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Microsoft word - we-183 _marco_ .doc
(+)Catherine A. Marco, MD, FACEP
Professor, Director of Medical Ethics
Curriculum, University of Toledo College
If It's Dry, Wet It; If It's Wet,
Dry It: A Commonsense Guide
to Dermatologic Therapy
Pharmacologic management of dermatologic conditions isn’t
really that simple. This presentation well review classes of
dermatologic pharmacology, including not only emollients,
drying agents, and steroids, but also other treatments such as
antibiotics, antifungal agents, antivirals, chemotherapeutic
agents, immunomodulators, and other treatments for
common cutaneous conditions. Learn what to use and what
complications might develop.
• Review standard treatment regimens for common skin
• Discuss recent advances in treatment of common
• List common pharmaceutical agents used in therapy of
• Identify patients in need of referral to a dermatologist.
WE-183 Wednesday, October 29, 2008 10:00 AM - 10:50 AM McCormick Place - Lakeside Building (+)No significant financial relationships to disclose
“If It’s Dry, Wet It: If It’s Wet, Dry It;
Otherwise, Use Steroids”…?
A Commonsense Guide to
Catherine A. Marco, MD, FACEP
Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Emergency Medicine
University of Toledo College of Medicine
Review standard treatment regimens for common skin conditions.
Discuss recent advances in treatment of common cutaneous conditions.
List common pharmaceutical agents used in therapy of cutaneous conditions.
Identify patients in need of dermatologic referral or consultation.
Skin diseases constitute a significant fraction of health care economics in the United
States. Cutaneous complaints result in approximately 10% of outpatient medical visits
and $36 billion in health care annually, including $20 billion in ambulatory care costs and
$3 billion in prescription costs, and $2 billion in indirect costs (lost work days, etc.).
Rapidly advancing diagnostic and therapeutic technologies result in novel dermatologic
agents, and novel uses of traditional agents.
Is there truth to the old adage: “ If It’s Dry, Wet It; If It’s Wet, Dry It; Otherwise, Use
Steroids” ??? Indeed, there is some truth to the ancient advice that selection of vehicle
and formulation are important, and that steroids are frequently therapeutic for
inflammatory skin conditions. In addition to a review of vehicles, formulations, and
steroids, this lecture will address other commonly prescribed systemic and topical
medications used to treat dermatologic disorders.
There is an overwhelming amount of literature on the subject of skin therapies (66,411
published articles in the past 10 years!). This presentation will highlight a select group
of therapies for dermatologic complaints seen in emergency medicine. Continuing
medical education about new therapies represents an essential component of the effective
delivery of quality medical care. Dermatologic consultation should be sought when
appropriate. Pharmaceutical references should be used to assist in prescribing
appropriate dosages and routes of administration.
OVERVIEW: CATEGORIES OF DERMATOLOGIC THERAPEUTIC AGENTS
Systemic Topical Mucosal
II. VEHICLES FOR TOPICAL DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS
A 35 year old man with longstanding psoriasis presents with an exacerbation of symptoms. He requests
“that new foam – it’s better than the cream, isn’t it?”
mineral oil, baby oil (Eucerin, Aquaphor,
“moisturizers” (primarily water, fragrances)
Retard water loss, occlude the treatment molecules, increase skin
Ointments, creams and gels: emulsions of oil in water
Increase even distribution and absorption
Create oil-in-water preparations (creams, lotions)
maintain appropriate water content for oil-in-water preparations; increase
Emulsion stabilizers and viscosity builders
Increase potency by increasing absorption
Preservatives and chemical stabilizers
Alcohols, parabens, propylene glycol, etc.
CHOICE OF PREPARATION:
To treat dry conditions (eczema, psoriasis, etc.):
Emollients (ointment > cream > lotion)
To treat moist conditions (contact dermatitis, infections, etc.)
Gels or solutions or powders, Burrow’s emulsion
Emollients or solvents; apply under occlusion
To aid in application (scalp, hirsute areas, difficult to reach areas):
Patient preference and compliance linked more closely to outcomes than
Generic drugs must meet FDA specifications as equivalent and are usually less expensive. However,
vehicle variations are permissible and may affect clinical efficacy. IV.
HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH?
1 FTU (fingertip unit) dispenses 0.5 grams (will cover 2 closed hand areas)
Trunk, single application (either front or back): 3 g
Entire body, single application: 20-30 g
to cover one arm, bid for 1 week: 42 grams
to cover entire body, bid for 1 week: 400-800 grams
V. STEROIDS: TOPICAL AND SYSTEMIC
A 25 yo female presents with chronic complaints of dry, itchy skin on her inner elbows and backs of her
knees. The rash is worse with stress. Diagnosis: ECZEMA
Mechanisms of action of topical corticosteroids:
reduction of capillary wall permeability
Adverse effects: (incidence increased in pediatrics)
HPA suppression from systemic absorption (med, high potency)
Newer agents: Adequate anti-inflammatory effects with reduced adverse
preparations for face, eyelids, axillae, groin
No data to support use more frequently than qd
Use occlusive therapy for inflamed, thickened skin
* This table contains selected topical steroids and is not exhaustive. # newer agents with lower atrophy and other adverse effects $ affordable agents (<$30 /30 g, generic)
reduction of capillary wall permeability
endocrine: suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
striae, acne, rosacea, telangestasia, lanugo
hyperlipidemia, inhibition of wound healing
Relative: infection, pregnancy, DM, HTN, PUD, psychosis, renal
Use once-daily therapy if appropriate, AM dose to reduce cortisol
Treat for 1-3 weeks for most dermatologic conditions to prevent rebound
An 18 year old male football player presents with redness and swelling of left forearm.
Diagnosis: METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA)
Invasive: Bacteremia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis,
Systemic Antibacterial agents commonly used to treat skin infections
Linezolid (IV, po, effective against MRSA)
Topical antibacterial agents
Sodium sulfacetamide (Novacet, Sulfacet-R, etc.)
Polymixin B (active against gram negative organisms, inc.
Gentamicin (active against gram negative, Pseudomonas, strep,
Combination agents (synergistic mechanism of action)
Active against gram positive, gram negative, anaerobes,
May cause skin discoloration (not used on face)
A 21 year old woman presents with recurrent episodes of “cold sores” on lip, exacerbated during times of
stress or illness.
Diagnosis: Herpes simplex labialis
Systemic antiviral agents
HZV: 500 mg po tid (superior to acyclovir for reducing PHN and pain)
HZV: 1 g po tid (superior to acyclovir for reducing PHN and pain)
Topical antiviral agents
Acyclovir 5% (Zovirax) (Rx for initial herpes genitalis, herpes labialis)
Vidarabine 3% ophth ointment (Vira – A) (Rx for herpes keratitis)
trifluridine 1% ophth solution (Viroptic) (Rx for herpes keratitis)
ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS: Systemic and topical agents
: bind to fungal wall membrane, loss of membrane integrity
(sporanox): po or iv; does not cross blood-brain
disturbances, hallucinations, rash, hepatic
adverse effect profile (N/V, rash, hepatic
(inhibit cell wall synthesis)
(Lamisil) : po or topical
Effective against dermatophytes, esp. onychomycosis
4 week treatment regimen for tinea capitis
Griseofulvin: oral only
dermatophytes (e.g. Tinea capitis) (not yeast)
Table: Summary of Systemic Antifungal Drug Therapy
Infection Treatment Dose
Table: Summary of Topical Antifungal Drug Therapy
Yeasts Clotrimazole Econazole Miconazole
pediculocide and scabicide; resistance developing in some areas
Apply to entire body neck and below 8-14 hours, rinse
Considered treatment of choice for pediculosis capitis
0.3% gel, 0.3% lotion, .33% mousse or shampoo
Indicated for scabies failing topical therapy, strongyloidiasis,
veterinary preparation only available in US
45-70% cure rate; some resistance developing
Petrolatum, physostigmine ophthalmic ointment
Effective for eyelashes pediculosis infestation
OTHER THERAPEUTIC AGENTS
H1 antihistamines (indicated for acute urticaria, seasonal rhinitis, allergic
diphenhydramine (po, cream, gel, lotion, spray)
Drug of choice: dermatographism, cholinergic urticaria
H2 antihistamines (indicated for peptic ulcer disease, or in combination
AND IMMUNOMODULATORY DRUGS
A 19 year old man presents with severe facial acne.
increased turnover of follicular epithelium, interference of P. acnes
SPF: Dose of UVR required to produce one MED (minimal
mg/cm2, divided by the UVR required to produce one MED on
UVA blockers (meradimate, parsol 1789, etc.)
20-90 minutes, should be worn year-round.
Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA): lidocaine, prilocaine
Lidocaine HCl (cream, gel, ointment, jelly, patch, solution, jelly)
VIII. COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES
Estimated over 600 million alternative medicine visits annually (exceeds
50% of the population uses some form of alternative medicine
Many patients do not share this information with physicians
Often used after failure of conventional therapies or seeking fewer side
Efficacy: largely based on case reports and case series;
Herbal Therapy: reports exist of success in treating:
Adverse effects: hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, respiratory distress,
Aloe Vera: reports exist of success in treating:
Capsaicin: reports exist of success in treating:
Biofeedback (useful to diseases with ANS component) :
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (useful in diseases with behavioral components) :
Hypnotherapy: reports exist of success in treating:
Homeopathy (high dilutions of drugs that induce symptoms): reports exist of success in treating:
CASE STUDIES IN DERMATOLOGIC THERAPEUTICS
“ITCHY AND SCRATCHY”
A 25-year-old woman presents with itchy rash, after running through a field.
Dermatologic or primary care follow-up within 48 hours
A 35-year-old man presents with rash on his torso and arms.
Dermatologic or primary care follow-up within 48 hours
A 45-year-old woman presents with target lesions on arms after taking sulfa antibiotics.
“THE BIG TOP”
A 12-year-old boy presents with patchy hair loss, scalp inflammation and broken hairs.
Dermatologic or primary care follow-up within 2 weeks
“CHEAPER BY THE DOZEN”
A 21-year-old man presents with longstanding intermittent rash on back, arms, and legs.
Clinical Features: chronic condition with sharply demarcated erythematous plaques
with silvery scales on extensor surfaces
Systemic therapies: steroids, retinoids, methotrexate
“GROWING LIKE A WEED”
A 72-year-old man presents with scaling and irritation of his forehead and scalp.
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Omnibionta® Pronatal Metafolin® QU’EST CE qu’Omnibionta® Pronatal? Omnibionta ® Pronatal contient des quantités spécifiques et adaptées de vitamines et de minéraux qui sont recommandés dès le désir de grossesse. Une dose journalière d’Omnibionta® Pronatal se compose de: • 1 comprimé composé d’acide folique, de Metafolin ® et d’autres vitamines et minérau
NOTAS TÉCNICAS El programa globos + bases ha sido estudiado para permitir iluminar, rayos ultravioletas, se conserva mejor contra el envejecimiento. con una luz controlada o difusa, tanto los espacios al aire libre como CARACTERíSTICAS TÉCNICAS ambientes internos. Los globos se realizan empleando las tecnologías Globos: De policarbonato irrompible y autoextinguible V2,