UROBIOTIC®-250 CAPSULES Each capsule contains Oxytetracycline hydrochloride equivalent to. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sulfamethizole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phenazopyridine hydrochloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inert ingredients in the formulation are: hard gelatin capsules (which may contain Green 3,
Yellow 6, Yellow 10 and other inert ingredients); magnesium stearate; sodium lauryl sulfate;
Urobiotic-250 is a product designed for use specifically in urinary tract infections.
Terramycin® (oxytetracycline HCl) is a widely used antibiotic with clinically proved activity
against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes, large viruses, and
certain protozoa. Terramycin is well tolerated and well absorbed after oral administration. It
diffuses readily through the placenta and is present in the fetal circulation. It diffuses into the
pleural fluid, and under some circumstances, into the cerebrospinal fluid. Oxytetracycline HCl
appears to be concentrated in the hepatic system and is excreted in the bile. It is excreted in the
urine and in the feces, in high concentrations, in a biologically active form.
Sulfamethizole is a chemotherapeutic agent active against a number of important gram-positive
and gram-negative bacteria. This sulfonamide is well absorbed, has a low degree of acetylation,
and is extremely soluble. Because of these features and its rapid renal excretion, sulfamethizole
has a low order of toxicity and provides prompt and high concentrations of the active drug in the
Phenazopyridine is an orally absorbed agent which produces prompt and effective local analgesia
and relief of urinary symptoms by virtue of its rapid excretion in the urinary tract. These effects
are confined to the genitourinary system and are not accompanied by
generalized sedation or narcosis.
Based on a review of this drug by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research
Council and/or other information, FDA has classified the indications as follows:
“Lacking substantial evidence of effectiveness as a fixed combination”:
Urobiotic-250 is indicated in the therapy of a number of genitourinary infections
caused by susceptible organisms. These infections include the following: pyelonephritis,
pyelitis, ureteritis, cystitis, prostatitis, and urethritis.
Since both Terramycin and sulfamethizole provide effective levels in blood, tissue, and urine,
Urobiotic-250 provides a multiple antimicrobial approach at the site of infection. Both
antibacterial components are active against the most common urinary pathogens, including
, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aerobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus faecalis,
and Micrococcus pyogenes.
Urobiotic-250 is particularly useful in
the treatment of infections caused by bacteria more sensitive to the combination than to either
component alone. The combination is also of value in those cases with mixed infections, and
in those instances where the causative organism is unknown pending laboratory isolation. Final classification of the less than effective indications requires further investigation.
Clinical studies to substantiate the efficacy of Urobiotic-250 are ongoing. Completion of
these ongoing studies will provide data for final classification of these indications
This drug is contraindicated in individuals who have shown hypersensitivity to any of its
This drug, because of the sulfonamide component, should not be used in patients with a history
of sulfonamide sensitivities, and in pregnant females at term. WARNINGS
If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to excessive systemic
accumulation of the drug and possible liver toxicity. Under such conditions, lower than usual
doses are indicated and if therapy is prolonged, tetracycline serum level determinations may be
Oxytetracycline HCl, which is one of the ingredients of Urobiotic-250, may form a stable
calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue with no serious harmful effects reported thus far in
humans. However, use of oxytetracycline during tooth development (last trimester of pregnancy,
neonatal period and early childhood) may cause discoloration of the teeth
(yellow-grey-brownish). This effect occurs mostly during long term use of the drug but it also has
been observed in usual short treatment courses.
Because of its sulfonamide content, this drug should be used only after critical appraisal in
patients with liver damage, renal damage, urinary obstruction, or blood dyscrasias. Deaths have
been reported from hypersensitivity reactions, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and other blood
dyscrasias associated with sulfonamide administration. When used intermittently, or for
a prolonged period, blood counts and liver and kidney function tests should be performed.
Certain hypersensitive individuals may develop a photodynamic reaction precipitated by
exposure to direct sunlight during the use of this drug. This reaction is usually of the
photoallergic type which may also be produced by other tetracycline derivatives. Individuals with
a history of photosensitivity reactions should be instructed to avoid exposure to direct sunlight
while under treatment with this or other tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued
at first evidence of skin discomfort.
NOTE: Reactions of a photoallergic nature are exceedingly rare with Terramycin
(oxytetracycline HCl). Phototoxic reactions are not believed to occur with Terramycin. PRECAUTIONS
As with all antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible
organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and
appropriate specific therapy should be instituted. This drug should be used with caution in
persons having histories of significant allergies and/or asthma. ADVERSE
Glossitis, stomatitis, proctitis, nausea, diarrhea, vaginitis, and dermatitis, as well as reactions of an allergic nature, may occur during oxytetracycline HCl therapy, but are rare. If adverse reactions, individual idiosyncrasy, or allergy occur, discontinue medication. Rare instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule forms of drugs in the tetracycline class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed. (See Dosage and Administration.) With oxytetracycline therapy bulging fontanels in infants and benign intracranial hypertension in adults have been reported in individuals receiving full therapeutic dosages. These conditions disappeared rapidly when the drug was discontinued. As in all sulfonamide therapy, the following reactions may occur: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatitis, pancreatitis, blood dyscrasias, neuropathy, drug fever, skin rash, injection of the conjunctiva and sclera, petechiae, purpura, hematuria and crystalluria. The dosage should be decreased or the drug withdrawn, depending upon the severity of the reaction.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Urobiotic-250 is recommended in adults only. A dose of 1 capsule four times daily is suggested.
In refractory cases 2 capsules four times a day may be used.
Therapy should be continued for a minimum of seven days or until bacteriologic cure in acute
urinary tract infections.
Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with capsule forms of drugs in the
tetracycline class is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal
irritation and ulceration. (See Adverse Reactions.)
To aid absorption of the drug, it should be given at least one hour before or two hours after
eating. Aluminum hydroxide gel given with antibiotics has been shown to decrease their
absorption and is contraindicated. SUPPLY
Urobiotic-250 capsules: bottles of 50 (NDC 0049-0920-50), and unit dose packages of
100 (10 X 10's) (NDC 0049-0920-41).
ILLINOIS STATE UNIVERSITY Organic Chemistry 1, CHE 230, fall semester 2010, Homework #2 Chapter 2: Structure and Reactivity Write out the dissociation expression for acetic acid (CH3CO2H). Write out the K a expression for the above equilibrium. Provide a rationale for why acetic acid (CH3CO2H) is more acidic than ethanol (CH3CH2OH). © 2010 Assoc. Prof. S. R. Hitchcock, Departme
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