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Microsoft word - artemisia-nematoda.doc

Alternative properties of
Artemisia (Asteraceae) phyto-extracts
to anti-malarian ones:
preliminary bibliografic review
on nemato-toxic effects.
Institutes:
Fondazione I.Ri.Di.A., Museo Naturalistico degli Alburni, via Forese - 84020 Corleto
Monforte (SA: Campania).
e-mail: Sal.Vi@tiscali.it.
C.R.A. – (ex-I.S.T.) Unità di ricerca per le colture alternative al tabacco (Scafati SA),
Via Pasquale Vitiello, 106 - 84018 Scafati (SA: Campania).
e-mail: vicidomini@freeweb.org.

ABSTRACT
Phyto-extracts of Artemisia species (Asteraceae) are employed as natural biocides (anti-insects, anti-helminthes, and anti-biotics) from many centuries. The main aim of this review is to summarized the toxic effects of chemical extracts from Artemisia on Nematoda worms. Toxic effects were reported for the following Nematoda genera of bio-medical interest: Ascaris (A. galli A. leonina, A. lumbricoides, A. suum), Bunostomum (B. trigonocephalum), Caenorhabditis (C. elegans), Chabertia (C. ovina), Dictyocaulus (D. filaria), Dirofilaria (D. immitis), Enterobius (E. vermicularis), Haemonchus (H. contortus), Heligmosomoides (H. polygyrus), Necator (N. americanus), Nematodirus, Oesophagostomum (O. columbianus), Protostrongylus, Strongyloides, Trichinella (T. spiralis), Trichostrongylus (T. colubriformis); Trichuris (T. ovis); on Gnathostoma spinigerum not toxic effects are showed. Similarly effects were reported for the following Nematoda genera of agro-ecological interest: Ditylenchus (D. dipsaci), Helicotylenchus (H. dihystera), Meloidogyne (M. incognita, M. javanica, M. megadora), Pratylenchus (P. vulnus), Rotylenchulus (R. reniformis). Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. The species of Artemisia used against Nematoda and divided by worm taxa, were the A. absinthium, A. annua, A. cina, A. herba-alba, A. maritime, A. monosperma, A. moorcroftiana, A. pallens, A. santonica, A.vulgaris (Ascaridida); A. afra, A. marittima, A. vulgaris (Rhabditida);
A. annua, A. nilagirica (Spirurida);
A. absinthium, A. annua, A. brevifolia, A. herba-alba, A. marittima, A. sieversiana, A.
A. absinthium, A. nilagirica, A. vulgaris (Trichocephalida); A. absinthium (Trichurida); A. abrotanum, A. absinthium, A. annua, A. apiacea, A. arborescens, A. argyi, A. capillaris, A. cina, A. dracunculus, A. judaica, A. maritima, A. nilagirica, A. pallens, A. sieversiana, A. vulgaris (Tylenchida). Data on biological functions of Artemisia extracts are very interesting for a potential widespread use in bio-medicine and agro-ecology. Artemisinin is the new molecular platform for the development of a complete molecular library with potential applications also in the treatment of Nematoda helminths. KEY WORDS
Artemisia, Asteraceae, Phyto-extracts, Artemisinin, Natural Products, Biological Control, Nematoda, anti-helminthes, Agro-ecology, Co.Al.Ta. project. INTRODUCTION
Artemisia (Asteraceae) have many interesting properties which make them a very broad front of potential applications in agro-ecological and bio-medical fields; moreover these phyto-extracts are employed as naturals bio-cides (anti-insects, anti-helminthes, and anti-biotics) from many centuries (Vicidomini, 2008). Foremost, exactly from a species of Artemisia (A. annua), has been obtained the main active principle for the treatments of the forms multi-resistant of malaria (artemisinin), one of economically and socially more expensive pathologies of the planet (Bhakuni et al., 2001; Haynes, 2006; Hsu, 2006a, 2006b; Kuhn & Wang, 2008). In the second place an always increasing research about phyto-extracts and molecules obtained from Artemisia has revealed effectiveness them in varied fields, as antivirals (both to DNA and RNA taxa), antibacterials, antimycotics, antiprotistas (Acanthamoeba, Babesia, Balantidium, Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Encephalitozoon, Entamoeba, Giardia, Haemoproteus, Leishmania, Naegleria, Neospora, Plasmodium, Theileria, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas, Trypanosoma), allelopatics, anti molluscs and anti arthropods (Vicidomini, 2008). Finally, various cellular cancer lines (Efferth, 2005, 2006a, 2006b) and different pathologies and disorders of the immune system (Vicidomini, 2008) are susceptible of treatment with phyto-extracts of Artemisia. Artemisia phyto-extracts are proposed as one of the fields of more profiqua and promising pharmacological survey. Besides the powerful properties anti-malarial of artemisinin and derivatives, the phyto-extracts of Artemisia have showed some important curative activities as anthelmintic; infact quickly after the fight to the Plasmodium resistant to the conventional therapies, artemisinin and derivatives have been used with success (both Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. singularly and in combined therapies) against Schistosoma (Strigeatida), a genus of Platyzoa which is the greater socio-economic damages in the world. Currently have been established and published also very precise protocols on doses and combinations of artemisinina and its derivatives for chemical-therapy of various schistosomiasis (S. haematobium, S. japonicum, S. mansoni, S. mekongi). Infact anthelminthic action of the Artemisia phyto-extracts has been demonstrated against numerous Platyzoa taxa (Opistorchida: Clonorchis, Opisthorchis; Cyclophillidea: Dipylidium, Hymenolepis, Moniezia, Taenia; Echinostomida: Echinostoma, Fasciola) and for the Annelids Pheretima postuma (Clitellata: Megascolecidae) (Keiser et al., 2008; Utzinger et al., 2003, 2007; Vicidomini, 2007). Target of this review is to introduce the data available in literature on the toxic properties of the Artemisia phyto-extracts against the Nematoda taxon, the helminths group of greater socio-economic importance on the planet, both for agro-ecological aspects that bio-sanitary. In the agro-ecological field the phytoparasitic nematodes are among the most difficult crop pests to control. Their control has been carried out by use of nemato-toxic chemicals, resistant crop variety, crop rotation, nematicide crops. The development of new nematicides is very difficult, and a very high numbers of substances derived from plant have nematicidal properties. The phyto-extracts have drawn the attention of researchers and agro-chemical companies, and they have some advantages over synthetic nematicidal chemicals, like: a) they are new compounds that nematodes are not able to inactivate; b) they are usually less concentrate compared to synthetic chemicals; c) they have multiple action modes; d) they derived from renewable sources (Akhtar & Mahmood, 1994; Chitwood, 2002; Ferraz et al., 2004; Sukul, 1992; see also Deschiens, 1944, as one of first report on this topic). In the bio-medical field the nematodes of gastro-intestinal are recognized (with other taxa parasites) as a major constraint to livestock production (low productivity; low growth-reproductive rates; diseases; death), particularly in poor nations where small ruminants can play an important economic role. Modern nematicidals can be very effective if correctly used, but their cost and health consequences are a major disadvantage, two big problems in poor nations. Also in this field the phyto-extracts have drawn the attention of researchers for some advantages over synthetic nematicidal chemicals (see also previous a-d points): the local production of botanic nematicidals is cheaper than importation of chemicals; b) nematicidal inadequate use (low/high dosage; inappropriate drugs; high treatment numbers; wrong diagnosis; etc.) encourage the resistance development in gastro-intestinal worms (Dano & Bogh, 2007; Iqbal et al., 2005; Turner & Ferreira, 2005). For these reasons several researcher groups are attempting to develop strategies based on the use of phyto-chemicals against economic relevant nematodes, both in agro-ecological field and in bio-medical one. Much of anti-parasite drugs derive from the ethno-botanic use of important plants and their phyto-extracts, as Cinchona and Artemisia against malaria (quinine and artemisinin), Cephaelis against amoebic (emetine) and Artemisia and Digenea against helminthes (santonin and kainicate) (Croft, 1994; Farnsworth et al., 1985). Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. This bibliographical research (updated until 2009) aims to provide a complete picture of all the possible applications of Artemisia phyto-extracts as nematicides and/or nemato-repellents. It is obviously impossible to mention the entire bibliography in this field, and certainly various papers will not be listed and commented, but it provides a full picture of potential applications so far known. Results are divided by taxonomy and by publication date. The bibliographical research was carried out with more used on-line search engines and with the following database on-line. - Università Federico II di Napoli (http://www.unina.it/), Napoli and Portici town; - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (http://www.cnr.it/), Portici town; - Stazione Zoologica Internazionale A. Dohrn, Napoli (http://www.szn.it/); - Consiglio Nazionale per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura (http://www.entecra.it/), Scafati town. Web data bases: - http://trophort.com/index.html - http://www.biomedcentral.com/ - http://www.doaj.org/ - http://www.efloras.org/ - http://www.e-journals.org/ - http://www.herbmed.org/ - http://www.medscape.com/ - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ - http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/ - http://www.niscair.res.in/ - http://www.sciencedirect.com/ Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. Ascaridida
Narayana et al. (1976), Farnsworth et al. (1985), Mcleod (1997) and Lans et al. (2007)
they pointed out that santonin, extracted from A. maritima or A. herba-alba, was toxic
for Ascaris (Ascaridiidae). Singh (1994) pointed out that the extract of fresh or dried
leaves of A. absinthium, A. maritima, A. moorcroftiana was used by Kashmir human
population against round worms (Ascaris). Lans et al. (2007) reports use of deworming-
infusion for pets and pigs of A. absinthium, A. annua, A. cina, A.vulgaris against
Ascaris and A. absinthium, A. annua, A. cina against Enterobius (Oxyuridae) in British
Columbia.
Rachkovskaia (1978) describes morphological damages on Ascaris galli muscolocutaneous sac caused by santonin, this confirmed previous reports of nemato-toxic effects caused by santonin on Ascaris in humans (Aksenova, 1950; Faiguenbaum, 1952; Fanta-Nunez, 1953; Guseinov, 1954, 1955; Krotov, 1957; Matsusaki et al., 1964; Sekera & Rahm, 1952; Smirnov, 1932; Ueda & Tsuji, 1954). Sharaf et al. (1959) tests A. monosperma phyto-extracts obtained with water and alcoholic extractions, against A. leonina in vitro at 38°C. Results were as follows: inhibition of intestine wall motility; stimulation of worms motility; watery extracts more potent than the alcoholic extracts; effects were dose dependent; no-lethality was recorded. Morishita (1964), Lee et al. (1972) and Rim et al. (1974) already in 1960-1970 decades proposed the combined use of santonin / kainic acid complex for mass control of A. lumbricoides in Japan and Korea human populations. In these papers are recorded a percentage of humans cured respectively 82.0%-82.9% (16.5 mg of santonin-kainicate), 80.5% (105 mg). Lee et al. (1972) records also the reduction of egg numbers per patient (97.7%). Nakhare & Garc (1991) have used A. pallens essential oil extracted from whole plants in order to evaluate the toxic effects (paralysis and death) on A. lumbricoides adults in vitro and obtained from pigs intestine. Main results were the following (P-piperazine = reference drug): Treatment concentration
Percentage of rapidity of
Percentage of rapidity of
paralysis, in minutes from
death in minutes from
treatment, compared to P-
treatment, compared to P-
piperazine
piperazine
0.1 % A. pallens essential oil and P-piperazine 300% 0.2 % A. pallens essential oil and P-piperazine 250% 0.4 % A. pallens essential oil and P-piperazine ElGarhy & Nahmoud (2002) have evaluated in vitro A. santonica watery phyto- extracts (obtained from shoots) against A. lumbricoides eggs and larvae collected from human. The control was water, concentrations of phyto-extracts were 1% and 5%, and worm % death was assessed at 10-40 days. All the control group survived for 40 days of test; for the treated group (both at 1% that at 5%) after 10 days from treatment were all survived, at 20 days, less than 50% were living and from 30 days all were death. Githiori (2004) and Githiori et al. (2006) reports that in the British Veterinary Codex (1953, 1965) Artemisia were used against A. suum and Neoascaris (Toxocaridae) in ruminants Urban et al. (2007) carried out in vitro bio-essays with A. absinthium and A. vulgaris ethanol phyto-extracts against A. suum eggs. A. absinthium were very effective at all Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. concentrations (62.5-2000 micro-g/ml; reference drug: albendazole); A. vulgaris showed weak activity. AlWaili (1988) used A. herba-alba leaves and shoots in order to obtain watery phyto- extracts for treats Enterobius vermicularis in vivo in humans. Two treatment groups
were 25 and 50 ml of phyto-extract per 3 days per human (10 patients). Both with 25
and 50 ml the worms and its eggs disappeared totally from 10 patients for 6 months.
Akhtar et al. (1982) evaluates the efficacy of santonin (single dose: 5.0, 10.0, 15.0
mg/kg) and piperazine (single dose: 88 mg/kg) in buffalo calves infected with
Neoascaris vitulorum. The percentage reduction of egg/g of with 15 mg/kg of santonin
in calves highly and moderately infected, were respectively 92.3%, 95.8% after 3 days
of treatment (piperazine: 82.0%, 92.2%) and 100.0%, 100.0% after 7 days of treatment
(piperazine: 88.0%; 97.0%). Santonin efficacy was recorded also at 5 and 10 mg/kg but
not comparable to piperazine 88 mg/kg.
Rhabditida
Wat et al. (1981) have evaluated that A. vulgaris polyacetylenes (see: Drake & Lam, 1974) are activated with 400nm-UV for 1 h, against in vitro culture of Caenorhabditis elegans (Rhabditidae). The polyacetylene 3-OH-2-nona-1-en-3,5,7-trino-
tetrahydropyran was lethal for at least 67% of worms at 0.5 mg/l.
McGaw et al. (2000) tests phyto-extracts of A. afra leaves against C. elegans cultured on agar. Three phyto-extract were used (hexane, ethanol, water) at two concentrations (1 and 2 mg/ml of culture) for two hours at 25°C; Levamisole at 5 micro-g/ml was the reference drug. Hexane phyto-extracts were without differences compared to Levamisole; for the other two the results were the following: Phyto-extract and
% of death compared to
% of death compared to
concentration
levamisole at 2 h from treatment
levamisole at 168 h from treatment
The movement of Nematodes was also affected by phyto-extract types (ethanol < Githiori et al. (2003) have pointed out that santonin was effective against Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Heligmosomatidae) adult instar but not against its eggs. Sharma (1993) has used Jantana mixture, containing several herbal powder (as A. maritima), to test toxic effects on Strongyloides (Strongyloididae) eggs in cattle calves. The control group at 7 days showed an eggs population ranged from 300 to 1100 eggs/g of faeces; the treated calves no egg was detected. ElGarhy & Nahmoud (2002) pointed out that Artemisia seed were active against Spirurida
Sukul et al. (1999) have tested in vivo some homoeopathic drugs obtained from A.
nilagirica
flowering meristems against Dirofilaria immitis (Filaridae) microfilaria,
collected from pariah dogs. Drugs were obtained from ethanol extract and via ultra-
dilutions progressive process, they have obtained the homoeopathic solution named
Cina-teta, Cina-200, Cina-1000. Treatment with Cina-teta was 10 mg of solution per
kg/day/15 days and 20 mg/kg/day/15 days; treatment with Cina-200 and Cina-1000 was
Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. 0.1 ml of solution in 4 ml of cow milk per 30 days. The results are summarized in the following scheme: Treatment
Reduction of microfilariae at
Reduction of microfilariae at
30 days from treatment start
75 days from treatment start
Sukontason et al. (2000) have evaluated, in vitro at 37°C, anti-malarial drugs against larvae-III of Gnathostoma spinigerum (Gnathostomatidae) collected from freshwater eels (Fluta). The worms were maintained in treatment medium for 21 days. Main results were the followings: Groups, treatment, concentration
Worm histological
ipomotility n.
Quinine-dihydro-chloride, 20 micro-l/ml 0
Strongylida

DeBairacli (1973) has reported that the infusion of A. vulgaris dry flower is toxic for Bunostomum (Ancylostomatidae), Dictyocaulus (Dictyocaulidae) and Protostrongylus (Protostrongylidae). Sadykhov & Ryabinin (1979) have evaluated the toxic properties of A. absinthium against Dictyocaulus filaria (Dictyocaulidae) larvae and adults obtained from sheep and cultured in vitro. A. absinthium leaves and stems (100-150 g) were placed in infusion in water (350-400 ml at 80-100°C for 12-15 h). The infusion was lethal for larval and adult instars of the worm after 7 h. Prakash et al. (1980) used an alcoholic extract of A. siversiana against Haemonchus contortus (Trichostrongylidae) eggs in sheep. The alcoholic extract was added in eggs suspension at 27°C for 7 days and at 750 micro-g/g 80% of eggs were inhibited. Idris et al. (1982) used A. herba-alba root dry powder against H. contortus in vivo in Nubian goats, with the following results: Treatment
Worm decrease post/pre-
Reduction of eggs in faeces at 5 week post-
treatment (days from treatment)
treatment compared with data at treatment
(from table.2 in Idris et al., 1982, p.140)
The histo-anatomical damages induced by worms in Nubian goats were partially suppressed/recovered in the treated-group respect to control-group. Iqbal et al. (2004) have carried out both in vivo and in vitro tests of A. brevifolia (whole aerial part) phyto-extracts obtained with water, methanol and dry powder against H. contortus in sheep. Concentrations used for in vivo tests were 1, 2, 3 g/kg of three phyto-extract types and 25 mg/ml for in vitro tests but only water and methanol types; a Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. single dose was used with Levamisole (0.55 mg/ml) and PBS (P-buffer saline solution) as controls; temperature of tests was 25-30°C. The main results were the followings: In Vitro
Percentage of paralysis of H. contortus
6 h post treatment + 30 min in PBS
In Vivo
Treatment
Eggs/g of faeces reductions after 14 days post-treatment;
data in % compared to untreated
A. brevifolia water extr. (3 g/kg) A. brevifolia methanol extr. (3 g/kg) Turner & Ferreira (2005) have evaluated the efficacy of artemisinin from A. annua against H. contortus eggs with 300 mg/day/meat goat for 7 days (control = no artemisinin administered). At 1 day after treatment the eggs/g of faeces was about 2500 (control = 900/1000), and at 7 days was 2000 (control = 1200/1300); not significative differences was showed for treated group at 1 and 7 days but significative was the difference between control and treated groups. Sharma (1993) has used Jantana mixture, capsules with 10 g of several herbal species powder (as A. maritima), to test toxic effects on eggs of Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus (Trichostrongylidae), Nematodirus (Molineidae) in cattle calves. The control group at 7 days showed an eggs population ranged from 300 to 1100 eggs/g of faeces; the treated calves no egg was detected. Tariq et al. (2008) have carried out (T = 37°C) both in vitro (adults) that in vivo (eggs) tests against H. contortus and other gastro-intestinal Nematoda of sheeps. They have used watery and ethanol A. absinthium phyto-extracts (whole plant). In in vitro tests were evaluated adult mortality at 1, 2, 4, 8 h (concentration used: 25 mg/ml); in in vivo tests were evaluated egg reductions after 5, 10, 15 gg post treatment (concentration used: 1 and 2 g/kg). Drug reference was albendazole. Main results were as follows: In vitro: Percentage of paralysis of H. contortus
In vivo: Eggs/g of faeces reductions after 15 days post-treatment (*)
A. absinthium water extr. (2 g/kg) A. absinthium ethanol extr. (2 g/kg) Albendazole 97.4% Untreated 6.7% * = specie recognized for egg counts were: Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Chabertia ovina (Strongylida: Chabertidae), H. contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianus (Strongylida: Strongylidae), Trichuris ovis (Trichurida: Trichuridae) Urban et al. (2007) have carried out in vitro bio-assays with A. absinthium and A. vulgaris ethanol phyto-extracts against Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae-III. A. absinthium was very effective at all concentrations (0.063-2.000 mg/ml) more than reference drug (albendazole); A. vulgaris showed weak activity. Idris et al. (1982) have reported that santonin is used against hookworms Necator americanus (Ancylostomatidae) in North America. Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. Trichocephalida
Sukul et al. (2005) evaluate in vivo some homoeopathic drugs extracted by ethanol
from A. nilagirica (flowering tops) against Trichinella spiralis (Trichinellidae) larvae in
Swiss albino mice. The ultra-diluted drugs were Cina-teta and Santonin-teta. The group
treated was 32 mice, with two controlls (untreated infected; Ethanol 30 treated and
infected). Treatment started 7 days post-infection, with 200 larvae/mouse, and was
continued for 120 days (0.05 ml/mouse/day); at 121st day the mice were sacrificed for
larval counts. Main results were the following (Mean larval n. at 121st day and %
decrease compared to control): Control uninfected an untreated (8956; 0%); Ethanol 30
(7638; 14.7%); Cina-teta (1423; 84.1%); Santonin-teta (1682; 81.2%).
Caner et al. (2008) evaluate in vivo A. absinthium and A. vulgaris methanol phyto-
extracts (from whole epigeal parts) against T. spiralis adults (enteral phase) and
encapsulated larvae (parenteral phase) obtained from rats. Two groups were treated, for
20 days, with 300 mg of phyto-extracts per kg, diluted in 2 ml of distilled water;
treatment was started 120 h after adult inoculation. Two groups were treated, for 120 h,
with 600 mg of phyto-extracts per kg, diluted in 2 ml of distilled water; treatment
started 45 days after encapsulated larvae inoculation. At the control group was
administered distilled water only. Data recorded were: a) mean worm numbers per g of
muscle (biceps-triceps; diaphragm; quadriceps; tongue) during the two phases and b)
worm reduction percentages. Main results were the followings:
A. absinthium
Biceps-triceps
Diaphragm
Quadriceps
A. vulgaris

Tylenchida
Insunza (1990) examined some Chilean plants used for nematicidal properties. Bio-
assays regarding also A. abrotanum phyto-extracts (whole plant used; fresh sap
extraction) against Ditylenchus dipsaci (Anguinidae) in vitro on lucerne callus. Tests
were carried out at room temperature and light, using 2 ml of phyto-extract for 100
worms; death percentages were assessed at 24-104 h post-treatment. A. abrotanum
caused 100% of mortality after 24 h post-treatment.
Ferraz et al. (2004) pointed out that D. dipsaci was reduced of 90-96% by mulching
soil with 2-4% of A. dracunculus plant matter.
Abivardi (1971) evaluates several Iranian plant against larvae-II of Meloidogyne incognita (Heteroderidae) as A. absinthium (leaves), A. cina (flowering tops), A. dracunculus (leaves). Treatments were carried out at 20-22°C in soil samples sealed for two weeks post-treatment. The main results are reported in the following table: Extract; concentration in ppm
Reduction of larvae-II in 40 g of soil,
% reduction of gall per root
compared to untreated
system, compared to untreated
Abivardi (1971: p.305) pointed out that in a previous bioassay on M. incognita, A. absinthium phyto-extract at dose of 400 ppm was lethal for 100% of larvae-II, but in soil sample not sealed post-treatment and with chloroform as solvent. Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. Mahmood et al. (1979) evaluate phyto-extracts from several Indian plants as A. sieversiana (leaves) against M. incognita (hatched larvae = larvae-II) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Pratylenchidae). Leaves were dried at 60°C and 10 g of powder suspended in 100 ml of distilled water and filtered. The authors termed this solution as Standard (= S) and then they obtained S/2, S/10, S/100, S/1000 dilutions with distilled water additions. Post-treatment evaluations of worm mortality were carried out at 12, 24, 48 h; for control was used distilled water. Main results were the followings: Artemisia sieversiana
M. incognita mortality at
R. reniformis mortality at
phyto-extract concentrations
24 and 48 h post-treatment
24 and 48 h post-treatment
Pandey (1990) carried out bioassays with phyto-extracts from several Indian plants as A. annua and A. pallens (shoots) against larvae-II M. incognita. Shoots (25 g) were placed in 75 ml of distilled water for 24 h and then filtered. The author termed this solution as Standard (= S) and then he obtained S/2, S/10, S/100 dilutions with distilled water additions. Post-treatment evaluations of worm mortality were carried out at 12-120 h; control used was distilled water. Main results were the followings: Treatments
M. incognita mortality at
M. incognita not hatched eggs
24, 48 and 120 h post-treatment
after 120 h post-treatment
Sharma & Trivedi (1992a) evaluate, in a first round of bioassay, phyto-extracts from several Indian plants as A. absinthium (roots) against larvae-I (inside egg shell) of M. incognita. Fresh roots (2 g) were crushed in a mortar with distilled water, filtered and placed in refrigerator for 12 h. The authors termed this solution as Standard (= S) and then they obtained S/25, S/50, S/75 and S/100 dilutions with distilled water additions. Post-treatment evaluations of mortality were carried out at 24-72 h at 30°C; the control was distilled water. Main results were the followings: Treatments
M. incognita not hatched at
Total M. incognita not hatched
24, 48 h post-treatment
after treatment
Sharma & Trivedi (1992b) in a second round of bioassay evaluate A. absinthium dry root powder (3 and 6 g/kg soil) against M. incognita larvae-II. Post-treatment evaluations were carried out at day 60 (temperature 30°C; control was the soil without powder; host plant was Solanum melongena). Main results were the followings: Treatments
Decrease of root gall at 60 days post-
treatment compared to control
Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. Korayem et al. (1993) evaluate phyto-extracts from several Egyptian plants as A. absinthium (shoots) against M. incognita larvae-II and Helicotylenchus dihystera (Hoplolamidae) adults. Shoot powders (25 g) were mixed in 500 ml of watery distilled, then filtered and used after 72 h of recovery. The authors termed this solution as Standard (= S) and then they obtained S/2 and S/10 dilutions with distilled water additions. Motility evaluations were carried out at 1, 2, 3 days post-treatment; mortality evaluations were carried out at 3 and 30 days post-treatment; control was distilled water; temperature was 30°C. Main results were the followings: Treatments
Not motility in M. incognita
Not motility in H. dihystera
Not hatching in M.
larvae-II at 24 and 48 h
at 24 and 48 h
incognita at 30 days
post-treatment and total
post-treatment and total
post-treatment
mortality after 72 h
mortality after 72 h
Karayem et al. (1993) performed also both post-treatment (A. absinthium) and control (oxamyl) acetylcholine-esterase activity percentage on M. incognita L-II: S, 75% of reduction; S/2, 38.7%; oxamyl 7200 ppm, 53.3% of reductions; distilled water, 0% of reduction. Sukul & Sukul (1999) evaluate in vivo an homoeopathic drug extracted by ethanol from A. maritima against M. incognita larvae-II. The ultra-diluted drug was Cina-1000; Vigna unguiculata was the host plant; temperature and RH were 29°C and 80-90%. The groups were: untreated and un-inoculated; untreated and inoculated; treated and inoculated. Treatment started 4 days post-inoculation (2100 larvae-II/plant), and was continued for 10 days (one time per day); at day 30 post-inoculation the plants were uprooted for larval/gall counts and root-protein percentage. Main results were the followings: Gall per root decrease
Larvae-II decrease per 2 g
Root protein of untreated-
compared to inoculated
of root compared to
uninoculated, untreated-inoculated
untreated
inoculated untreated
and Cina-1000
Dias et al. (2000) evaluate in vitro phyto-extracts from several Brazilian plants as A. absinthium and A. verlotum (whole aerial parts,) against M. incognita larvae-II obtained from Lycopersicon esculentum. Phyto-extracts were obtained both for infusion and for crushing. Treatments were carried out at 26.5°C and lasted 24 h; control was water. Post-treatment worm mortality evaluation (at 1, 6, 24 h) was carried out putting larvae-II in water for 24 h. Main results were reported in the following table: Phyto-extract type and
Mortality at 24 h post-
Mortality at 24 h
Mortality at 24 h
concentration
treatment with A.
post-treatment
post-treatment
absinthium
with A. verlotum
with control
Crushing 2.5 ml/ 250 worms Sukul et al. (2001) evaluate in vivo some homoeopathic drugs extracted by ethanol from A. nilagirica flowering tops against M. incognita larvae-II. The ultra-diluted drugs were Cina-200, Cina-1000; Lycopersicon esculentum was the host plant. The groups treated were: untreated and un-inoculated; untreated and inoculated; treated and inoculated. Treatment started post-inoculation and was foliar spray (10 ml of solution per plant per day per 10 days); at day 24 post-inoculation the plants were uprooted for Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. larval/gall counts and root-protein percentage. The control solution was ethanol 90% and sucrose. Main results were the following: Gall per root
Larvae-II decrease
Larvae-II decrease
Root protein of
decrease compared
per 2 g of root
per 200 g of soil
untreated-uninoculated,
to inoculated-
compared to
compared to
untreated-inoculated,
untreated
inoculated-untreated inoculated-untreated
Cina-200 and Cina-1000
Pandey et al. (2004) carried out in vitro bioassays with artemisinin-derivative chemicals obtained from A. annua whole aerial parts with hexane extraction against M. incognita larvae-II obtained from L. esculentum. The controlls were acetone (Ac) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO); dose was 1000 ppm. Main results were: Chemicals (solvent)
Larvae-II decrease at
Decrease of larvae-II emergence from egg
24 h post-treatment
120 h post-treatment compared to control
Shakil et al. (2004) evaluate A. annua essential oil (from leaves) against M. incognita larvae-II and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Pratylenchidae) adults. The mortality (compared to control) was recorded at 24 and 48 h; also the M. incognita larvae penetration in root host (Vigna unguiculata) was recorded; the temperature was 29°C. Main results were: Concentration
M. incognita mortality (24h; 48h)
R. reniformis mortality (24h; 48h)
Datta (2006) evaluates in vivo an homoeopathic drug extracted by ethanol from A. nilagirica against M. incognita larvae-II. The ultra-diluted drug were Cina-200 but also Cina-Mother Tincture was used; Morus alba was the host plant. Treatment groups were (30°C; 75% rh): untreated and un-inoculated; untreated and inoculated; treated and un-inoculated; treated and inoculated. Treatment was foliar spray (10 ml of solution per plant every 3 days); the groups treated were divided in treated pre-inoculation (9 days in total) and treated post-inoculation (35 days in total); 60 days post last treatment the plants were uprooted for larval/gall counts. Main results were: Treated group
Gall / root decrease compared
Larvae-II decrease / 2 g of root
to inoculated-untreated
compared to inoculated-untreated
Inoculated Cina-MT (pre-inoculation) Inoculated Cina-MT (post-inoculation) Inoculated Cina-200 (pre-inoculation) Inoculated Cina-200 (post-inoculation) Sukul et al. (2006) evaluate in vivo some homoeopathic drugs extracted by ethanol from A. nilagirica flowering tops against M. incognita larvae-II. The ultra-diluted drugs Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. were Cina-30c, Santonin-30c; Hibiscus esculentum was the host plant. Treatment groups were (temperature was 30°C): untreated and un-inoculated; untreated and inoculated; treated and inoculated. The treatment started 7 days post-inoculation and was foliar spray (5-10 ml of solution per plant per day per 10 days); at day 30 post-inoculation the plants were uprooted for larval/gall counts and root-protein percentage. Control solution was ethanol-30c. Main results were: Treated group
Gall per root
Larvae-II decrease
Larvae-II decrease
Root protein
decrease compared
per 2 g of root
per 200 g of soil
to inoculated-
compared to
compared to
untreated
inoculated-untreated inoculated-untreated
Ferris & Zheng (1999) evaluate in vitro phyto-extracts from several Chinese plants as A. apiacea (whole aerial parts), A. argyi (leaves), A. capillaris (seedlings), against M. javanica larvae-II and Pratylenchus vulnus (Pratylenchidae) adults. Watery extracts of A. argyi and A. capillaris were lethal for M. javanica but not effective against P. vulnus; A. apicea was ineffective against M. javanica but lethal for P. vulnus. Oka et al. (2000) evaluate in vitro (25°C) essential oils from several plants (leaves) as A. arborescens, A. dracunculus, A. judaica, against M. javanica larvae-II and eggs. Main results were: Treatments
Larvae-II not-motility at
Not-hatching at 7 days
48 h post-treatment
post-treatment
Costa et al. (2003) carried out a complex bioassays, both in vitro and in vivo, with ethanol phyto-extracts from A. vulgaris (powder) against M. megadora eggs and larvae-II obtained from coffee plants. The temperature was 25°C, the control was distilled water, host plant was Cucumis sativus, concentrations were from 0,5 to 100 mg/ml for all bioassays. Main results were: mg/ml Egg mortality (%) post-
Larvae-II mortality (data from
Larvae-II decrease
treatment compared to
chart p.439 in Costa et al., 2003)
compared to control
50% mortality
100% mortality
in roots + soil
Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. DISCUSSION
The main results were summarized in the table n.1. Six Nematoda orders were listed in the present review as sensitive to Artemisia phyto- extracts; five orders of bio-medical interest (Ascaridida, 3 genera and 6 species; Rhabditida, 3 and 3; Spirurida, 2 and 2; Strongylida, 10 and 10; Trichocephalida, 1 and 1;) and one of agro-ecological interest (5 genera and 7 species). Artemisia taxa with elevate targets versus Nematoda species were: Artemisia absinthium (11 Nematoda species of bio-medical interest and 2 of agro-ecological interest) Artemisia vulgaris (8 and 1) Artemisia maritima (5 and 1) Artemisia annua (3 and 2) Artemisia cina (1 and 2) Artemisia nilagirica (2 and 1) Artemisia sieversiana (1 and 2). Nevertheless the high number of Artemisia species that have how target Nematoda taxa, the chemicals identified were very scarse; were recognized how molecules active: artemether, artemisinin, artemisinin-derivatives, santonin, polyacetylenes, santonin-kainicate complex. Regarding Nematoda instars we have that 35 bio-assay were carried out on larvae (9 on species of bio-medical interest and 26 on species of agro-ecological interest), 22 on eggs (18 bio-medical, 4 agro-ecological), 20 on adults (14 bio-medical, 6 agro-ecological). An high Artemisia specie numbers have showed nemato-toxic effects on eggs, larvae and juveniles.
A very interesting field would be the future study on combined actions between anti-
cancer and anti-helminthes effects of Artemisia phyto-extracts, because of
cancerogenesis helminthes improved and/or started (Mayer & Fried, 2007).
Table n.1 – Main results of mini-review for Artemisia
species used in the bio-assay
versus Nematoda taxa, with indication of instars.

Artemisia
Plant part (Flowers: F; Leaves: L;
Nematoda species
Nematoda instars (E
Shoots: S; Roots: R; Whole plant: P;
= not hatched eggs; L
Powder mixture: Pm; Root powder:
= larva; L-II = larvae
Pr; Seedlings: See). Chemicals (Eo:
II instar; A = adults)
essential oils). Extractive solvents
(Water: W; Alcohol: A; Ethanol: E;
Hexane: H; Methanol: M).

Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. ARTEMISININ AS THE MOLECULAR
PLATFORM OF THE NEW CENTURY ?
The agro-chemicals market is in a decade of turning and junction, both in terms of
Western perception of individual occidental consumers, both in terms of market
demand, both in terms of regulatory and legislative revisions.
In the last decades of the last century prevailed the principle of maximizing agricultural
productivity that justified intervention extensive and not always rational of the drugs
synthesis.
The new century instead it has established a policy much more respectful of the
environment and human and animal health, with an ever more rational and
environmentally sustainable use of pesticides.
Research is dedicating a spasmodic attention, geometrically increasing, at the active
ingredients of botanical origin to be used as an alternative to synthetic products, or even
as feedstocks in organic-biodynamic-integrated agricultural.
In this evolving scenario fits excellently the Artemisia and many products of its
secondary metabolism, with a range of potential applications economically significant,
ranging from chemotherapeutic anti-cancers, chemotherapeutic immuno-modulators and
anti-inflammatory drugs, from antibiotics against bacteria, fungi, protists, to anti-viral,
until the anti-helminthic and insecticides, covering virtually all major fields of interest
in agro-ecological and bio-medical applications.
Especially significant have been proved the properties of sesquiterpenes and, in
particular those characterized by the endoperoxide bridge, which seem to have a
potential universal use. These molecules are the object of great attention from the
specialists, both for the creation of numerous classes and subclasses of synthetic
variants of the structural parent artemisinin, that for the exploration of a wide range of
organisms and plants, looking for alternative artemisinin forms (see bibliography in:
Vicidomini, 2008).
Research infact has now produced a molecular library that consists of multiple
artemisinin variants, perhaps well beyond 1000, and recently stable cycloperoxides were
also isolated outside the plant kingdom (some species of sponges: Parazoa) as well as
synthetized in laboratory.
Artemisinin and its derivatives are also active part of a flourishing field of research on
new treatments for malaria chemotherapeutic ACT combined and / or the identification
of natural remedies currently unknown, as happened with the new peroxide yingzhaosu-
A, and the new antimalarial alkaloid, indolochinolin cryptolepine, isolated from
Cryptolepis (see bibliography in: Vicidomini, 2008).
Based on the number of biological taxa successfully treatable with phyto-extracts of
Artemisia, on the diversity of these taxa (viruses, bacteria, protists, helminths, higher
animals, higher plants), on the variety and number of molecules involved and on many
mechanisms of action, Artemisia sp. itself propose as one of the herbaceous plants not
comestible of major interest and economic potentiality of the new century, well beyond
the ultimate goal of the project Co.Al.Ta.
Therefore, a significant note of credit must be given to project management Co.Al.Ta.
and Artemis projects [http://www.ibimet.cnr.it/Staff/predieri/artemisia] for have
guessed beforehand the potential of this essence.
Similarly to the physostigmine for the carbamates, to the spinosina for the spinosoidi
and quinoline-methanol derivative of quinine, the artemisinin itself propose as
"molecular platform" for the coming decades, in the agro-ecological and bio-medical,
also and above all by virtue of increasing activities anti-cancer exhibited by artemisinin
Il Naturalista Campano [ISSN 1827-7160] http://www.museonaturalistico.it/, 2011, n. speciale. derivatives and the vast potential and uses as immune modulators and anti-atherosclerotic of phyto-extracts (see bibliography in: Vicidomini, 2008). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Many thanks are due to dr. S. Aceto (Institute of Genetica, Federico II, Napoli) and M.
Gebiola (IPP-CNR, Portici) for very precious aid and great patience in the
bibliographical research and collection.
A particular thanks is due to dr. C. Hahnn (Texas: U.S.A.), U. Bernardo, (IPP-CNR,
Portici), G. Russo (Institute Silvestri, Federico II, Portici), and to professors J.B.
Githiori (Kenya), J. Keiser (Switzerland), N.C. Sukul (India), S. Towson e S. Tagboto
(U.K.), for bibliographical aid.
For logistical support many thanks are due to dr. G. Albano (Nocera Inferiore), dr. R.
D'Amore (C.R.A., Scafati), prof. M. Galdi (Cava De Tirreni), dr. E. Faller (Zoological
Station Dohrn, Napoli).
This review is part of research project Uso alternativo delle colture oggetto del
progetto Co.Al.Ta (Reg.CEE2182/02)
and it is a research topic developed and carried
out by author in order to increase the Co.Al.Ta.

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