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Written paper higher tier

General Certificate of Secondary Education
Science B 4462 / Biology 4411

Unit Biology 1
Mark Scheme
Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers. This mark scheme includes any amendments made at the standardisation meeting attended by all examiners and is the scheme which was used by them in this examination. The standardisation meeting ensures that the mark scheme covers the candidates’ responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same correct way. As preparation for the standardisation meeting each examiner analyses a number of candidates’ scripts: alternative answers not already covered by the mark scheme are discussed at the meeting and legislated for. If, after this meeting, examiners encounter unusual answers which have not been discussed at the meeting they are required to refer these to the Principal Examiner. It must be stressed that a mark scheme is a working document, in many cases further developed and expanded on the basis of candidates’ reactions to a particular paper. Assumptions about future mark schemes on the basis of one year’s document should be avoided; whilst the guiding principles of assessment remain constant, details will change, depending on the content of a particular examination paper. Further copies of this Mark Scheme are available to download from the AQA Website: Copyright 2007 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA) is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (company number 3644723) and a registered charity (registered charity number 1073334). Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX. Dr Michael Cresswell, Director General. Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series MARK SCHEME
Information to Examiners

1. General
The mark scheme for each question shows: • the marks available for each part of the question • the total marks available for the question • the typical answer or answers which are expected • extra information to help the Examiner make his or her judgement and help to delineate what is acceptable or not worthy of credit or, in discursive answers, to give an overview of the area in which a mark or marks may be awarded. The extra information is aligned to the appropriate answer in the left-hand part of the mark scheme and should only be applied to that item in the mark scheme. At the beginning of a part of a question a reminder may be given, for example: where consequential marking needs to be considered in a calculation; or the answer may be on the diagram or at a different place on the script. In general the right hand side of the mark scheme is there to provide those extra details which confuse the main part of the mark scheme yet may be helpful in ensuring that marking is straightforward and consistent. Emboldening
In a list of acceptable answers where more than one mark is available ‘any two
from’ is used, with the number of marks emboldened. Each of the following lines
is a potential mark.
A bold and is used to indicate that both parts of the answer are required to award
the mark.
Alternative answers acceptable for a mark are indicated by the use of or.
(Different terms in the mark scheme are shown by a / ; eg allow smooth / free

3. Marking
3.1 Marking
This applies to questions requiring a set number of responses, but for which candidates have provided extra responses. The general principle to be followed in such a situation is that ‘right + wrong = wrong’. Each error/contradiction negates each correct response. So, if the number of error/contradictions equals or exceeds the number of marks available for the question, no marks can be awarded. However, responses considered to be neutral (indicated as * in example 1) are not penalised. Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series Example 1: What is the pH of an acidic solution? (1 mark) Candidate Response Marks
Example 2: Name two planets in the solar system. (2 marks) Candidate Response
Use of chemical symbols / formulae
If a candidate writes a chemical symbol / formula instead of a required chemical name, full credit can be given if the symbol / formula is correct and if, in the context of the question, such action is appropriate. Marking procedure for calculations
Full marks can be given for a correct numerical answer, as shown in the column ‘answers’, without any working shown. However if the answer is incorrect, mark(s) can be gained by correct substitution / working and this is shown in the ‘extra information’ column; Interpretation of ‘it’
Answers using the word ‘it’ should be given credit only if it is clear that the ‘it’ refers to the correct subject. Errors carried forward
Any error in the answers to a structured question should be penalised once only. Papers should be constructed in such a way that the number of times errors can be carried forward are kept to a minimum. Allowances for errors carried forward are most likely to be restricted to calculation questions and should be shown by the abbreviation e.c.f. in the marking scheme. 3.6 Phonetic
The phonetic spelling of correct scientific terminology should be credited unless
there is a possible confusion with another technical term.
3.7 Brackets
(….) are used to indicate information which is not essential for the mark to be awarded but is included to help the examiner identify the sense of the answer required. Unexpected Correct Answers not in the Mark Scheme
The Examiner should use professional judgement to award credit where a candidate has given an unexpected correct answer which is not covered by the mark scheme. The Examiner should consult with the Team Leader to confirm the judgement. The Team Leader should pass this answer on to the Principal Examiner with a view to informing all examiners. Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series BLY1H Question 1

fishermen based on impression / hearsay / fishermen fish in well-stocked / limited areas = 2 marks
if no marks gained fishermens’
opinion and scientists’ opinion gains
1 mark
any two from:
fears of extinction
Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series BLY1H Question 2

any two from:
• sampling time • size of net • kicking action • net position any two from:
• invertebrates difficult to identify • invertebrates from outside area 10 – 99
99 to 10
99 – 10
any two from:
where sewage enters stream
only in the unpolluted water
Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series BLY1H Question 3

answers extra
max 2 for 3 adaptations
Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series BLY1H Question 4

rapidly produce antibody on re-infection Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series BLY1H Question 5

allow not preventing egg fertilisation / release which causes egg to mature / develop / be allow (LH) stimulates egg release produced
in women whose FSH is low
Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series BLY1H Question 6

from same egg and sperm
any two from:
• monkeys similar to humans, so effect • all identical so will have same reaction • it’s better than catching wild ones Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series BLY1H Question 7

any two from:
• high LDL causes heart disease / high do not accept converse argument
do not accept converse argument
statins reduce heart attacks of patients or ignore comparative effects of the two
allow pravastatin is more effective supported by appropriate calculations eg pravastatin > 39 33% < 39 31.4% Average 32.4 > 39 32% < 39 28.2% Average 30.05% Science B / Biology BLY1H - AQA GCSE Mark Scheme 2007 June series BLY1H Question 8

millions / billions of years
(natural selection operates on successful) characteristics for 2 marks


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