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Hermann Memorial Library, Sullivan County Community College The rules for citing the most frequently used source types are given below: printed books of all kinds, including reference books; periodicals; and lastly, sources found on the World Wide Web. This list of rules and examples is not exhaustive. Students should refer to the following book, which is always on hand in the Ready Reference Area on the first floor of the library: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Call number R808.05/P96M6. Additional support for the student preparing his/her APA style references will be found on the following web site: Use of the online citation builder found in NoodleTools can also be helpful: Above all, students should refer to the course instructor’s requirements for each class when deciding how much or how little APA formatting to use. First, we will describe how to list your sources on your References page, at the end of your paper; then we will discuss how to cite them briefly in the text of your research paper. I. BOOKS PRINTED ON PAPER, INCLUDING REFERENCE BOOKS I.1 BOOK BY ONE OR MORE AUTHORS Example of full reference on your References page: Caplan, P. J. (1995). They say you’re crazy: How the world’s most powerful psychiatrists decide who’s normal. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Analysis: Author of a book or any other kind of source is written as last name, comma, then initials. Do not use the full first and middle names. Do not include honorifics such as Dr., Ms., or Mr. How to handle multiple authors (for books, periodical articles and other works): For more than one author, up to and including six authors, give all names in the same inverted order, listing each separated by a comma, and the last preceded by an ampersand (e.g. Kernis, M.H., Cornell, D.P., Baker, E., Harlow, A., & Whelan, T.S.) When you have seven or more authors, use the abbreviation et al. for the seventh and subsequent authors. Always, following the author’s name, put the date of publication, within parentheses, followed by a period. Next, the title of a book (but not an article) is given in italics ending with a period. The punctuation of the title is the same as for a normal sentence: only capitalize the first word of the title and the subtitle, and any proper nouns if they occur, of course. The subtitle is the second half of the title, separated by a colon. Not all works have subtitles, but many do. Finally give the place of publication as city, comma, state (abbreviated with two capital letters, no periods), followed by a colon and then the name of the publisher, ending with a period. This information is taken from the book in hand, on the title page, and on the verso of the title page. Another source for this information would be the Book Catalog record for the book. I.2 BOOK PUBLISHED UNDER EDITOR’S NAME These books are usually anthologies or collections of separate essays by separate authors, brought together in one volume under an editor’s supervision, and with a collective title. If you are citing one essay within such a collection, use the rules for “Article in an anthology”. However, if for some reason you want to cite the entire book of essays as one item, you may do so using the following as an example. Ruitenbeek, H. M. (Ed.). (1973). The interpretation of death. New York, NY: J. I.3 ARTICLE IN AN ANTHOLOGY (EDITED BOOK) OR FROM A TYPICAL REFERENCE BOOK SUCH AS AN ENCYCLOPEDIA Example of full reference from your References page: Eissler, K. (1973). Death and the pleasure principle. In H. M. Ruitenbeek (Ed.), The interpretation of death (pp.11-18). New York, NY: J. Aronson. Analysis: The author of the article/chapter comes first, inverted, with first initial, followed by the publication date in parentheses and period. The title of the article/chapter comes next, capitalized as in a normal sentence and not in italics. Next comes the information about the book in which the article is found. It is preceded by the preposition “In” and the name of the editor or editors, not in inverted order, with the designation (Ed.) in parentheses, followed by a comma, and the title of the edited book in italics. For books with no editor, simply give the title of the book in italics. Before the period after the book title, give the inclusive pagination of the article or chapter in parentheses using the abbreviation pp. to stand for pages. Finally, put the city and state of publication, colon, and publisher, then period. Example of a Reference Book (Encyclopedia) Article: Holzman, P.S., & Sarason, I. G. (2003). Personality. In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 25, pp. 503-514). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica. If no author of the article is found, place the title of the article in the first position. I.4 BOOK OR REPORT BY A GROUP OR CORPORATE AUTHOR. A separately published report by a corporate body, or, in this case, a government agency, is often found not to have a personal author or authors. The group or agency responsible is put in the author position, so the citation looks as follows: Example: National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Here the government agency functions as the author of the report. After the title is the agency’s own publication number for this particular document, to be included in parentheses if found on the title page or copyright pages of the report. Government documents are often available from the Government Printing Office, or GPO; if this is the case, include this at the end of your reference as the publisher. Another example of corporate authorship, where the association is both author and publisher, is the following: American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author. After the place of publication, the publisher is signified by the word “Author” to mean that it is the same as the corporate author, the American Psychiatric Association. When you refer to this work in your text, you must cite the corporate author and the name of the manual in full the first time you mention it; thereafter you may refer to the work in the standard shortened form, that is, DSM-IV-TR. I.5. ELECTRONIC VERSION OF BOOK (Originally in printed format) Example: Duff, L. and Sawdon, P. (2008). Drawing: The purpose. Retrieved from Give a citation for the book, without place and publisher, and include a retrieval statement giving the URL of the database or collection of ebooks that it is found in, in this case II. PERIODICALS (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers and Newsletters) II.1 ARTICLE FROM A PRINT JOURNAL. Note: If each issue of a journal starts with page 1, then give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number. If the issues of a volume are paged continuously, do not provide the issue number, just the volume number. Example of journal article with two authors: Weems, C.F. & Costa, N.M. (2005). Developmental differences in the expression of childhood anxiety symptoms and fears. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 656-663. Analysis: Put authors’ names (last name first, then initials), separated by an ampersand. Following this, the year of the journal within parentheses, followed by a period. Next, put the title of the article, not italicized, not in quotations, with first word only capitalized. Then put the journal title, with first and all significant words capitalized, followed by a comma, the volume number, the issue number in parentheses (if each issue begins with page 1), and another comma—all in italics—then the inclusive page numbers NOT italicized, and NOT preceded by the designation pp. Note: Include the doi (Digital Object Identifier) as the last element of the citation when it is given in the source (usually on the title page of the article). For earlier journal articles you may not find a DOI. Example with three to six authors: Masi, G., Millepiedi, S., Mucci, M., Bertini, N., Milantoni, L., & Arcangeli, F. (2005). A naturalistic study of referred children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 673-681. Weiss, M., Tannock, R., Kratochvil, C., Dunn, D., Velez-Borras, J., Thomason, C., et al. (2005). A randomized, placebo-controlled study of once-daily atomoxetine in the school setting in children with ADHD. Journal of the Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 647-655. II.2 ARTICLE FROM AN ELECTRONIC VERSION OF A JOURNAL The rule for any electronic version of a journal article is the same as for a printed version: you must include the doi (Digital Object Identifier), if available, as the last element of the citation. This specifies the final digital version of the article, no matter what database you found the article in. You do not have to provide the name of the subscription database, or the URL of the database. Example: Sheets, E.S., & Miller, I. W. (2010). Predictors of relationship functioning for patients with bipolar disorder and their partners, 24. 371-379. doi: • Note: When a doi is not available and the article was retrieved online, give a retrieval statement with the URL of the journal home page, even if it requires doing a search to find this information. Do not provide a retrieval statement giving the name of the subscription database, as was the former practice in earlier versions of APA. Harrow, M., Yonan, C. A., Sands, J. R., & Marengo, J. (1994). Depression in schizophrenia: Are neuroleptics, akinesia, or anhedonia involved? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 327-338. Retrieved from The database we used to retrieve this article was EBSCOhost’s PsycArticles; however we do not mention it, but rather do a Google search for the URL of the journal, Schizophrenia Bulletin, and use that URL in a retrieval statement. II.3 ARTICLE FROM A MAGAZINE (Print and electronic versions) Example from the print version of a magazine article: Flora, C. (2005, May/June). The superpowers. Psychology Today, 38(3), 40-42. Analysis: The date given in parentheses includes the year and the month, for monthly magazines, or the year, the month and day, for weekly magazines. Notice that you include the volume number of the magazine, after the title, in italics, and also the issue number, 3, in parentheses (not in italics), when/if each issue of the magazine begins with p. 1. • Note: If you got an electronic version of this article in an online subscription database, you would not mention the database or the URL of the database; you would find the URL of the homepage for the magazine, and include it in your retrieval statement. Example from an electronic version of a magazine article: Flora, C. (2005, May/June). The superpowers. Psychology Today, 38(3), 40-42. Retrieved from II.4 ARTICLE FROM A NEWSPAPER (Print and Electronic Versions) Example: Carey, B. (2005, July 5). Straight, gay, or lying: Bisexuality revisited. The New Analysis: Within parentheses, give the year, the month and the day of the newspaper. Do not omit the initial definite article from titles of newspapers or magazines. When you give the pages of a newspaper article include section letter or number before page. Give discontinuous paging as in the above example, and you must use “p.” or “pp.” with page numbers. Note: When you find no article author, put the title in the author position. • Online newspaper article. For an article from a newspaper’s website, give all the same information as for the paper version, except the pages, and provide a retrieval statement with the URL of the newspaper’s home page. Example of an online newspaper article: Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from III ELECTRONIC SOURCES (WORLD WIDE WEB) III.1 AN ARTICLE OR TEXT DOCUMENT THAT IS NOT A PERIODICAL FOUND ON A WEB SITE. Give the author(s) and date of the document, as found in the website. Italicize the title of the document. Include a retrieval statement that names the university, government agency, or website, followed by a colon and the URL. McClintock, R. (2000, September 20). Cities, youth, and technology: Toward a pedagogy of autonomy. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies website: Analysis: We found a date of 20 September 2000 at the end of this document, so we included the month and the day in parentheses in the APA reference. Also: note that although APA style citations always end with a period, in this case, where the ending of the citation is the URL, we do not close with a period, as it might be mistaken to be part of the address. IV. THE BASIC SCHEME FOR CITING THE SOURCES WITHIN THE TEXT OF YOUR RESEARCH PAPER The above rules cover the ways to cite your sources, fully, at the end of your paper in your “References” list. In the body of your paper, as you discuss your topic, you will refer to these sources in an abbreviated format. This abbreviated format will include the last name(s) of the author (or authors) and the year of publication. These in-text citations will make use of the parentheses within your sentence that credits an idea to a particular source. If you quote or refer to a specific passage of the source, you will also need to include the page(s) on which that quote appears. Here are some examples of how your in-text citation might look within your paper: Jacquin (2005) has described the use of certain tests to determine the competency of individuals with dementia. Or: Certain tests have been devised to measure competency in cases of dementia (Jacquin, 2005). Or, if you are quoting a specific passage in the source, you must also specify the page or pages. “A person ruled incompetent in a hearing is de jure incompetent” (Jacquin, 2005, p. 5). On your reference page at the end of your paper, the source would be given in complete detail along with the other sources you used, as follows: Jacquin, K. M. (2005). Differential diagnosis decisions related to dementia: Using neuropsychological tests to make recommendations in competency hearings. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 23(3), 5-24. For works with multiple authors, use the following rules as your guideline: For your in-text reference: When citing a work in the text of your paper with two authors, give both last names, separated by an ampersand (&). When citing a work in text with three to five authors, cite all authors’ surnames the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by et al. When citing in text a work with six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the date of publication (See page 208 of the 5th edition of the APA Publication Manual). For a work in which no author is named, use the complete title of the work if short, or an abbreviated version of the title if it is too long, along with the year of publication. Example: Depression is widely recognized to be the most prevalent form of mental illness in our society (Depression, 2005). This work is completely described in the Reference list as follows: Depression. (2005). In Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from Due to the nature of word-processors, it is important to use one space, and only one space, after all punctuation. And, please remember to check with your instructor for guidelines on how much or how little APA formatting is required in your class.


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