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Anatomy of an epidemic: summary of findings
Anatomy of an Epidemic: Summary of Findings. By Robert Whitaker, firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Disability Numbers Due to Mental Illness Are Soaring.
Our society understands that the arrival of Thorazine into asylum medicine in 1955 kicked off a
“psychopharmacological revolution,” leading to much better long-term outcomes for people with psychiatric
disorders. Yet, the disability rate due to mental illness, as measured by adults under governmental care, has
risen from one in every 468 Americans in 1955 to one in 76 today.
The rise in the number of disabled mentally ill has been especially pronounced since 1987, the year that Prozac,
the first of the “second-generation” psychiatric drugs, arrived on the market. The number of adults on SSI or
SSDI due to mental illness has risen from 1.25 million in 1987 to more than 4 million today. The number of
children and youth on SSI due to a serious mental illness has skyrocketed from 16,200 in 1987 to more than
600,000 today. 2. Affective Disorders Run a Much More Chronic Course Today than in the Pre-Drug Era.
The rise in disability numbers is being driven by a sharp increase in the number of people disabled by affective
disorders (depression and bipolar illness.) In the pre-drug era, the affective disorders were seen as episodic
illnesses, with fairly good long-term outcomes. As George Winokur, a leading expert at Washington University,
explained in a 1969 text: “Assurances can be given to a patient and to his family that subsequent episodes of
illness after a first mania or even a first depression will not tend toward a more chronic course.” However,
affective disorders today run a chronic course, and functional outcomes (employment rates, etc.) are much
worse than they were 50 years ago.
For instance, in the pre-drug era, roughly 50% of people hospitalized for first episode of manic-depressive
illness were asymptomatic in long follow up studies, and only 15% to 20% became chronically ill. Various
long-term studies found that 75% to 90% worked, and people so diagnosed did not show signs of long-term
cognitive decline. Today, bipolar patients suffer many more acute episodes of illness and are much more likely
to be rapid cyclers; they often suffer low-grade depressive symptoms in the interludes between acute episodes;
only about 33% to 40% are regularly employed; and they show long-term cognitive impairment.
Here is how the NIMH’s Carlos Zarate has summed up this deterioration in modern outcomes: “In the era prior
to pharmacotherapy, poor outcome in mania was considered a relatively rare occurrence. However, modern
outcome studies have found that a majority of bipolar patients evidence high rates of functional impairment.” 3. It Is a Myth that All People With Schizophrenia Need to be On Antipsychotic Medication All Their
In the decade prior to the introduction of Thorazine, 65% or so first-episode schizophrenia patients admitted to
state mental hospitals would be discharged within 18 months, and at the end of five years, 70% to 75% would
be living independently in the community. (Employment rates for the men were above 50%.)
This good employment rate continued into the early 1960s. An NIMH study of first-episode patients treated
either with an antipsychotic or a placebo upon initial hospitalization found that one year later 58% were
employed (or functioning well as “housewives.”) Furthermore, it was the patients treated in the hospital with
placebo who were the least likely to be rehospitalized at the end of one year.
Since then, numerous studies have found that there is a subgroup of first-episode schizophrenia patients who
can recover and fare well without the use of antipsychotic medications, and that it is this unmedicated subgroup
that has the best long-term outcomes. Most recently, in an NIMH-funded study conducted by Martin Harrow at
the University of Illinois College of Medicine, 40% of the schizophrenia patients off medication were recovered
at the end of 15 years, versus 5% of those on medication. “I conclude that patients with schizophrenia not on
antipsychotic medication for a long period of time have significantly better global functioning than those on
antipsychotics,” Harrow reported at the 2008 meeting of the American Psychiatric Association.
In western Lapland in Finland, the psychiatric community has been using antipsychotics in a selective manner
since 1992, and today that region has the best outcomes in the Western World. At the end of five years, 80% of
first-episode psychotic patients in western Lapland are either working or back in school, and here is their
medication use: only 33% have been exposed to antipsychotics, and only 20% are regularly maintained on the
drugs. 4. Use of Illicit Drugs and Antidepressants is Fueling the Bipolar Boom
Fifty years ago, bipolar illness was a rare disorder, affecting perhaps one in 3,000 adults. Today, one in every 40
Americans is said to suffer from the disorder. While this increase is being driven in part by an expansion of
diagnostic boundaries, it is also being fueled by the widespread use of illicit drugs, and by the use of psychiatric
drugs (stimulants and antidepressants.)
In studies of first-episode bipolar patients, roughly one-third suffered their first bout of mania or “mood
instability” after they had abused illicit drugs (amphetamines, cocaine, marijuana and hallucinogens are
In patients diagnosed with unipolar depression, treatment with antidepressants more than triples the risk that
they will convert to bipolar illness, such that 20% to 40% of long-term users of antidepressants today end up
with bipolar diagnosis. In a survey of members of the Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association, 60% of
those with a bipolar diagnosis reported that they had turned bipolar after exposure to an antidepressant. 5. The Medicating of Children and Youth for Mental Disorders Is Not Helping Them Thrive Over the
In long-term ADHD studies, the medicated youth have not fared better than the unmedicated group. For
instance, in a long-term study conducted by the NIMH (known as the Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study,)
medication use at the end of the third year “was a significant marker not of beneficial outcome, but of
deterioration.” Furthermore, children treated with stimulants are exposed to significant long-term risks; 10% to
25% convert to bipolar illness, which puts them onto a lifelong path of chronic mental illness.
Twelve of 15 pediatric studies of SSRI antidepressants failed to show even a short-term benefit for the
medicated group over placebo. Antidepressants can cause a host of psychiatric and physical side effects in
youth; most problematic is that 25% of youth treated with antidepressants convert to bipolar illness within four
Prior to the 1980s, which is when the prescribing of stimulants to youth became common, bipolar illness was
virtually unknown in prepubertal children. Today, one percent of all American youth are said to be bipolar, and
surveys of children so diagnosed have found that more than 65% turned bipolar after treatment with a stimulant
or an antidepressant. Long-term outcomes for youth diagnosed with juvenile bipolar disorder are poor; they
exhibit symptoms “similar to the clinical picture reported for severely ill, treatment-resistant adults,”
researchers have found. 6. Conclusion.
There is evidence that psychiatric medications may be helpful over the short-term, and there are some people
who fare well on the drugs long term. However, the outcomes for affective disorders have noticeably worsened
during the modern drug era, and there is evidence that a significant percentage of schizophrenia patients can
fare well over the long term without the use of antipsychotics. The regular use of psychiatric medications has
also fueled an astonishing increase in the number of adults and children diagnosed with bipolar illness.
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JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, Jan. 2011, p. 460–4720021-9193/11/$12.00 doi:10.1128/JB.01010-10Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. argC Orthologs from Rhizobiales Show Diverse Profiles of TranscriptionalEfficiency and Functionality in Sinorhizobium meliloti ᰔ†Rafael Díaz, Carmen Vargas-Lagunas, Miguel Angel Villalobos,‡ Humberto Peralta, Yolanda