Sito in Italia dove è possibile acquistare la consegna acquisto Viagra a buon mercato e di alta qualità in ogni parte del mondo.
Staffing Global Marketing
Positions: What We Don’t
Know Can Make A Difference
Milorad M. Novicevic
As the global environment for business becomes more volatile and the need to institute frame-breakingchanges in the conventional wisdom of management increases, global organizational ignorance aboutthe usability of its existing knowledge becomes a critical issue. Ignorance in its most simple form is thelack of factual knowledge but unawareness of ignorance is “not knowing what one does not know” (i.e.,being ignorant of what information would be useful in solving global organizational problems). Thefocus of the paper is on the underlying factors that contribute to escalating organizational ignoranceas more firms attempt to globalize their operations. In the paper we examine two types of organizationalignorance: pluralistic and probabilistic which both can be experienced in a global context. In addition,a means to reduce the risk of global organizational ignorance through an innovative global staffingprocess of combining expatriate and inpatriate managers is explored.
he Walt Disney Company has a
goods, and a host of special projects.
“Magic Kingdom.” This is based on its
parks, resort hotels, full–length feature
ceived park design, location of the parkwas too distant from population centers,pricing too high, inadequate training/
Michael Harvey, Puterbaugh Chair in American
Free Enterprise, Michael F. Price College of Busi-ness, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
“only” atmosphere of the park offended
73019, USA. Tel: ϩ1-405-325-3376; Fax: ϩ1-
405-325-7688 Ͻmharvey@ou.eduϾ. Milorad M.
Novicevic, Assistant Professor International Busi-
ness, University of Wisconsin—La Crosse, LaCrosse, WI, USA.
America), and the list goes on and on. Is
“unlearn” the previously acquired do-
(McGill & Slocum, 1993). This type ofknowledge restructuring is discontinu-
loss of operational certainty is going to
the like) are going to account for 7/8’s
management’s competencies obsolete.
served as the reliable platform for orga-
rance may reveal the areas of rigidity in
acquire insight from the organization’s
ciency” in qualified global managers ca-
Morrison, & Black, 1998). In effect, the
portunity for its managers to reflectively
cure global organizational ignorance.
zil, documents global ignorance in partdue to its lack of understanding whatproducts were appropriate for the localBrazilian market (no demand for cord-
footballs), differences in operating sys-
with standardized pallets used in Brazil)
sonal investiture in the “certainties” of
ganization’s stakeholders in a way that
complexities and to identify feasible al-
rationale for undertaking a global strat-
where there is an inordinately high level
tion’s business activities. This paper ex-
norance as it may arise in the process of
in their highly successful organizations.
quences of this ignorance on the vagaries
global business environment. This insight
fications of the organizational ignorance,
ers in two distinct forms: 1) pluralistic
fore, their pluralistic ignorance prevents
ignorance; and 2) probabilistic ignorance.
ralistic ignorance could be observed atMerck & Co., a world leader in the
a social phenomenon that reflects a “sit-
false social world” (Fields & Schuman,
beliefs” (O’Gorman, 1986:335) that are
Merck’s U.S. patents expire on five big
family of psychological states (i.e., such
billion in sales on a global basis. Scala
salient (Lafane & Darley, 1970; Korte,
holders’ pluralistic ignorance spell by
that Merck’s product line of new drugs,
accurately reflect the others’ individual
markets for the organization’s opportu-
ated approval for Lipitor, a drug parallel
er’s judgment). Availability heuristic is
event-related cues. Their resulting igno-
judgment, inflated by their use of avail-
stakeholders’ loss of confidence in the
availability of the growth logic of thedomestic marketplace, which is not ap-plicable to the global market place.
reliability of their initial “guesses” and,
therefore, bias their subsequent “guess-
es” to be consistent with their initial
“guesses.” Anchoring explains the man-
the perceived similarity of that event to
information is relevant for correct inter-
pretation of data that are available. In an
ucts. Motorola suffered from probabi-listic ignorance and misjudged the rate
into the digital mobile phone segment.
generation wireless technology wave.
FOCUSING THE MANAGERIAL ISSUES
Type of Information Error
Type I Error
Type II Error
Type III Error
Type IV Error
Probablistic managers argue that managers not rejecting
managers expecting to managers conducting a
Ignorance the global market is input from subsidiary
not attractive due to management that local
marketing efforts to reaching their goals
tic strategies to the potentially dramaticenvironmental differences facing orga-nizations in the global context. The
role that decisional or interpretative er-
rors play in the creation of global orga-
sented (see Table 1). Table 1 illustrates
“know” that Mexico is south of the U.S.
tions to the marketing and product strat-
egies, over 75% of the potential sales in
global market is defined as the degree to
this situation, the ignorance of the man-
global context are ill defined. Therefore,
“local” competitors are selling products
of contextual insight into the regulatory
solving the global business dilemma.
onstrate how operational ignorance oc-curs when decision-makers do not rec-ognize
REDUCING GLOBAL ORGANIZATIONAL
IGNORANCE: A STAFFING SOLUTION
tional ignorance necessitates identifying
Interactive Decision Matrix: Country/Pool of Candidates
tionally developed, the cultural distance
(i.e., the ability to understand and pre-
dict “others” general patterns of behav-
to provide direction to facilitate organi-
needs to be interpreted, the global orga-
zational global learning. By locating the
has undertaken the first strategic step in
tie to the overall global objectives of the
pool of candidates. Finally, the specific
of greater than $8,356 (World, 1995).
issues surrounding the organizationneeds to be explored. The factors that
could directly influence the “nature” of
eas and by export product categories.
tive relative to other countries in a re-
gion and their exports to the rest of the
cation of business infrastructure can bederived. The greater the economic dis-tance between the home and host coun-
LEVEL OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
try, the more difficult it will be for non-
EQUIVOCALITY OF SUBSIDIARY
BETWEEN HOST AND HOME COUNTRIES
within the global organization’s network
increases. During international and multi-
ling resources centrally was preferred to
to maximizing usefulness (Caves, 1996).
ers should be provided the opportunity to
global entities based upon local condition
“acceptable” performance for each net-
work unit. The greater the equivocality in
host countries, the less difficulty expa-
triates have in adjusting to the host cul-
turally astute managers is accentuatedin culturally distant countries. There-
fore, the inpatriate manager is projected
internal context of a global organization:
1) the degree of understanding of the op-
portunities facing the unit in its local en-
believes that they can be successful in a
manager in culturally “tough” environ-
market and the resulting competitive pos-
present state of affairs; 3) better under-
stand the locals’ frame-of-reference rel-
helps to insure the most effective utili-
zation of resources in a local context.
with corporate goals and strategies. So-cial knowledge accentuates the ratio-nale for building a multicultural man-
SOCIAL KNOWLEDGE OF CANDIDATE
can be developed (Tolbert, 1988; Sohn,1994). Social knowledge focuses on the
predict host country nationals’ behavior
priate to use expatriate staffing. As the
THE VALUE OF RECOGNIZING GLOBAL
sources and efficiently develop local as-
distant environments is in the use of the
that are globalizing. The transition from
as the majority of future growth andvolume of business will come from
zational ignorance will be at its highest,
earn the international credentials and do
ing global organizational ignorance.
Dadfer, H. & Gustavsson, P. (1992). Competi-
diversity. International Studies of Man-
agement and Organization, 22
Drucker, P. (1998). The next information revo-
lution. Forbes ASAP
, 24: 47–58.
Fields, J. & Schuman, H. (1976). Public beliefs
about beliefs of the public. Public Opin-
: 427– 448.
Fulmer, R., Gibbs, P., & Keys, J. B. (1998).
Second generation learning organizations:
vantage. Organizational Dynamics
Gannon, M. (1994). Understanding global cul-
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publica-
ignorance liabilities. The practical goal
Gregersen, H., Morrison, A., & Black, J. S.
(1998). Developing leaders for the global
ignorance liabilities are salient and in-
frontier. Sloan Management Review, 40
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences:
International differences in work-related
. Newberry Park, CA: Sage.
Korte, C. (1972). Pluralistic ignorance about
student radicalism. Sociometry, 35
: 576 –587.
Lafane, B. & Darley, J. (1970). The unrespon-
sive bystander: Why doesn’t he help?
Allport, F. (1924). Social psychology.
McGill, M. & Slocum, J. (1993). Unlearning the
organization. Organizational Dynamics
Arnold, D. & Quelch, J. (1998). New strategies
in emerging markets. Sloan Management
MOW International Research Team. (1986).
The meaning of working: An international
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of
London: Academic Press.
thought and action: A social-cognitive
Nemetz, P. & Christensen, S. (1996). The chal-
. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
lenges of cultural diversity: Harnessing a
diversity of views to understand multicul-
Bandura, A. (1988). Reflections on nonability
turalism. Academy of Management Re-
berg & J. Kolligian (Eds.), Competence
O’Gorman, H. (1986). Discovery of pluralistic
considered: perceptions of competence
ignorance. Journal of History of the Be-
and incompetence across the life-span;
havioral Sciences, 22
Prentice, D. & Miller, D. (1993). Pluralistic
Caves, R. (1996). Multicultural enterprise and
cial norm. Journal of Personality and So-
the Japanese FDI Behavior. Journal of
cial Psychology, 64
International Business Studies, 25
Prentice, D. & Miller, D. (1996). Pluralistic
norms by unwitting actors. In M. P. Zanna
role of expatriate managers in the multi-
(Ed.) Advances in Experimental Social
national corporation. Advances in Inter-
(pp. 161–209). Burlington,
national Comparative Management, 9
Rostow, W. (1971). The stages of economic
Tolbert, P. (1988). Institutional sources of or-
. New York: Cambridge Uni-
ganizational culture in major law firms. In
L. Zucker (Ed.), Institutional patterns and
Shamir, J. & Shamir, M. (1997). Pluralistic ig-
78 –94, Cambridge, MA:
norance across issues and over time. Pub-
lic Opinion Quarterly, 61
Trompenaars, F. (1993). Riding the waves of
Smithson, M. (1993). Ignorance and science:
Dilemmas, perspectives, and prospects.
London: The Economist
Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utiliza-
World Population Perspectives. The 1994 Revi-
Sohn, J. (1994). Social knowledge as a control
Informativo Nº: 0487 Período: 7 a 18 de novembro 2011. As notas aqui divulgadas foram colhidas nas sessões de julgamento e elaboradas pela Secretaria de Jurisprudência, não consistindo em repositórios oficiais da jurisprudência deste Tribunal. Primeira Seção REPETITIVO. EFICÁCIA EXECUTIVA. SENTENÇA. OBRIGAÇÃO. PAGAMENTO. QUANTIA CERTA. Trata-se de recurso julgado
Men’s body contouring after massive weight loss What is it? Massive weight loss is generally described as being in the order of more than 50 kilograms. Such dramatic weight reduction is usually as a result of modern weight loss surgery, such as the insertion of lap bands. However, some people have managed weight reductions of this size on their own. Unfortunately, in obese people, the s