Sito in Italia dove è possibile acquistare la consegna acquisto Viagra a buon mercato e di alta qualità in ogni parte del mondo.

Microsoft word - tinnitus.doc

Tinnitus
Tinnitus, (pronounced tih-NIGHT-us or TIN-ih-tus) is a ringing, swishing, or other type of noise that seems to originate in the ear or head. According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), almost 12 percent of men who are 65 to 74 years of age are affected by tinnitus. The prevalence of tinnitus in the U.S. is almost twice as frequent in the South as in the Northeast. Tinnitus can be extremely disturbing to people who have it. However, some people with tinnitus may require medical or surgical treatment. Twelve million Americans have tinnitus, and one million experience it so severely it interferes with their daily activities. Tinnitus can arise in any of the four sections of the hearing system: the outer ear, the middle ear, the inner ear, and the brain. Some tinnitus or "head noise" is normal. A number of techniques and treatments may be of help, depending on the cause. Some of the most common include a sound of crickets or roaring, buzzing, hissing, whistling, and high-pitched ringing. Other types of tinnitus include a clicking or pulsatile tinnitus (the noise accompanies your heartbeat).The most common type of tinnitus is known as subjective tinnitus, meaning that you hear a sound but it cannot be heard by others. A much more uncommon sort is called objective tinnitus, meaning you may sometimes actually Tinnitus is not a disease in itself but rather a reflection of something else that is going on in the hearing system or brain. Probably the most common cause for tinnitus is hearing loss. As we age, or because of trauma to the ear (through noise, drugs, or chemicals), the cochlea, becomes damaged. Current theories suggest that because the cochlea is no longer sending the normal signals to the brain, the brain becomes confused and essentially develops its own noise to make up for the lack of normal sound signals. This then is interpreted as a sound, tinnitus. This tinnitus can be made worse by anything that makes our hearing worse, such as ear infection or excess wax in the ear. Loud noise exposure is a very common cause of tinnitus today, and it often damages hearing as well. Unfortunately, many people are unconcerned about the harmful effects of excessively loud noise from firearms, high intensity music, or other sources. Ten million Americans have suffered irreversible noise-induced hearing loss, and 30 million more are exposed to dangerous noise levels each day, according to the NIDCD. Other causes of tinnitus include drugs such as aspirin (if overused), aminoglycoside antibiotics , and quinine. Meniere's disease includes dizziness, tinnitus, and fullness in the ear or hearing loss that can last for hours, but then goes away. The tinnitus is merely a symptom. A rare cause of subjective tinnitus includes an acoustic neuroma. This type of tinnitus is usually only noticed in one ear, unlike the more common sort caused by hearing loss usually seen in both ears. Causes of objective tinnitus are usually easier to find. Pulsatile tinnitus is usually related to blood flow, either through normal or abnormal blood vessels near the ear. Causes of pulsatile tinnitus include pregnancy, anemia (lack of blood cells), overactive thyroid, or tumors involving blood vessels near the ear. Pulsatile tinnitus can also be caused by a condition known as benign intracranial hypertension,. Clicking types of objective tinnitus can be caused by jaw joint misalignment (TMJ) problems or muscles of the ear or throat "twitching." The exact physiological cause or causes of tinnitus are not known. There are, however, several likely sources, all of which are known to trigger or worsen tinnitus. Exposure to loud noises can damage and even destroy hair cells, called cilia, in the inner ear. Once damaged, these hair cells cannot be renewed or replaced. Hearing loss can also be caused by excessive noise exposure. Coincidentally, up to 90 percent of all tinnitus patients have some level of hearing loss. The amount of wax ears produce varies by individual. Sometimes, people produce enough wax that their hearing can be compromised or their tinnitus can seem louder. Many people, including children, experience tinnitus along with an ear or sinus infection. Generally, the tinnitus will lessen and gradually go away once the infection is healed. Some people have misaligned jaw joints or jaw muscles, which can not only induce tinnitus, but also affect cranial muscles and nerves and shock absorbers in the jaw joint. Approximately 3 percent of tinnitus patients experience pulsatile tinnitus; people with pulsatile tinnitus typically hear a rhythmic pulsing, often in time with a heartbeat. Pulsatile tinnitus can indicate the presence of a vascular condition-where the blood flow through veins and arteries is compromised-like a heart murmur, hypertension, or hardening of the arteries. Physical trauma to the head and neck can induce tinnitus. Other symptoms include headaches, vertigo, and memory loss. Certain disorders, such as hypo- or hyperthyroidism, lyme disease, fibromyalgia, and throacic outlet syndrome, can have tinnitus as a symptom. Some people have taken minerals such as magnesium or zinc, herbal preparations such as Ginkgo biloba, homeopathic remedies, or B vitamins for their tinnitus and found them to be helpful. Others have experienced tinnitus relief with acupuncture, cranio-sacral therapy, magnets, hyperbaric oxygen, or hypnosis. A few of these therapies have been researched in an attempt to verify the anecdotal claims. But the results have not conclusively identified these treatments as helpful for tinnitus. Some tinnitus patients with hearing loss experience total or partial tinnitus relief while wearing hearing aids. There are many variables that determine success. However, if a patient has a hearing loss in the frequency range of the tinnitus, hearing aids may bring back in the ambient sounds that naturally cover the tinnitus Biofeedback is a relaxation technique that teaches people to control certain autonomic body functions, such as pulse, muscle tension, and skin temperature. The goal of biofeedback is to help people manage stress in their lives not by reducing the stress but by changing the body’s reaction to it. Many people notice a reduction in their tinnitus when they are able to modify their reaction to the Many drugs have been researched and used to relieve tinnitus, but there is not a drug that has been designed specifically to treat tinnitus. Some drugs that have been studied include anti-anxiety drugs like Xanax, antidepressants like nortriptyline, antihistamines, anticonvulsants like gabapentin, and even anesthetics like lidocaine. All successfully quieted tinnitus for some people.

Source: http://mtstate.net/ESW/Files/Tinnitus.pdf

Stages of labor

STAGES OF LABOR FIRST STAGE Latent phase – Cervical effacement and early dilatation Active phase – Rapid cervical dilatation Protraction disorder of the active phase (dilatation) SECOND STAGE (pushing) Primip – 30min – 3 hr, multip – 5 –30 min Mechanisms of Labor Descent – uterine contractions, maternal pushing, gravity Internal Rotation – Fetal head fr

57338_biobook

Jussi Pärkkä, M.D., Antti Viljanen, M.D. Eveli na Arponen, M.Sc., Sarita Forsback, M.Sc. Tove Grönroos, M.Sc., Ri kka Kal iokoski, M.Sc., B.M. Iina Laitinen, M.Sc., Jarna Hannukainen, M.Sc. Satu Salomäki, M.Sc., Pauli na Virsu, M.Sc. Ronald Borra, M.D., Jan Kiss, B.M. Alexander Naum, M.D., Letizia Guiducci, M.Sc. Saila Kauhanen, M.D. Graduate students: Elina Hoppela, Miikka Honka, Hanna-Ri

Copyright © 2010-2014 Medicament Inoculation Pdf