METHAMPHETAMINE and AMPHETAMINE
Methamphetamine and amphetamine belong to a group of structurally related
drugs called sympathomimetic amines (SMAs) that are central nervous system stimulants. Amphetamine was first introduced in 1930 and has been legally prescribed to treat nasal congestion, narcolepsy, obesity and depression. Methamphetamine metabolizes to amphetamine and both are eliminated in the urine.
Legally Obtained with prescription as:
Desoxyephedrine, Desoxyn, Methedrine,. (Selegiline, Benzphetamine and Famprofazone metabolize to methamphetamine)
Legally Obtained without prescription as:
Vicks Inhaler Street Names:
Methamphetamine: Meth, Crank, Crystal, Glass, Ice, Speed
Amphetamine: Black Beauties, Bennies, Crosses, Hearts, Uppers Mode of Use:
Can be taken orally, snorted, smoked or injected Appearance:
Methamphetamine: White (or slightly yellow) powder or crystals, waxy rock
Amphetamine: most commonly pills Detection in Urine:
When methamphetamine is used it is metabolized to amphetamine and
both are eliminated in the urine. Typically, the detection time following the last dose is 1-5 days. The longer detection time is for high doses and high urine pH (low urine pH results in a shorter detection time and can be caused by drinking cranberry juice).
Increased metabolism, heart rate, energy, nervousness, alertness and
Meth has a long list of potentially disastrous side effects including
paranoia, hallucinations and repetitive behavior patterns, heart attacks and strokes. High dosages and long-term use can bring on full-blown psychosis with violent aggressive behavior and can lead to symptoms that resemble schizophrenia.
Methamphetamine is metabolized to amphetamine and both are excreted in the
urine. Amphetamine is NOT metabolized to methamphetamine.
* The federal guidelines require that the amphetamine level be greater than 200 ng/mL before any level of
methamphetamine can be reported as positive.
Performed by Immunoassay. The immunoassay is sensitive to drug groups, as
opposed to specific drugs. False positive results can occur due to the presence of other SMAs, most commonly ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, but there are other culprits (see the table below).
Performed by LC/MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry).
This test is very specific. A positive result indicates the use of a drug containing methamphetamine, amphetamine or a drug that is metabolized to them.
Methamphetamine is present in two different forms; “d
” and “l
is predominantly d
-Methamphetamine. The over-the-counter medication, Vick’s Inhaler
(and the Walgreen equivalent), contains exclusively the “l
” form of methamphetamine (the listed active ingredient is l
-Desoxyephedrine, another name for l
-Methamphetamine). Although it is uncommon, the heavy use of Vick’s Inhaler
can cause a positive urine test for methamphetamine. The claim that Vick’s Inhaler
is the source of a positive methamphetamine test can be checked by testing for “d
” versus “l
” methamphetamine. This test is performed by GC/MS.
False Positive Results:
The following is a list of prescription and over-the-counter drugs that
can cause false positives for methamphetamine on an immunoassay screen test (the list is
not comprehensive and the following drugs are found in a large variety of medications).
These drugs will NOT
test positive for methamphetamine or amphetamine by LC/MS/MS.
Mahuang Tea (or tea made from plants belonging to the ephedra family)
Methamphetamine is now widely used in all parts of the country. Some
methamphetamine users can go without sleep for 3 to 15 days. With a four-day high costing about $25, Meth has become a cheap, longer-lasting alternative to cocaine. Meth also suppresses the appetite, making it popular with young women trying to lose weight.
Biochemical Society Transactions (2003) Volume 31, part 2 Transgenic mouse models for studies of the role of polyamines in normal, hypertrophic and neoplastic growth A.E. Pegg*1, D.J. Feith*, L.Y.Y. Fong†, C.S. Coleman*, T.G. O’Brien‡ and L.M. Shantz* *Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Domperidone for Improving Breastmilk Production What is domperidone? Domperidone (Motilium) is a peripheral dopamine antagonist general y used for control ing nausea and vomiting, dyspepsia (upset stomach), diabetic gastroparesis (poor stomach emptying which occurs in diabetics) and gastric reflux (heartburn). It blocks peripheral dopamine receptors in the intestinal wal and in the naus