnant and nursing momcats should 419. Just like there's a range of how people-food is made, different brands of cat food are made 420. While most of the inexpensive foods you buy at the supermarket are nutritionally sound and will certainly not hurt your cat, they are not the best choice. 421. We have found that cats will eat more of supermarket-bought foods, the theory being that their bodies "know" that they need to substitute quality with quantity. 422. These foods are certainly a value, however, and we recommend Whiskas brand, especially their "Mealtime" flavor, as the best of that group. 423. If you have a few more dollars to spend, any food you buy at a Petco, Petsmart, or similar pet supply chain is probably a superior brand. 424. We recommend Nutro foremost, with Science 425. A new food on the market called Innova is

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Reprint from European Journal of Medical Research Official Organ » Deutsche AIDS-Gesellschaft« © I. Holzapfel Verlag GmbH, Munich, Germany I. Holzapfel Verlag GmbH, Harthauser Str. 105, 81545 Munich, Germany Tel. +49-89/13 99 87 30, Fax +49-89/13 99 87 31, e-mail EurJMedRes@t-online.de EU RO PE AN JOUR NAL OF MED I CAL RE SEARCHEur J Med Res (2008) 13: 557-562 ©

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