Health care practice and knowledge are constantly changing and developing as new research and treatments, changes in procedures, drugs and equipment become available.
The author and publishers have, as far as is possible, taken care to confi rm that the information complies with the latest standards of practice and legislation. Essential Urology in General Practice Manit Arya, Iqbal S. Shergill, Nitika Silhi,Philippe Grange and Simon R. J. Bott
Quay Books Division, MA Healthcare Ltd, St Jude’s Church, Dulwich Road, London SE24 0PB
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record is available for this book
ISBN-10: 1 85642 372 7ISBN-13: 978 1 85642 372 4
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Being a General Practitioner today is a challenging profession. The GP is often presented with a variety of urological conditions, having had no or little uro-logical experience. Many of these conditions are now dealt with in primary care – e.g. urinary tract infections, erectile dysfunction and female urinary incontinence. Unfortunately, there is no book currently available aimed prima-rily at GPs and trainees which satisfactorily covers this important fi eld. Having read through this book I would like to congratulate the editors on fi lling this void with a simple practical text which should be essential reading to all those professionals in and related to primary care. Of particular importance is that each chapter is written as a collaboration between GPs and urologists. In these uncertain, changing times it is important to establish and maintain relation-ships between primary and secondary care.
I would suggest that each practice obtains a copy of this book for its library.
Indeed, perhaps many hospital departments would also benefi t from having a copy. In addition many GP trainees may benefi t from perusing this text prior to sitting the nMRCGP. Principal GP Partner and GP Trainer, Crosby House Surgery, SloughMember of the Professional Executive Committee and Primary Care Lead, Berkshire East Primary Care Trust. Berkshire Local Medical Contents Preface ix Editors xiii Contributors xv
Part I Adult urology
Chapter 1 Erectile dysfunction Jas Kalsi, Gus Cabre, Davendra Sharma and Suks Minhas
Chapter 2 Vasectomy 15 Frank Chinegwundoh and Georgieana Cave
Chapter 3 Male infertility Asif Muneer, David Jones and Suks Minhas
Chapter 4 Urinary tract infection in adults Paul Erotocritou, Sima Patel, Neehar Arya, Rizwan Hamid and Petros Erotocritou
Chapter 5 Overactive bladder, urgency and stress urinary incontinence in adult females Pippa Sangster, Miles Goldstraw, Rajesh Kavia, Ketan Kansagra, Vinay Kalsi and Rizwan Hamid
Chapter 6 Benign conditions of the scrotum and testis Davendra Sharma, Gus Cabre and Philippe Grange
Chapter 7 Ureteric colic Hashim Uddin Ahmed, Paul Erotocritou, Shailesh Kulkarni, Peter Kraus and Matt Winkler
Chapter 8 Benign and malignant skin disorders of the external genitalia 77 Iaisha Ali, Mohamed Hammadeh, Shailesh Kulkarni, Navroop Shergill and Asif Muneer
Chapter 9 Lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia 91 Neil Barber and Gordon Mackay
Chapter 10 Haematuria 101 Aza Mohammed, Blanca Martin-Retortillo, Jay Khastgir, Sandy Gujral and Ignacio Zamora
Chapter 11 Bladder cancer Andrew Robinson, Azhar Khan, Iqbal Shergill, Ann McDougall and Brian Waymont
Chapter 12 Testicular cancer Simon Gill, Hashim Uddin Ahmed, Shashi Kumar, Manit Arya and Jayanta Barua
Chapter 13 Prostate specifi c antigen (PSA)
Chapter 14 Prostate cancer – localised disease Simon Bott, Nitika Silhi and Alison Birtle
Chapter 15 Prostate cancer – locally advanced and metastatic disease 155 Simon Bott, Nitika Silhi and Alison Birtle
Part II Paediatric urology
Chapter 16 The prepuce: normal development, phimosis and circumcision 167 Nilay Patel, Vinay Kalsi, Asif Muneer, Nitika Silhi and Imran Mushtaq
Chapter 17 Urinary tract infection in children Shekhar Marathe, Jas Kalsi and Miranda Ruston
Chapter 18 Urinary incontinence in children Dawit Worku, Erdinc Havutcu, Jay Khastgir, George Fowlis and Rim El-Rifai
Chapter 19 Cryptorchidism 193 Dawit Worku, Mohamed Hammadeh, Penelope Cox and George Fowlis
Part III Miscellaneous
Chapter 20 Urethral catheterisation Rajesh Kavia, Vinay Kalsi, Christopher Blick, Jayanta Barua and Philippe Grange
Chapter 21 The nature and the role of the General Practitioner with a Specialist Interest (GPwSI) Nitika Silhi and Aravinda Guniyangodage
Chapter 22 Imaging techniques in urology Christopher Blick, Miles Walkden, Nilay Patel and Asif MuneerIndex 231
Urology forms a signifi cant proportion of primary care consultations. Most doctors and medical students have less and less exposure to this important speciality and so an easy, concise and up to date reference manual providing the essentials of urology in primary care is required.
We have produced this book for the busy General Practitioner and trainee
with day-to-day practice in mind. Our aim is to promote a simple and practical approach to all urological consultations. This text will also provide an invalu-able source of information and guidelines on urological management which are logical and evidence based. We hope the scope provided by this book will be useful to those sitting the nMRCGP exam. The book will additionally be of considerable interest to specialist nurses, medical students and junior doctors in related specialities.
With these goals in mind each chapter has been written by a general prac-
titioner in conjunction with a urologist and is heavily infl uenced by trainee co-authors. Where possible, the chapter begins with a case study followed by suggestions for important points in the history and examination. Relevant investigations and treatment in primary care are then discussed. Further man-agement of the condition in secondary care is mentioned in order to supple-ment the reader’s understanding and knowledge. A list of key points can be found at the end of each section.
This book has been an exciting and challenging project. We would like to
give our heartfelt thanks to all of the authors for their time and hard work. To the reader – ‘Enjoy!’. Subhash Arya and Saroj Arya, both of whom were devoted General Practitioners and who are now enjoying retirement. They have taught me, by example, to try and live my life with dignity.Mohan Singh and Surinder Kaur for their tireless support and sacrifi ces.Ranweer and Savita Silhi for always being there. I owe it all to them.Alan and Caroline, who have been there for me through thick and thin.Manit Arya FRCS, FRCS(Urol) Senior Fellow in Laparoscopic Uro-oncology, Department of Urology, Division of Surgical and Interventional Sciences, University College Hospital London, Honorary Senior Fellow in Laparoscopic Surgery, King’s College Hospital, London, and Research Fellow in Molecular Uro-oncology, Prostate Cancer Research Centre, University College London. Iqbal S. Shergill BSc (Hons) MRCS (Eng) FRCS (Urol) Senior Specialist Registrar in Urology, St Bartholomew’s and the Royal London Hospitals, London, and Research Fellow in Molecular Uro-pathology, Prostate Cancer Research Centre, University College London. Nitika Silhi BSc (Hons) MBBS MRCGP General Practitioner, North East London, and Clinical Assistant in Genito-Urinary Medicine, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow. Philippe Grange MD AIH ACCA Consultant Urological Surgeon and Head of Section of Laparoscopic Surgery, King’s College Hospital, London. Simon R. J. Bott MD FRCS FRCS (Urol) FEBU Senior Specialist Registrar in Urology, London. Contributors Hashim Uddin Ahmed MRCS (Ed) BM, BCh (Oxon) BA (Hons) MRC Clinical Research Fellow, Department of Urology, Division of Surgical and Interventional Sciences, University College London, and Specialist Registrar Urology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London. Iaisha Ali MBBS MRCP Specialist Registrar Dermatology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford. Manit Arya FRCS FRCS (Urol) Senior Fellow in Laparoscopic Uro-oncology, Department of Urology, Division of Surgical and Interventional Sciences, University College Hospital London, Honorary Senior Fellow in Laparoscopic Surgery, King’s College Hospital, London, and Research Fellow in Molecular Uro-oncology, Prostate Cancer Research Centre, University College London. Neehar Arya, MBBS MRCS (Eng and Ed) FFAEM Consultant in Emergency Medicine, Canada. Neil Barber BSc FRCS (Urol) Consultant Urological Surgeon, Frimley Park Hospital, Surrey. Professor Jayanta Barua, MD FRCS Ed (Urol) FEBU Consultant Urological Surgeon and Director of Research and Development, King George Hospital, Barking/Havering/Redbridge NHS Trust, and Professor, South Bank University, London. Alison J. Birtle MD MRCP FRCR Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer and Consultant Clinical Oncologist, Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston, Lancashire. Christopher Blick MRCS Research Fellow, Department of Urology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford. Simon R. J. Bott MD FRCS FRCS (Urol) FEBU Senior Specialist Registrar in Urology, London. Sqn Ldr Gus Cabre LMS (Barc) FRCS (Eng) DRCOG DAvMed RAF General Practitioner and Medical Offi cer Instructor, Royal Air Force Centre of Aviation Medicine, RAF Henlow, UK. Georgieana Cave MBBS DRCOG MRCGP General Practitioner, Chingford, London. Frank Chinegwundoh MBBS MS FRCS (Eng & Ed) FRCS (Urol) FEBU Consultant Urological Surgeon, St Bartholomew’s and the Royal London NHS Trust & Newham University Hospital NHS Trust, London. Penelope Cox MBBS MRCGP DRCOG DCH DFSRH General Practitioner, Edgware, London. Rim El-Rifai MD MRCPI FRCPCH DPMSA Consultant Paediatrician and Neonatologist and Honorary Senior Lecturer in Paediatrics, Queen Mary’s Hospital for Children, Epsom & St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust, Carshalton, Surrey. Paul Erotocritou MBBS MRCS Senior House Offi cer, Urology, Whittington Hospital, London. Petros Erotocritou MD SIM (Athens) General Practitioner, Bramingham Park Medical Centre, Barton Hills, Luton. George Fowlis BSc (Hons) Yale MD FEBU FRCS (Urol) Consultant Urological Surgeon, North Middlesex University Hospital, London. Simon Gill BSc MBBS Senior House Offi cer, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London. Miles Goldstraw BSc (Hons) MRCS Specialist Registrar in Urology, London. Philippe Grange MD AIH ACCA Consultant Urological Surgeon and Head of Section of Laparoscopic Surgery, King’s College Hospital, London. Aravinda Guniyangodage MBBS MRCGP DFSRH DRCOG General Practitioner, Brentwood, and Programme Director, King George Hospital Vocational Training Scheme, Essex. Sandy Gujral MS FEBU FRCS (Urol) Consultant Urological Surgeon, King George Hospital, Barking/Havering/Redbridge NHS Trust. Rizwan Hamid FRCS FRCS (Urol) Senior Fellow in Urology, University College Hospital, London. Mohamed Y. Hammadeh MSc (Urol) FEBU FRCS (Eng., Urol) Consultant Urological Surgeon, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, London. Erdinc Havutcu MD MRCOG General Practitioner, Palmers Green, London. Richard G. Hindley MSc FRCS (Urol) Consultant Urological Surgeon, Basingstoke and North Hampshire NHS Foundation Trust. David Jones MRCP MRCGP DRCOG General Practitioner, Witney, Oxfordshire. Jas Kalsi BSc (Hons) MBBS (Hons) MRCS (Eng) MRCSEd FRCS (Urol) Specialist Registrar in Urology, University College Hospital, London. Vinay Kalsi MBBS MRCS Specialist Registrar in Urology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children, London, and University College Hospital, London. Ketan B. Kansagra BSc MBBS DRCOG General Practitioner, Crawley, Surrey. Rajesh B. C. Kavia BSc (Hons) MBBS (Hons) MRCS Specialist Registrar in Urology, Hillingdon Hospital, London. Azhar Khan MBBS MRCS Specialist Registrar in Urology, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton. Jay Khastgir MBChB MS FRCSEd FRCS (Glas) PGCertEd FRCS (Urol) Consultant Urological Surgeon & Senior Clinical Tutor, Morriston Hospital ABM University Hospitals Trust, Swansea Shailesh Kulkarni MBBS MS MCh (Urol) MRCS FEBU FRCS (Urol) Staff Grade in Urology, King George Hospital, Barking/Havering/Redbridge NHS Trust. Shashi Kumar MBBS DRCOG General Practitioner and GP trainer, Chingford, and Honorary Clinical Lecturer, St Bartholomew’s and the Royal London Medical School. Peter D. Kraus MBBS MRCGP General Practitioner and GP trainer, Kingsbury, London. David M. Love MB BS DRCOG General Practitioner, Hook and Hartney Wintney Surgery, Hampshire. Shekhar Marathe, FRCS MSc (Urol) Clinical Fellow in Urology, West Hertfordshire NHS Trust Ann McDougall MB BCh MRCGP DRCOG General Practitioner, Elstree, Hertfordshire, and Programme Director, Northwick Park Hospital Vocational Training Scheme. Blanca Martin-Retortillo LMS General Practitioner, Whinfi eld Surgery, Darlington. Gordon Mackay, MBChB DRCOG General Practitioner, Crowthorne, Berkshire. Suks Minhas MD FRCS (Urol) Consultant Andrological Surgeon, University College Hospital, London. Aza Mohammed MB ChB MRCS Registrar in Urology, North Tees University Hospital, Stockton on Tees. Asif Muneer BSc (Hons) MD FRCS (Urol) Consultant Andrological Surgeon, University College Hospital, London. Imran Mushtaq MBChB FRCS MD FRCS (Paed) Consultant Paediatric Urological Surgeon, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children, London. Nilay Patel MD MRCS Specialist Registrar in Urology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford. Sima S. Patel MBBS Senior House Offi cer, North Middlesex University Hospital, London. Andrew Robinson MBBS FY2 Doctor in Urology, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton. Miranda Ruston FRCS (Urol) Consultant Urological Surgeon, West Hertfordshire NHS Trust. Pippa Sangster BSc MRCS MSc (Urol) Specialist Registrar in Urology, Chelsea and Westminister Hospital, London. Davendra M. Sharma MBBCh BAO MRCS MSc FRCS (Urol) Specialist Registrar Urology, University College Hospital, London. Iqbal S. Shergill BSc (Hons) MRCS (Eng) FRCS (Urol) Senior Specialist Registrar in Urology, London, and Research Fellow in Molecular Uro-pathology, Prostate Cancer Research Centre, University College London. Navroop Shergill MBBS nMRCGP General Practitioner, North-East London. Nitika Silhi BSc (Hons) MBBS MRCGP Clinical Assistant in Genito-Urinary Medicine, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, and General Practitioner, North-East London. Miles Walkden MRCS FRCR Senior Specialist Registrar, Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, London. Brian Waymont MBChB MD FRCS Consultant Urological Surgeon, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton. Matt Winkler FRCS(Urol) MD Consultant Urological Surgeon, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London. Dawit Worku MD MRCS (Ed) MSc Clinical Fellow General Surgery, North Middlesex University Hospital, London. Ignacio Zamora LMS MD PhD Consultant Urologic Surgeon, North Tees University Hospital, Stockton-on-Tees. Adult urology Erectile dysfunction Jas Kalsi, Gus Cabre, Davendra Sharma and Suks MinhasCase history 1
A 65-year-old man attends his GP surgery with two-year worsening history of erectile dysfunction. Now having relationship problems. In desperation has used the Internet to order Viagra tablets. Has had no benefi t. Also complaining of increasing lethargy and tiredness.
On direct questioning also complains of loss of libido and confi dence.
Normal examination. Morning serum testosterone is found to be low (7 nmol/l). His FSH, LH, prolactin and glucose are within normal limits. PSA 1.2. Started on testosterone replacement patches. Libido improves and erection signifi cantly better. Adds in Viagra again; now successful intercourse. Case history 2
Twenty-nine-year-old male. Never been able to maintain relationship as cannot get a sustained erection. No history of trauma. No long-term partner. Family worried as getting very depressed.
On direct questioning good nocturnal erections and can get success-
ful erections when masturbates. Normal blood tests and examination. Referred to a psychosexual counselor and had eight sessions over four-month period. Improved confi dence and starting new relationship. Essential urology in general practiceCase history 3
Seventy-year-old male. Never been to see the GP before. Recently returned from Thailand after getting married to 25-year-old lady. Has had gradually worsening erections for many years and now cannot get an erection at all.
On direct questioning, no early morning or nocturnal erections any
more. Gradual onset of problem. Complaining of passing urine fre-quently day and night. Normal examination. Fasting glucose 9.2. Fasting cholesterol 7.7; PSA 2.5; BMI 30. Waist circumference raised. Started oral hypoglycaemic agents and lipid lowering agents. Currently using Levitra successfully. Introduction
Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been defi ned as the persistent inability to attain and/or maintain an erection suffi cient for sexual performance.
ED is closely associated with many important physical conditions and may
affect psycho-social health. As such, ED has a signifi cant impact on the qual-ity of life of patients and their partners. Several large epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence and incidence of ED worldwide (see Further reading).
Increased awareness of the disease has resulted in more men seeking treat-
ment from their GPs. Oral, intracavernosal and intraurethral pharmacological agents are now widely available in primary care. As a result, fewer patients require referral to urological surgeons, as surgical intervention has only a small specialised role in the overall management of ED. Risk factors
Penile erection is a complex neurovascular event under hormonal control. The risk factors for ED (sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and the metabolic syndrome) are common to the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, ED itself is a cardiovascular risk factor conferring a risk equivalent to a current moderate level of smoking.
A detailed description of the problem, including the duration of symptoms, should be obtained. Other factors that should be elicited are:
Original precipitating factor(s) Predisposing factors Maintaining factors Any subsequent investigations Treatments, with the response achieved Enquiry regarding rigidity with quality of morning awakening erections,
and spontaneous, masturbatory or partner-related activity erections
Sexual desire, ejaculatory and orgasmic dysfunction Issues around any sexual aversion or sexual pain Previous erectile capacity Partner issues, e.g. menopause or vaginal pain Concurrent medical, psychiatric and surgical history Current relationship status and history of previous sexual partners and rela-
Alcohol, smoking and illicit drug misuse
In the history, sudden onset of ED, presence of early morning erections
and erections during masturbation/with a different partner (if has one) point to a psychological rather than organic cause of ED. The use of validated ques-tionnaires, particularly the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is advised to assess the baseline function as well as the impact of treatments and interventions. Examination
All patients should have a focused physical examination. A genital examina-tion is recommended, especially if there is a history of rapid onset of pain, deviation of the penis during tumescence (suggesting Peyronie’s disease), the symptoms of hypogonadism or other urological symptoms. A digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate is recommended in the presence of genito-urinary or ejaculatory symptoms. Blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumfer-ence and weight should be measured in all patients.
Stewards Pooi Kei College Secondary 3 Chemistry Teaching Schedule (2012-2013) Subject Teachers: Ms Dora Ng (Panel Head), Mr Daniel Lau(S3 Coordinator) No. of Periods/10-day Cycle: 4 Classifying elements into metals, non-metals and metalloids Naming ions and ionic compounds Colour of ions f. Limiting reagents and reactant in excess Stewards Pooi Kei College Secondary 4 C
What agenda for the history of the moder istoria de la Psicología, vol. 28, núm. 2/3, 2007 321-330 What agenda for the history of the modern neurosciences? Abstract No one will doubt that the neurosciences have become one of the largest, best funded and most active areas of all research. This has occurred since 1945. Some people refer to ‘neuroscience’, in the singular, but t