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Chapter-20

VOLUNTARY SECTOR

Introduction

Voluntarism is an integral part of Indian society and dates back to ancient times when it operated in the fields of education, medicine, cultural promotion, and in crises such as droughts and famines. Modern indigenous forms of voluntary organisations began to appear in the colonial period. According to the World Development Report (World Bank, 1993),"Non Government Organisations (NGOs) are voluntary organizations (VOs) that work with, and very often, on behalf of others. Their work and activities are focused on issues and people beyond their own staff and membership. NGOs often have close links with people's organisations, channelising technical advice or financial support as intermediate service organisations. But organizationally NGOs can be quite different from people's organisations, often having bureaucratic characteristics or accountability of most people's groups.” The World Bank defines NGOs as "Private organisations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development." In wider usage, the term NGO can be applied to any non-profit organisation, which is independent from government. NGOs are typically value-based organisations, which depend, in whole or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary service. Although the NGO sector has become increasingly professional over the last two decades, principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics. (World Bank, 1999) In yet another document, the World Bank offers many other characteristics of NGOs (World Bank, 1990). Some of them are: (a) A non-profit making, voluntary, service/development oriented organisation, either for the benefit of members (a grassroots People's organisations, peasant movements, women organisations, tribal associations, women's clubs, federation of workers, women's cooperatives are local peoples' organisations, and are not being referred to as NGOs here, or in this dissertation organisation) or for other members of the population (an agency). (b) It is an organisation of private individuals who believe in certain basic social principles and who structure their activities to bring about development to communities that they are servicing. (c) An organisation or group of people working independent of any external control with specific objectives and aims to fulfill tasks that are oriented to bring about desirable change in a given community or area or situation. (d) A democratic, non-sectarian people's organisation working for the empowerment of economically and/or socially marginalized groups. (e) An organisation not affiliated to political parties, generally engaged in working for aid, development and welfare of the community. (f) Organisation committed to the root causes of the problems trying to better the quality of life especially for the poor, the oppressed, the marginalized in urban and rural areas. (g) Organisations established by and for the community without or with little intervention from the government; they are not only a charity organisation, but also work on socio-economic-cultural activities. (h) An organisation that is flexible and democratic in its constitution and attempts to serve the people without profit for itself. NGOs have some advantages over governmental agencies, which make them particularly suited to perform developmental tasks. Since the nature and qualities of individual NGOs vary greatly, it is extremely difficult to make generalizations about the sector as a whole. Despite this diversity, some specific strength is generally associated with the NGO sector. NGOs are seen as a necessary accompaniment to one of the many shifts in development thinking, with the focus on alternative developments. As a process of development from below, NGOs have a natural concern for the civil society, which the state had undermined in its approach to development. As a part of civil society, the NGOs offer several advantages, since they have the ability to experiment freely with innovative approaches and, if necessary, take risks. Moreover, they are flexible in adapting to local situations and responding to local needs and therefore able to develop an integrated as well as sectoral project. NGOs due to the nature of their work and the underlying principles, enjoy good rapport with people and can render micro-assistance to every poor people, as they can identify those who
are most in need and tailor assistance to their needs. It is quite imperative for an NGO to have the
ability to communicate at all levels, from the neighborhood to the top levels of government, to be
successful in its activities.

NGOs can be broadly classified as:
a) Service providing NGOs:
b) Empowerment NGOs; and
c) Support NGOs

a) Service Providing NGOs

These are welfare oriented or service providing NGOs. They are inspired by the motto of 'helping others', and largely provide services for the poor and the marginalized communities. Much of these services have been in the area of health through clinics, hospitals, health provisions, Schools, colleges, training programmes, non-formal education, literacy, drinking water and sanitation, agriculture and irrigation, reforestation etc. The sector of development may vary but these organisations essentially provide a service needed by the members of a community. They provide this service with great sacrifice, high efficiency, and low expense, and
with commitment and dedication. These services are flexible, responsive to the needs of the
community, and tend to fulfill an important gap that exists in meeting the basic minimum needs
of the community.

b) Empowerment NGOs

These are development-oriented NGOs, and directly work on the issues related to mobilisation and empowerment of people, or work through interventions requiring awareness
building and advocacy in certain development sectors. They have contributed towards the
development of many innovative approaches to strengthen the socio-economic status of the poor
and the deprived. Their approach to planning, intervention in socio-economic programming, etc.
has been innovative, flexible and impactful. Many of these NGOs start with a development
intervention and then build strategies for organising and empowerment of the people. Some
others start by bringing people together on issues of common concern empowering them through
a process of reflection and struggle and then build on development interventions and initiatives
for their regeneration and sustenance.

c) Support NGOs

These are the newly emerging categories of NGOs that provide a variety of support functions to other grass root level NGOs, mostly of the types mentioned above. The support functions vary depending on the nature of the organisations being supported. Support organisations provide inputs that would strengthen the capacities of NGOs to function more effectively and with greater impact. They are therefore involved in training, evaluation, programme planning, etc. Many large NGOs have their own support units within the ambit of their organisations. Smaller grass root level NGOs are often supported by separate support organisations. Such organisations contribute towards the strengthening of the work of grass root NGOs by extending different kinds of support which is otherwise not available to them. This could be an educational support and sometimes even be a financial support. Support organisations that undertake information sharing and dissemination role regularly collect and distribute information about the successes and failures, the opportunities
and threats, programmes and schemes, legislations and policies related to the work of other
NGOs and development within the country or a given region.
Role of VOs/NGOs

In Karnataka initiatives have been taken to enunciate people’s participation and involvement of NGOs in implementing several schemes of the Central and State Governments. There are more than 500 NGOs in the State. The societies, organizations, associations, trusts or companies registered under relevant Acts are considered as Voluntary Organisations/NGOs. Informal groups like self-help groups formed under Stree Shakti porgamme, Swarna Jayanthi Swarojgar Yojana, Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rojgar Yojana are also included under voluntary sector. Continuous efforts are being made and encouragement provided to create awareness among the public through the NGOs/VOs in rural and backward areas and urban slums in implementation of various programmes. Voluntary Organizations have been involved to organize skill development training and awareness in the fields of women and child development, social welfare, health, education, watershed development programme etc. The role of Voluntary Sector in development has been considered vital due to their vast experience and knowledge with regard to local needs, problems and resources. The commitment
on the part of the VOs/NGOs has been considered more effective since they are not bound by
rigid bureaucratic system of rules and regulations. The voluntary sector is observed to operate
with greater flexibility and base its activities on the felt needs of the community. There is a
growing importance for NGOs with the increased budget allocation for poverty alleviation
programmes. These organizations undertake research and studies on Social Sectors such as
Health, Education, Social Welfare, Water Supply and Sanitation and other various government
programmes and policies.

Health and Family Welfare

National Rural Health Mission - (2005-2012)

Recognizing the importance of Health in the process of economic and social development and improving the quality of life of our citizens, the Government of India has launched the National Rural Health Mission to carry out necessary architectural correction in the basic health care delivery system. The Mission adopts a synergistic approach by relating health to determinants of good health viz. segments of nutrition, sanitation, hygiene and safe drinking water. It also aims at mainstreaming the Indian Systems of Medicine to facilitate health care. The Plan of Action includes increasing public expenditure on health, reducing regional imbalance in health infrastructure, pooling resources, integration of organizational structures, optimization of health manpower, decentralization and district management of health programmes, community participation and ownership of assets, induction of management and financial personnel into district health system, and operational zing community health centers into functional hospitals meeting Indian Public Health Standards in each Block of the Country. The Goal of the Mission is to improve the availability of and access to quality health care by people, especially for those residing in rural areas, the poor, women and children. The National Rural Health Mission (2005-12) seeks to provide effective healthcare to rural population throughout the country. It aims to undertake architectural correction of the health system to enable it to effectively handle increased allocations as promised under the National Common Minimum Programme and promote policies that strengthen public health management and service delivery. It has as its key components provision of a female health activist in each village; a village health plan prepared through a local team headed by the Health & Sanitation Committee of the Panchayat; strengthening of the rural hospital for effective curative care and made measurable and accountable to the community through Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) and integration of vertical Health & Family Welfare Programmes and Funds for optimal utilization of funds and infrastructure and strengthening delivery of primary healthcare. It seeks to revitalize local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH into the public health system. It aims at effective integration of health concerns with determinants of health like sanitation & hygiene, nutrition, and safe drinking water through a District Plan for Health. It seeks decentralization of programmes for district management of health. It seeks to address the inter-district disparities, especially among districts including unmet needs for public health infrastructure. It shall define time-bound goals and report publicly on their progress. It seeks to improve access of rural people, especially poor women and children, to equitable, affordable, accountable and effective primary healthcare. Objective

Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Ratio Universal access to public health services such as Women’s health, child health, water, sanitation & hygiene, immunization and Nutrition. Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases Access to integrated comprehensive primary healthcare. Population stabilization, gender and demographic balance. Revitalize local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH. Promotion of healthy life styles.
Role of VOs/NGOs

National Rural Health Mission is implemented across the country from 2005 integrating Reproductive and Child Health (RCH), Immunization, Inter-sectoral Convergence, Disease Control Programme etc. Under this mission, focus has been on the involvement of voluntary sector in service delivery. NGOs are participating in RCH activities like maternal health, family welfare activities, promotion of institutional deliveries, ante and postnatal care, organizing health awareness camps etc. NGOs are also involved in Reproductive Track Infection (RTI)/Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) control programmes through Karnataka State Aids Prevention Society. RCH activities in remote and underserved areas are being carried out through 82 NGOs in 17 districts. Several NGOs like Karuna Trust, JSS Medical College, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences in medical college, JN medical college, Belgaum have taken up the responsibility of running PHCs in remote locations. Totally 52 PHCs are run by NGOs in the state. Similarly, some hospitals are also run on Private-public participation. Provision has been made to outsource the services of specialists in government health facilities. Institutional delivery of BPL women is also incentivised in accredited private nursing homes. Voluntary Organizations are also actively involved in capacity building of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and Village Health and Sanitation Committees. NGO are being supported financially and technically to reach and intervene with these vulnerable populations. Voluntary organizations are involved in the National Leprosy Eradication Programme, blindness control programme. Monitoring and Evaluation of the Mission

Health MIS to be developed uptown CHC level, and web-enabled for citizen Sub-centres to report on performance to Panchayats, Hospitals to Rogi Kalyan Samitis and District Health Mission to ZilaParishat/zillapanchayat The District Health Mission to monitor compliance to Citizen’s Charter at CHC Annual District Reports on People’s Health (to be prepared by Government/NGO External evaluation/social audit through professional bodies/NGOs Mid Course Public Private Partner schemes implemented in the Department of Health and Family
Welfare
Thayi Bhagya

Under this scheme, recognized private hospitals will get an amount of Rs.3 lakh for every deliveries including surgery conducted in their institution as incentive. However, the services
provided are free to patients. The scheme is implemented to decrease the infant mortality rate
and maternal mortality rate. During 2012-13 Rs. 11,200 lakh has been provided of which
Rs. 8400 lakh has been spent up to January 2013 benefitting 31,929 women.
Citizen help desk
In order to make hospitals user-friendly address patients problems citizen help desk have been established in 20 district hospitals, which render 24 hours services. The services area
arranged under public private partnership.
Arogya Bandhu

Under public private partnership, management of primary health centers has been out sourced to medical colleges, NGOs and trusts. Entire expenditure towards salary is being
reimbursed.
Vajapayee Arogya Sree

This is a health insurance scheme is implemented to give free tertiary health services to the BPL families in Gulbarga and Belgaum divisions. The beneficiary can avail benefit of
treatment up to a limit of Rs. 1.50 to Rs. 2.00 lakh on family floater basis. During 2012-13
Rs.60.00 crore has been allocated and an expenditure of Rs. 51.31 crore has been incurred up to
January 2013 covering 9670 beneficiaries.

In sourcing specialist under NRHM and KHSDP

To combat the crisis of human resources in health sector specialists in private sector is being in-sourced on contract, retainer ship/case basis at predetermined rate of remuneration/honorarium. Mobile medical units

To reach underserved people staying in remote difficult geographical area 95 mobile health units have been fictionalized under NRHM project and under Karnataka Health System
Development and Reforms Project.
Suvarna Arogya Chaitanya

School children having major medical problems, needing surgery, appliances are identified and provided free surgical and appliances by tying up with empanelled hospitals under
Yashaswini scheme.
(Rs. in lakh)
Schemes implemented
by CSO (VO/NGO)
Allocation
provided
HIV infection and AIDS

Karnataka State AIDS Prevention Society (KSAPS) is an autonomous institution and a
highest policy-making structure regarding HIV/AIDS in Karnataka. KSAPS is implementing National AIDS Control Program phase III. The overall goal of National AIDS Control Program Phase-III (2007-2012) is to halt and reverse the epidemic in India over the five year period. Under NACP Phase III, the Civil Society Organisations are supporting the following Targeted Interventions

The targeted interventions for prevention of HIV for high risk groups are being implemented through NGO/ CBOs. There are 130 TI projects in Karnataka. This approach has been successful in reaching out to highly vulnerable and hard to reach group for providing HIV preventive services. The core group TIs are for Female Sex Worker (FSW), Males who have sex with Male (MSM) and Injecting Drug Users (IDU). Approximately 80,000 FSW, 25,000 MSM/TG and 1,500 IDU are receiving TI services in Karnataka every month. One Opioid Substitution Therapy Center for Injecting Drug Users in Bangalore The Bridge groups covered by TI program are long distance truck drivers and migrants. 60000 Truckers and 1,90,000 migrants receive program services in a year.

Services provided under Targeted Interventions

Behavior Change Communication (BCC) for safe sex practices Condom provision – free male condoms distribution by Peer Educators Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Provision of clean needles and syringes for IDUs Creating an enabling environment with community involvement and participation Linkages to HIV and Syphilis testing bi annually. Linkages to care, support and treatment services if found HIV positive.
Link Worker Scheme

To reach out High Risk Groups and vulnerable men and women in the rural areas with information, knowledge, skills on STI/HIV prevention and risk reduction National AIDS Control Program has launched Link Worker Scheme. The Link Worker in the program ensures availability of condom and provides condoms to rural HRGs and other vulnerable men and women. This program also helps in establishing referral and follow-up linkages for various services including treatment for Sexually Transmitted infections, testing and treatment for Tuberculosis, HIV testing services, HIV care and support services including Anti Retroviral treatment. The program is being implemented by NGOs in Karnataka. The fund for this program is supported by NACO in 8 districts and Karnataka State Government in 10 districts.

Community Care Centers -“SPRUHA”

Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT) is implementing the Community Care Centers (CCC) program in the states of Karnataka and Maharashtra as a sub-recipient to NACO under the GFATM Round VI. This project has been named as “SPRUHA”, a Sanskrit word which means “a strong will or desire” which reflects the commitment of the project to improve the quality of life of our friends living with HIV. This program is implemented by NGO/ Faith Based Organisations. There are 27 CCCs in Karnataka. This program is expected to run till 31st March 2013
CCC provides

Treatment of minor opportunities infection of HIV positive patients PLHIV can receive counseling on a wide range of issues including nutrition, positive Psychosocial support (either directly or through linkages) could be extended to PLHIV for education, nutrition, legal aid, children and destitute care, vocational trainings, de-addiction services etc.

Network of HIV people (CBOs) implementing Drop in Center (DIC) programme

The care of HIV infected people is the most challenging aspect in HIV/AIDS prevention. DIC provides support; advocacy to PLHA .Networking among positive people is
creating an enabling environment to provide care to other PLHA. DIC provide emotional and
social support to PLHA. The Community Based Organizations (CBO) are committed for
developing the positive attitude in the community towards individuals and families living with
HIV/AIDS. Currently Karnataka State AIDS Prevention Society is supporting 30 Drop-in –
Centers one in each district.

Education

Akshara Dasoha

Food should be provided to every hungry child as it is announced in the Memorandum of understanding of child right by United Nations Organization. Akshara Dasoha is a prestigious
scheme with the commitment of providing an opportunity for children to grow healthy, strong
and sturdy. The main motto of this programme is to free all Government and Government Aided
school children from hunger and thereby increasing their learning abilities and achievements.
MDM is an important and essential flagship programme of the central and state governments.
Objectives of the Programme

To increase the admissions and attendance of the school children.
To avoid children from leaving the school in the middle of the academic year.
To improve the health of the school children by increasing their nutrition level.
To improve the learning level of children.
To develop social equality and inculcate national integration among children.
Number of schools covered under Mid-day meals during 2012-13
Government
Enrolment, Attendance and Beneficiaries. during the year 2011-12
(in lakh)
Enrollment
Attendance
Beneficiaries
Details of food grains and conversion cost given to primary and high schools students.

(Per child/per day)

Food grains
Quantity
Quantity
Quantity
* The State is providing rice at APL cost # The Centre is giving rice free of cost Details of Central and State Government Grants-Unit cost.
Transportation Cost
The cooking cost has been raised to 7.5% with effect from July 2012 during 2012-13 academic year.

Scheduled Menu chart


It is instructed to prepare and give the below food menu to students
Menu chart
children from January 26th, 2013 onwards once in a week in the menu.
Details of Nutrition

Every primary school child gets 490 calories of nutrition and 8-10 gms of protein per day. Each high school child gets 720 calories and 12-16 gms of protein by Mid-day Meals every day.

Details of Tablets


The nutrient tablets are distributed to the students of 1-7th standards studying in
Quantities
Distributed Month
3per week up to 36 October and weeks-108 tablets During 2012-13, the necessary quantity indent of Vitamin-A, Albendazol and IFA nutrient tablets had been submitted to the Karnataka State Drug Logistics and Warehousing
Society, Bangalore, and they have not supplied the same.

NGOs

In all 100 NGOs are feeding 10.88 lakh children of 5888 primary and high schools studying in government as well as government aided schools under Midday Meals Scheme throughout the State. Prominent among them are as below: Districts where
these NGOs
Names of the NGOs
are feeding
Beneficiaries
Out of 64.20 lakh children the NGOs are supplying food to 10.88 lakh. The coverage of the programme by the civil societies has been predominant in urban/city areas. The food provided by NGOs are of good quality which includes dhal, vegetables etc. To avoid monotony among student’s special items like sweets, rice bath has been included in the menu and would be supplied once in week. Besides, curds/vegetable raita is also provided to children twice in a week. Financial progress under Akshara Dasoha
(Rs. in lakh)
Released Grants
Expenditure
Budget details of programme implementation during 2012-13
(In lakh)
Annual Budget
Cooking cost expenditure 1st to 5th standard Cooking cost expenditure 6th to 8th standard 1 to 8th standard total
58186.08 15918.26 74104.34
Cooking cost expenditure for 9th to 10th standard children Rs 5.73 per day for 233 days (Including cooking cost, rice purchase and transportation expenditure) 9th to 10th standard total
19967.11 19967.11
1st to 10th standard total
58186.08 35885.37 94071.45
Sanction has been accorded for provision of mid day meals for 234 days during 2012-13. School Bio intensive Gardens


To increase the nutrition level of children, the State Government has sanctioned
Rs.3500/- per school to grow school garden in 19375 schools. Action has been taken to provide
vegetable seeds and saplings to schools with the cooperation of Horticultural Department. In that
drumstick, papaya, green leaves and vegetables are grown and instructed to utilize for
preparation of Midday Meals.
Wall display boards

A wall writing in each school displays the information regarding the food, calories, proteins provided to children and the expenditure, beneficiaries, statistics, cleanliness rules,
safety and the additional nutrition etc. for public information as well as transparency.
Cooking staff details

Totally permission has been granted by the central government to appoint 1.14.653 cooking staff and at present 1,08,209 cooks are working and remaining cooks may be provided to schools where NGOs are serving food. Rs.1100 remuneration paid to head cooks and Rs.1000 is paid to the assistant cooks under MDM The central government has fixed Rs. 1000 as honorarium for assistant cooks since 01.12.2009. It has been paid on the basis of 75:25 central and state shares respectively. Rs.100 is
given by the state government as an additional amount.

Fire extinguishers

Fire extinguishers have been installed in all the government as well as aided and unaided
schools to avoid fire mishaps as per the judgment of Hon’ble Supreme court. As a safety
measure 98% of the schools have installed fire extinguishers.

Suvarna Arogya Chaitanya Programme

In the year 2012-13 Medical Check-up for school children was organized in collaboration with the Health Department. As per information from the Health Department in the month
August 2012, 88% progress has been achieved and the rest will be covered by the end of
December 2012.

IMPACT AND VALUE ADDITION

1. The MDM programme has helped to increase enrolment, attendance and also 2. Drop-outs rates have come down considerably. 3. Students are healthier than before. 4. Periodical medical check-ups and treatments to the needy have helped to improve 5. Their learning capabilities have shown the higher graphs. 6. School children are actively participating in all the activities both inside and 7. Majority of school students prefer MDM food than homely food. 8. The supplement of additional nutrition tablets I&FA, Albendozol and Vitamin A have resulted in the reduction of anemia among children. 9. Social integration has been developed in interdining in schools. 10. Children like food and eat in schools.
WOMEN AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT

Under Women and Child Development sector, major schemes implemented involving
NGOs are as under:
Santhwana Scheme for care and maintenance of destitute and orphan children (destitute cottages) Creches for children of working mothers Hostel for girls Child Line Services Fit Institutions De-Addiction Centers Swadhar Integrated Street Children Programme Ujwala Training of Anganwadi Workers / Helpers Adoption. Scheme of Assistance for the Construction/Expansion of Hostel buildings for
1. Santhwana

Women who are victims of various atrocities such as dowry, rape, sexual harassment, domestic violence etc are subjected to physical and mental torture besides having to face social
& financial problems. With a view to console these women and rehabilitate them, the scheme of
“Santhwana” was launched during the year 2000-01.
Objective

• The scheme aims at providing legal assistance, financial relief, temporary shelter, • Helps them to be self reliant by providing training in order to empower these women to lead a life like other women in the society. Besides shelter and counseling, the victims are also provided with assistance for pursuing education and vocational training for self-sustenance. In extreme cases of atrocities involving the death of the victim, financial relief in the form of deposit is given to her kin, which can be encased by her/ him on attaining majority. The scheme is being implemented through NGOs in all the district head quarters and taluks. In total 172 Santhwana Centres are functioning in the State. Sanctions for Santhwana Centres are given preferably based on Dr. Nanjundappa’s Report. During 2012-13, an allocation of Rs.700.00 lakh has been made for the scheme. Rs.328.45 lakh has been spent up to the end of November 2012. 2. Scheme for care and maintenance of destitute and orphan children (Destitute cottages):

The care and maintenance of orphan children, children of single parents and children
from below poverty line families.
Objectives

To rehabilitate destitute children as normal citizens in the society Prevent further destitution by providing food, clothing & shelter etc. Utilize existing institution run by NGOs with Government Institutions. Financial assistance is provided for a unit of 25 children each & accommodation will be provided on the basis of a cottage system. The services of a house mother for supervision and a cook has been provided for each cottage. Non recurring grant is admissible for construction of cottage, furniture, equipments and utensils. At present 335 destitute cottages are functioning in the State. An amount of Rs. 519.74 lakh is allocated, out of which an amount of Rs. 34.85 lakh expenditure is incurred up to the end of November 2012. 3. Creches for the Children of Working Mothers

The scheme provides Crèches for children of working women in rural areas who are engaged in agriculture and other occupations. There are 316 crèches functioning. Objectives

To provide day care services for children of working mothers between the age group of 0-3 years for a better and safe environment and to ensure a healthy growth and there by lower the mortality rate. Services provided are health care, supplementary nutrition, sleeping facilities, An amount of Rs.78.83 lakh is allocated, out of which an amount of Rs.4.00 lakh expenditure is incurred up to the end of November 2012. 4. Hostel for Girls
The girls from rural, most backward areas drop out of school at a very early age in view of the non availability of suitable and safe accommodation in hobli headquarters or even taluk headquarters to pursue their education. Objectives

To enable girls from rural areas to avail facilities for higher education. To reduce school dropouts. At present 44 girls’ hostels are functioning in the state (23 pre metric hostels and 21 Post metric hostels). Rs.305.00 lakh has been allocated, of which Rs. 154.01 lakh has been spent up to November-2012. 5. Child line
CHILDLINE is a national 24 hour emergency free phone outreach service for children in need of care and protection. It also links children in need of care and protection to long term service for rehabilitation. The Child Line India Foundation (CIF) is a voluntary organization established by the Government of India in 1999 as the nodal agency for the Childline service to initiate and monitor the performance of Childline service in cities and districts and to conduct training/sensitization, research and advocacy at the national level on child protection issues. The State has signed an MOU with Government of India for implementation of ICPS has on 22-03-2010.Under the ICPS CIF shall be given the status of a “Mother NGO” for running Chidline Service in the country. The Ministry of Women and Child Development shall provide a bulk grant to CIF every year in two installments of 50% each, which shall be released to the partner NGOs of Childline network. State Government does not provide any funds for childline services from 2011-12 onwards. At present Child line services are operational in 11 districts i.e Bangalore, Mangalore, Gulbarga, Mysore, Bidar, Dharwad, Davanegere, Shimoga, Bellary, & Raichur, Mandya. During 2011-12 ringing is started in Kolar District During 2011-12, 8 districts viz Bagalkote. Belgaum, Bijapur, Chamarajnagar, Hassan, Kodagu, Koppal and Tumkur, have been selected for implementation of childline services. During 2012-13 phone call services is started in all districts. 6. Fit Institutions
Under Juvenile Justice Act for providing care and protection to deserted, orphaned Objectives

Providing care and protection to orphaned and deserted infants and children after NGOs who are recognized as fit under Juvenile Justice Act 2000 and Amendment Act 2006 can opt for financial assistance under the scheme. These institutions receive grants at the rate of Rs. 750 per child per month towards maintenance. At present there are 43 such institutions are working but only 11 institutions are covered under GIA. Rs. 56.41 lakh is released to 11 Fit Institution as 1st installment. 7. Scheme for prevention of alcoholism and substance (drugs) abuse

Grants are provided by the Government of India to run de-addiction centres wherein counseling, treatment and rehabilitation facilities are provided. Objectives

To create awareness and educate the people about the ill effects of alcoholism and To provide for community-based services for the identification, motivation, counseling, de-addiction, after care and rehabilitation of addicts. 90% grants are sanctioned by the Government of India and 10% grants are borne by the organization. Government of India has sanctioned 31 Integrated Rehabilitation Centres for
Addicts are functioning in the State. Rs.270.00 lakh is allocated for the year 2012-13.

8. Swadhar: A scheme for women in difficult circumstances

This is a Central sector scheme for providing holistic and integrated services to women in difficult circumstances such as destitute widows, women prisoners released from jail and without family support, women survivors of natural disasters; trafficked women/ girls rescued from brothels or other places or victims of sexual crime, mentally challenged women who are without any support, etc. Objectives

To provide shelter, food, clothing and care to marginalized women/ girls living in To rehabilitate them socially and economically through education, awareness, skill up gradation and personality development. The scheme also supports a helpline for women in distress, counseling centre, The scheme is implemented through voluntary organizations including Department of Women and Child Development and Social Welfare Boards, State Women Development Corporation, Urban bodies, etc., provided they have the required experience and expertise in the rehabilitation of such women. 34 Swadhar Centres are functioning in the State. 9. Open Shelter for care and protection of Children in Urban and Semi Urban Areas

The programme will endeavor to provide non-institutional support necessary for the wholesome development of street children (beggars, street and working children, rag pickers, orphaned, deserted, trafficked children) and particularly those without homes and family ties and children especially vulnerable to abuse and exploitation such as children of sex workers and children of payment dwellers. Objectives

Provision of shelter, nutrition, health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe drinking water, education and recreational facilities and protection against abuse and exploitation to destitute and neglected street children. Enrollment in schools, vocational training, placement, health services, reducing drug & substance abuse / HIV – AIDS in street children. For street children without homes and family ties, NGOS are supported to run 24 hours shelter. 90% of the cost of the project will provided by the Government of India and remaining shall be borne by the Organization / Institution concerned. At present there are 23 Open Shelters functioning in 8 districts through 14 NGOs. An amount of Rs. 155.43 lakh is released for 23 open shelters towards first installment. 10. Ujwala

Ministry of Women & Child Development has formulated Ujwala – a new Comprehensive scheme primarily to prevent trafficking on the one hand and rescue and
rehabilitation of victims on the other.
Objectives

Prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation of victims of trafficking and The implementing NGO can apply for one or more components. At present 35 organizations are implementing the scheme. Component of the scheme include networking with
law enforcement agencies, rescue operation, temporary shelter for victims, repatriation to home-
town and free legal services etc.

11. Training of Anganwadi Workers / Helpers

Under Integrated Child Development Services, the training of functionaries like Supervisors, Anganwadi Workers / Helpers is taken up by the State Government with Central /
State funding.


Objectives

Job training / refresher training / orientation training of ICDS Functionaries like Supervisors, Anganwadi Worker / Helpers. GOI funds 90% of the training programme and 10% borne by the State It is proposed to bring a social change in society by empowering ICDS functionaries with sufficient knowledge about health, nutrition and childhood education. The State sanctions training centers based on the actual needs. NGOs with sufficient infrastructure facilities for 50 trainees and those working in the field of Women and Children welfare can apply to open an MLTC / AWTC. Funds are released by the Department of Women and Child Development for non-recurring and recurring expenditure. There are 21 AWTCs and 1 MLTC in the State. Rs. 600.00 lakh is allocated, out of which an expenditure of Rs. 281.43 lakh is incurred up to November-2012.

12. Adoption
(Shishu Gruha Scheme now called as Specialized Adoption Agency (Govt))

The State has signed an MOU with Government of India for implementation of ICPS on 22-03-2010.As per Juvenile Justice (care & protection of children) Act 2000 & Amendment Act 2006, the state Government has to recognize registered voluntary organization/fit institution or children’s homes as Specialized adoption agencies for placement of children in adoption as per CARA guidelines. Shishu gruha scheme is merged with ICPS and now shishu gruhas are called as Specialized Adoption Agency (Govt) and the NGO run agencies are called as Specialized Adoption Agency (NGO). The scheme aims to promote in-country adoption and to prevent illegal adoption of children. It provides institutional care and protection to 0-6 year child who are abandoned/orphaned/destitute. The Centre provides grants for running Specialized Adoption Agency (Govt & NGO). There are five Govt run Specialized Adoption Agencies (6 units). 30 Non Governmental
Organization are recognized by state Government as Specialized Adoption Agency (NGO) & 16
NGOs have been given grants.

13. Scheme of Assistance for the Construction/Expansion of Hostel building for working
women

The entre provides financial assistance to the extent of 75% of the estimated cost for the construction/expansion of the hostel for working women run by registered voluntary organisations working for the welfare of women and the state Government provides 12.5% of the estimated cost and the organisation has to bear the remaining 12.5% of the total construction
costs.
Objectives

To provide inexpensive and safe hostel accommodation to working women living To provide accommodation to women, who are being trained for employment, provided the training period does not exceed one year. So far, 76 Working Women's Hostels have been sanctioned, of which 66 hostels are functioning. During the year 2012-13 an amount of Rs.15.60 lakh was allocated for State share,
out of which no expenditure has been incurred up to the end of November 2012, as the Central
Government share is not released.

Welfare of Backward Classes

Presently, 240 pre-matric and 18 post-matric hostels are being managed by the NGOs. In all, 12,898 and 654 inmates have boarding accommodation and other facilities. NGOs are being provided with a grant of Rs.500/- per month for the inmates of pre-metric and post-metric hostels respectively for 10 months. From 2007-08 to 2009-10 an allocation of Rs. 1738.63 lakh has been provided out of which an amount of Rs.1505.95 lakh has been spent. During 2010-11 and 2011-12 an amount of Rs. 711.54 lakh and Rs. 674.14 lakh were spent. For 2012-13, Rs 674.14 Lakh is provided as grant –in-aid to private hostel hostels run by the NGOs. Under the Scheme of development of various communities Rs. 5 lakh is being provided towards the grant for construction of hostel buildings by NGOs. During 2012-13 up to the end of
November 2012 Rs 2819.32 lakh has been released for constriction of community halls. NGOs
are also being assisted by the Centre in the capacity building activities of the backward classes.

Welfare of Minorities

Construction of Shaadimahal/Community Halls for Minorities

To encourage and promote cultural activates of the religious minorities financial assistance for the construction of Shaadimahal/Community halls is being provided. A maximum
of Rs.50.00 lakh is provided for such facilities at the district headquarters and Rs. 20.00 lakh for
the taluk places. During 2011-12, Rs.1970.00 lakh have been provided of which Rs. 1645.00
lakh has been spent by 155 minority organizations. During 2012-13, Rs.1500.00 lakh is provided
to 82 Organizations.
Students Hostels Run By Minority Institution

Minority students studying in secondary and high schools are provided with hostel facilities through minority organizations. Financial Assistance is provided to check dropouts and pursue their studies. At present 60 minorities Pre-Matric aided hostels are functioning in the State benefiting 3350 Students. Each student is paid at Rs.600 per month for 10 months towards food charges. During 2011-12 an allocation of Rs.72.00 lakh has been provided, of which 70.50 lakh is spent to benefit 1250 inmates. For 2012-13 an allocation of Rs.77.35 lakh is allocated out of which 55.00 lakh is granted benefiting 1400 inmates. Orphanages for Minorities

40 Orphanages are run by the minority self-help organizations are being provided with financial assistance benefitting 3569 orphans and poor children. In these orphanages Students
studying in 1st to 10th standard are being admitted and a financial assistance of Rs.500 per month
per student is provided for food charges. During 2011-12, Rs. 73.50 lakh was spent benefiting
2580 orphans. For 2012-13 Rs.78.50 lakh is provided and of this Rs. 50.20 lakh is spent to
benefit 2350 orphans.
Welfare of Scheduled Castes

Voluntary organizations are maintaining pre matric and post matric hostels for Scheduled Caste students with a view to encourage their education. The state is providing financial assistance to maintain these hostels by providing food charges to the inmates. 195 grant-in-aid pre matric hostels are being run by voluntary organizations for the sanctioned strength of 10,206 students. The State is providing financial assistance of Rs.500/- per student per month for the maintenance of food charges as per norms. The management committee will provide other facilities. 40 Grant-in-aid post matric hostels are also being run by voluntary organization for the sanctioned strength of 2824 students. The State is providing financial assistance of Rs.600/- per student per month for the maintenance of food charges as per norms. The management committee will provide other facilities. Initially the NGOs/VOs will have to run the hostel satisfactorily for a period of two years from out of their own fund and shall have the prior permission to start the hostels. Lodging and boarding facilities are provided free of cost to all students in the hostels and no fee or donation is collected either directly or indirectly from the students. Accommodation of a minimum area of 30 sq. ft is provided for each boarder. Besides, provision for kitchen, dining hall, store room, bathroom, lavatory, library, minimum medical facilities, indoor and outdoor games etc. will have to be made. The hostels shall have adequate staff. While 75% of the seats shall be reserved for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes and the remaining 25% be filled from among other backward classes. The hostel has to be situated outside the radius of 5 K.M. from where government or aided hostel already exists. Details of allocation of funds and expenditure during 2011-12 & 2012-13 (upto Organizations (NGO/Voluntary Organization) Funds provided to the organizations during 2011-12 Number of voluntary organization/Non- Government
Rural Development

Rural Development is being pursued through the state administration, local governments and initiative from NGOs.
Suvarna Gramodaya

Suvarna Gramodaya is an initiative of the State for developing vibrant village communities by adopting an intensive and integrated approach to rural development. To
commemorate the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the formation of the State, this programme has
been launched with a focus to develop 1,000 villages every year by the concerted efforts of the
Government, Non Governmental Organizations, private sector partners and the village
communities.
Objectives of the scheme

(a) Upgrade the physical environment of the selected villages for improving the (b) Fully develop the income generating potential of land based activities. (c) Provide full and adequate infrastructure for human resources development including education, health services, childcare facilities etc. (d) Generate significant levels of non agricultural employment, especially for (e) Support community awareness and development through self-help groups, Selection of Villages

The population covered in each taluk was determined based on the rural population in that taluk in relation to total rural population of the entire State and funds are allotted at the rate of Rs. 2,500 to 3,000 per capita. In general, the villages comprising of population above 2,500 but below 8,000 are selected within the limit of the population fixed in the taluk keeping in view of the rural constituency population. In the hilly and western ghat area the population limit is relaxed. Particulars of grants

Around Rs. 1.00 crore developmental activities are planned under Suvarna Gramodaya Yojane for the medium size villages comprising in an average 700 to 750 family.
Status of implementation of the project

First Phase

Allocation Rs. 1000.60 crore Expenditure Rs. 910.09 crore Roads/ drainage & Anganwadi & Samudaya Bhavana works completed (No.of Villages) : Roads length completed Second Phase (Gulbarga Revenue division)
No. of villages selected
Roads/ drainage & Anganwadi & Samudaya Bhavana works completed (No.of Villages) : Roads length completed Third Phase (2009-10)
No. of villages selected
Allocation Rs. 1012.05 crore Expenditure Rs. 701.56 crore Roads/ drainage & Anganwadi & Samudaya Bhavana works completed (No.of Villages) : Roads length completed Fourth Phase (Gulbarga division – 2010-11)
Expenditure Rs. 167.47crore Roads/ drainage & Anganwadi & Samudaya Bhavana works completed (No.of Villages) : Roads length completed Fifth Phase ( 2012-13)
No. of villages selected
Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana

The objective of the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) is to bring the assisted poor families (Swarozgaries) above the Poverty Line by ensuring appreciable sustained level of income over a period of time. This objective is to be achieved by inter alia organising the rural poor into Self Help Group (SHG) through the process of social mobilization, their training and capacity building and provision of income generating assets. The SHG approach helps the poor to build their self-confidence through community action. Interactions in group meetings and collective decision-making enable them in identification and prioritization of their needs and resources. This process would ultimately lead to the strengthening and socio-economic empowerment of the rural poor as well as to improve their collective bargaining power. SGSY focuses on organization of the poor at grassroot level through a process of social mobilization for poverty eradication. SGSYs approach to organize the poor stems from the
conviction that there is a tremendous potential within the poor to help themselves and that the
potential can be harnessed by organizing them. Social mobilization enables the poor build their
own organizations (Self Help Group) in which they participate fully and directly and take
decisions on all issues concerning poverty eradication
Role of NGOs

A facilitator working closely with the communities at grassroots level can play a critical role in the group formation and development. NGOs can not only work as facilitators but also
help in training and capacity building of facilitators being used by ZPs. ZPs may support such
sensitive support mechanisms in the shape of NGOs or Community Based Organisations (CBOs)
or Network of Community coordinators / Animators or a team of dedicated functionaries of the
Government who are fully engaged in the task of initiating and sustaining the group development
process The Community coordinators / Animators could be from the community or may be from
outside the area. They could be leaders / members of SHGs, or persons having experience or
training in the field of community organisation and social mobilisation. The NGOs have also an
important role to play. They can be used in the formation and nurturing of the SHGs as well as
in the monitoring of the progress of the Swarozgaris.

Nirmal Bharath Abhiyan

Government of India had launched Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in the year 1986 with the objective of accelerating sanitation coverage in rural areas. Nirmal Bharath Abhiyan, the then Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was launched in 2005 advocating a shift from high subsidy to a low subsidy regime, greater household involvement, demand responsiveness, and providing for the promotion of a range of toilet options to promote increased affordability. It also gives strong emphasis on Information, Education and Communication (IEC) and social marketing for demand generation for sanitation facilities, to set up a delivery system through Rural Sanitary Marts (RSMs) and Production Centers (PC) and a thrust on school sanitation. TSC is implemented in a campaign mode-taking district as a unit so that 100 percent saturation in terms of households, Anganwadi and school toilets can be attained which would result in significant health benefits. Role of NGOs in implementation

NGOs have an important role in the implementation of TSC in the rural areas. They are involved in IEC activities. Their services are utilized not only for bringing about awareness
among the rural people for the need of rural sanitation but also ensuring that they actually make
use of the sanitary latrines. NGOs may also open and operate Production Centres and Rural
Sanitary Marts.

Non-Profit Institutions in Karnataka

The State, being the eighth largest one in terms of geographical area (1.92 lakh sq.kms) is the home to 5.28 crore people (2001 census) accounting for 5.1 per cent of the population of the country. Based on physio-geographic features, the State is divided in to four regions viz., coastal region, malnad (hilly) region, northern plateau and southern plateau. Different Statutes under which NPIs are registered

The NPIs are being registered under various statues. The Karnataka Societies
Registration Act 1960 is one such Act which envisage the registration of societies for - (a) promotion of charity; (b) promotion of education, science, literature, or the fine arts; (c) promotion of sports; (d) instruction and diffusion of knowledge relating to commerce or industry or (e) diffusion of political education; (f) foundation or maintenance of libraries or reading rooms for general use among the members or open to the public or of public museums and galleries of painting and other works of art; (g) promotion of conservation and proper use of natural resources and scarce Infrastructural facilities like land, power, water, forest and such other resources and infrastructural facilities, as may be notified from time to time. (h) collection of natural history, mechanical and philosophical inventions, The NPIs intend to apply their profits, if any, or other income in promoting their objects and prohibit the payment of dividend or distribution of any income or profits among their
members.

Department of Stamps and Registration was the enforcing authority with regard to
Karnataka Societies Registration Act 1960 in the state till 1st June 2008 and has since been
transferred to the Department of Co-operation.


Objectives

The main objective of the first phase survey is to know the scale and number of institutions known variously as “non-profit”, “voluntary” and “non-government’ organizations,
engaged in various activities to provide social and other services in more flexible, cost-effective
ways. The economic statistics of these institutions are quite limited. The first phase survey of
NPIs, viz, the preparation of list frame of institutions will be useful in knowing the social and
financial information in the second phase survey of NIPs. This information will be used to
compile the accounts of NPIs, as per the framework provided in the System of National
Accounts, 1993.
First Phase of the Survey on Non Profit Institutions

Information collected during the first phase of the survey is in the format prescribed by the National Accounts Division of the Central Statistical Office. The information is collected on year of registration, name and address of the non-profit institutions, act under which NPI is registered, activity/purpose, etc. The summary of the findings of the first phase of the survey is as follow: 1. 1.92 lakh societies’ basic data has been computerized. Out of which 1.03 lakh (53.6%) were found to be established in urban areas and the rest 0.90 lakh (46.9%) in rural areas 2. As per the year of registration, 5,466 (3%) were registered prior to 1970, 10972 (5%) were registered during 1971 to 1980. 28,468 (15%) were registered during 1981 to 1990, 49,605 (26%) were registered during 1991 to 2000 and 57,547 (30%) were registered after 2001. However, 40,429 (21%) societies does not have the information on the year of registration
Second Phase Survey of Non Profit Institutions

In the second phase of the survey existence of the societies listed in the first phase were verified in respect of 10 districts under census mode and under sample survey mode in the remaining districts. Existed societies were canvassed on two parameters, viz., employment and finances of each NPI. Three forms were designed for this purpose by CSO. Form 2.0.I: Identification details of existed NPIs Form 2.0.D: If the audited Accounts of NPIs is available Form 2.0.K: If un-audited accounts or no accounts available for NPIs (Oral enquiry). In the second phase of the survey 20,268 societies were found to be in existence. The information on employment, fixed and financial assets were collected and transmitted electronically to the CSO for detailed analysis.

Source: http://planning.kar.nic.in/sites/planning.kar.nic.in/files/AnnualPlan2013-14/vol-I/Chapter-20.pdf

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