Sito in Italia dove è possibile acquistare la consegna acquisto Viagra a buon mercato e di alta qualità in ogni parte del mondo.

Mrekni jan 2012.xls

DRAFT MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY KNOWLEDGE NEEDS AND ISSUES  END USER KNOWLEDGE NEEDS
DRIVERS (eg. Risk
RECENTLY COMPLETED / ONGOING PROJECTS
PLANNED ACTIVITIES (Calls,
FUTURE ACTIVITIES -
(ie. Technology, methods, research, reduction, relevant stage
Workshops / RfPs / EoIs etc,)
PRIORITY KNOWLEDGE GAPS
data, evidence)
of application, reduced
COORDINATION and COMMUNICATION
Facilitate alignment of UK roadmapping and identify research Promote collective responsibility, MSCC through ORRSG with support from NERC MREKE Set up communications portal for dissemination research Streamlining access to data and CROWN ESTATE / DECC and NERC MRE KE Align activities in MREKEP with DECC / TCE products and services and as conduit for end user input Facilitate development of central data repositories for Promotes cost effective use and MSCC with DECC DEFRA and Crown estate Get update from Steve Hall on marine data baseline, monitoring information and data products Facilitate access to research data and services at testing Promotes and facilitates industry Testing sites and NERC MREKE portal Facilitate access to EU projects, conference proceedings and Cost efficiencies, promotion of MREKE portal and dedicated project websites outcomes of ICES working group, OES Annex IV advice and best practice based on up to Facilitate development of consortia / funding calls which Cost efficiencies better collective EPSRC - call for proposals - workshop run by EPSRC with NERC Regular meetings of EPSRC / NERC / TSB / cross organisational and topic boundaries through input to scope the call to encourage cross disciplinary research ETI / ORETIC planned - (and now underway) workshopping and joined up communications (1) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE
RENEWABLE ENERGY
Technology design to maximise use of low carbon materials Sustainable design for whole life
in devices and infrastructure
Technology design to optimise energy extraction with design through construction and NERC - DEFRA : EBAO - optimising energy arrays for minimal negative and maximum positive environmental environmental benefits and energy extraction (Commissioned Sept environmental research needs for integration 2011)LCRI - Method for design optimisation and performance prediction of tidal stream turbines (2011 - 2013) Technology choice for supporting infrastructure (eg. cabling) Construction methods which minimise environmental impacts Integrated decision tools / methods for whole life cycle LCRI - site appraisal and economic assessment based on case economic appraisal to allow selection of appropriate study ofr TEL deployment at Ramsay Sound (TBC 2013) technologies for a given site Integration of ecosystem services valuation into tools for UKERC : Research methods in development phase 2 Energy and Discussion with E&E theme leaders regarding 'whole systems' workshop and briefing paper (2) CHARACTERISATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL
SETTING AND SITES FOR DEVELOPMENT
Up to date recommendations for technology, methods and
MESPG : Guidance on survey and monitoring in relation to marine DEFRA interests in AUV / glider technology survey design for characterising renewable energy sites renewable deployments in Scotland (completed March 2011) see for mapping seabed for characterising then Guidance for optimising use of data and information collected (i) Resource assessment
Supergen wind wave and tidal - PRIMaRE PERAWATT / ReDAPT / Discussions with Scott Couch to review and LCRI and Univ of Bangor, NOCS wave resource modelling etc . Comparison of technologies and methods for quantifying EMEC - comparison / validation of different technologies (ADCPs Models and methods to reduce uncertainty in resource DRAFT MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY KNOWLEDGE NEEDS AND ISSUES  (ii) Physical - geology, water column
Seabed characteristics - geomorphology, sediment etc.
DEFRA : Developing a database to promote the exchange of marine survey data focussing on multi beam data since 2003 seabed and drawing together the various data application, cost efficiences also (completed 2009) resources as well as dedicated workshops eg. Hydrodynamic characteristics - currents, tides, temporal / NERC : National capability (NOC) data freely available spatial Improved methods for determining physical characteristics of sites (integrated methods multi beam, habitat mapping) (iii) Physical - noise
Technology development for measuring ambient noise at
EPSRC (outcome of recent call not known) MESPG : Acoustic development sites and impact of device / array noise monitoring at wave / tidal test sites plus nursery sites at EMEC application and cost efficiencies (TBC Aug 2011 / March 2012 resp) Lepper to advise on research summaries for Understanding of variations in ambient noise, and other Monitoring ambient noise for the Marine Strategy Framework Determining the thresholds and consequences of noise - MESPG : Lit review of the effects of noise and EMFs arising from injury / disturbance / avoidance from geotech / geophysical energy devices on trout salmon and eels (completed sept 2010) surveys through to construction and operation (ie whole life NERc - DEFRA RESPONSE (Started Sept 2011) cycle)Review of technologies / methods to measure noise - parallel TCE workshops focussed on measurement / mitigation of piling testing different technologies to provide recommendations Understanding how operational noise changes at array scale NERC - DEFRA EBAO project just started (Oct 2011) LCRI - modelling of environmental effects of ambient noise (2011 - 2013) Determining the implications of injury / disturbance / DEFRA : The impact of anthropogenic noise on fish and displacement effects from noise for protected and non invertebrates at the individual, population and community level (iv) Benthos / fish
Characterisation of marine habitats in energy development
MESPG : Analysis and assessment of marine habitats and species Check whether new CEFAS guidance is fit for surveyed by Marine Scotland in Pentland Firth, Orkney, and additional surveys of Islay and west of Hebrides (Dec 2009) SWRDA : Baseline characterisation of marine habitats at the Wave Hub site (completed 2010) Best practice for surveying / sampling in extreme wave / tidal MESPG : Survey work to provide general description of tidal resource areas to create a better benchmark against which specific sites can be compared in the future. Transfer of knowledge and development of expertise to facilitate safe working in extreme environments Broad scale benthic community technologies and mapping MAREE project (ERI) / Univ of Plymouth (PRIMaRE) techniques - need greater cost efficiencies and savings Fish behavioural responses to wave and tidal devices DECC : Fish behaviour in vicinity of renewable energy devices (poss extension of NERC DEFRA project QBEX) Distribution and abundance of basking sharks in Uk waters and improved information on their ecology Migratory patterns, distribution and abundance of salmon MESPG : Review of migratory routes and behaviour of Atlantic salmon, sea trout and European eel in Scotland’s coastal environment: implications for devt of marine renewables (completed Jan 2011) LCRI - Field studies of fisheries and migratory fish (2011 - 2013) Distribution of fish eggs and larvae, and variability in space DEFRA (cefas - underway details requested from DEFRA) Proxy methods (such as remotely sensed fronts) for DRAFT MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY KNOWLEDGE NEEDS AND ISSUES  (v) Birds
Baseline observational data for seabirds to allow
MESPG : Collation of bird data for Pentland Firth and Orkney characterisation of regional seas areas affected by waters (part 1, 2, and 3) (completed Oct 2009) MESPG : development as well as offshore renewable energy sites, as Surveys of marine birds in and around marine areas proposed for well as migration routes and sites used for breeding birds / wave and tidal energy developments off the west coast of Scotland (completed May 2010) MESPG : Investigation of the utilisation of sea space by sea birds in the Orkney/ Pentland area, emphasising those areas indicated as having potential for tidal turbine installation (Nov 2015) DECC : Comparison of results of data collected in 3 representative areas of the N. Sea with older data (Completion ????); SOSS-05 Review of bird migration routes in relation to offshore wind farm development zones (finalised guidance by Nov 2011) Improved understanding of ecological and behavioural MESPG : The determination of foraging range and diving depths by characteristics of diving seabirds relevant to development of diving seabirds, especially in the Orkney and Pentland Firth wave and tidal resource areas (completed Aug 2010) Improved technology for surveying esp over large areas ie. Problem definition completed with BTO - technology developers Novel combinations of technology appropriate for R3 Review of existing technology for registering collisions with MESPG : Review of techniques to detect seabird presence and turbine blades and development of novel technology where movement below the sea surface and determine potential application in the vicinity of tidal turbines (completed August 2010) this work is underway for wind by SOSS 3.
How do abiotic and biotic factors control distribution / How do birds interact with surface and submerged wave and High priority for wave and tidal (SNCBs) tidal devices ?Population Viability Analysis for sensitive species - research High priority for wave and tidal (SNCBs) to improve the accuracy of inputs to the modelsTagging studies for key species to understand foraging, DECC: Tagging of gannets at Bempton Cliffs by RSPB; DECC: Tagging of lesser black backed gulls and great skua at various UK sites by BTO; DECC: Tagging of whooper swans, light-bellied Brent, Svalbard barnacle and Greenland white-fronted geese at various breeding and wintering sites by WWT. Standardisation of methods and establishment of best practice and /or consensus on guidance Integration of existing datasets to support interpretation (long term / inter annual) to inform a more spatially complete distribution mapping exercise (cf JCP for cetaceans) Population modelling - requires up to date demographic parameters and an understanding of the appropriate population scale to assess. This would inform the need for threshold levels to trigger adaptive management Update the JNCC Oilspill Vulnerability Index (OVI) to surface pollutants in the light of results from aerial and boat-based bird survey data - it would be useful to combine forces to develop an updated distribution map of bird species, using spatial modelling, and combining all available data (similar to JCP). This would inform future marine spatial planning.
DRAFT MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY KNOWLEDGE NEEDS AND ISSUES  (vi) Mammals
Need clearer definition on data requirements for consenting
Legislation - better quality more MESPG : Analysis of wildlife observation data (completed March robust information to support site 2011) DECC: Tagging, observation and acoustic study of the effects of piling noise on marine mammals in the outer Moray Firth by University of Aberdeen (SMRU) Updated info on the ecology of most marine mammal species MESPG : Abundance and distribution of cetaceans in the Pentland and in particular important areas for breeding, foraging and firth and Orkney waters (completed Feb 2011) Cetacean monitoring in the Pentalnd Firth tidal energy waters (completed July 2011) MESPG : Seal population viability study (completed April 2010) MESPG : To develop a PBR for seals across Scotland (completed August 2010) MESPG : Utilisation of space by grey and harbour seals in the Pentland Firth and Orkney waters (completed Jan 2011) DECC: Seal distribution and ecology - Further analysis of existing seal tag data for both species, UK wide and drawing in relevant European tagging data. Two year post-doctoral project at SMRU, with coordinated links to a SG funded project and an SNH/NERC CASE studentship The effects of behavioural disturbance and injury/death at a MESPG : Scoping study to investigate the development and population level, taking into acount the effects of single establishment of a marine mammal stranding scheme in Orkney developments and also the cumulative effects of several and Pentland Firth (Completed April 2011) CROWN ESTATE : developments within the natural range of populations Research into the interaction of seals with offshore wind farms Lack of knowledge of the physiological, behavioural, spatial DECC: Tagging of harbour seals to investigate behaviour in vicinity and temporal characteristics of marine mammal and prey of operating tidal turbines (Strangford Lough). Continuation of responses to construction and operational noise, and the existing SMRU project;DECC : Tagging and acoustic study of the influence of the local environment (some cross over between effects of wind farm construction and operation on harbour seals in offshore wind and tidal - (construction) and some between the south eastern North Sea 2102-2013 (SMRU); DECC: Tagging, observation and acoustic study of the effects of piling noise on marine mammals in the outer Moray Firth by University of Aberdeen (SMRU) Technology and methods to detect and observe mammal MESPG : Peer review of land based visual monitoring methods and DISCUSS ORETIC Technology innovation is needed to assist behaviour directly esp as scaling up from single device to protocols for wave and tidal test sites (completed March 2011) Acoustic interactions between marine mammals and devices Understand predator - prey behaviour at tidally active sites RESPONSE - FLOWBEC NERC - DEFRA projects just starting Analysis methods for integrating survey data from different sources /time periods into population level assessments (vii) Characterising non energy marine sectors and their
interactions with array development
Precision on the offshore distribution of navigation to allow
the identification and maintenance of priority navigation routes (good quality AIS data coverage typically only extends 50km from shore); Characterising activities of fishermen to better understand DEFRA : Development and piloting of low-cost Vessel Monitoring marine space use in areas where energy development Technology on English Inshore Vessels (Completed Oct 2011) planned (and processes for sharing information thus DEFRA : Low-cost VMS data analysis: Assessment and Understanding the ecosystem impacts of energy PhD student : Impact of MRE development on aquaculture and development on aquaculture and fisheries - potential costs fisheries focussing on impact on larval dispersal and benefitsDevelopment of processes to assist decision making in relation to co-location of different marine sector activities (viii) Stakeholder engagement
Development of methods / approaches for stakeholder
Improved public understanding of marine renewable energy LCRI - Communications programme cutting across all LCRI programme WPs to reach general public and promote general understanding DRAFT MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY KNOWLEDGE NEEDS AND ISSUES  (3) IMPACT PREDICTION AND ASSESSMENT
Improve quality of predictive tools for all critical project
components (ie for EIA) , plus regional and shelf scale decision making - also understanding of how to use them (i) Whole system & far field impacts
What is the sustainable capacity of the marine system as a
UKERC - research methods in development in relation to offshore whole for low carbon energy technologies ? Ie. UK waters wind - linking physical modelling and socio-economic valuation - 'Sustainable pathways to a low carbon future' What is the sustainable carrying capacity for each specific case study to be completed in phase 2 UKERC (by 2013) technology given practical resource limitations and interactions between different technologies ? What are the cumulative effects / long term and far field effects of each specific technology given the moving baseline deployment of new of climate change Which development pathways or energy technology mixes optmise the benefits and minimise the costs for the marine system and communities dependent upon it What development processes / methods should be adopted benefits ; reduce the risk of lock EPSRC current call outcome not known for quantifying the international / transboundary What is the impact of resource extraction by multiple arrays LCRI - Hydro environmenatal modelling to predict impacts of at bay / regional scale and interaction with sea level rise / energy extractiuon at key sites around the welsh coast (2011 to 2013): EPSRC current call outcome not known What is the impact of multiple arrays on physical processes LCRI - Quantification of the marine energy resource and env impact (esp sediment dynamics) and ecosystem functions of its use focussing on sediment dynamics (2011 2013); LCRI - Impacts of MRE development on coastal processes thro beach monitoring (2011-2013) What is the evidence for environmental impacts of renewable MESPG : Review of potential impacts of renewable energy development on Scotland's marine environment (completed June What are the ecological and socio-economic costs and DEFRA : Lyme Bay: A case study. Assessing recovery of benthic benefits of closing marine space for energy farms ? species; spill over effects and socio-economic impacts (TBC March 2012) Integration of socio-economic consequences of energy UKERC Phase 2 - systematic review based on ecosystem valuation (ii) Collisions (mammals birds fish)
Technology to detect / monitor collisions, observe
ETI - ReDAPT ; SOSS-03 work on developing methods for behavioural responses and for tracking - this is both aerial monitoring bird collisions (interim report by Sept 2011) Determination of incidence of collisions and consequences RESPONSE - NERC - DEFRA project just started; DEFRA : CSIP Cetacean Strandings around UK coast (TBC 2014) Improved methods / support for collating input parameters (ie global RESPONSE - NERC - DEFRA project just started ; SOSS02 A avoidance rates) into behavioural models of collision (birds, review of methods to estimate the risk of bird collisions with Consequences of collisions for protected species requires RESPONSE - NERC - DEFRA project just started ; SOSS-04: population level assessment - for both birds and mammals Gannet population viability analysis to assess the cumulative effect on the population from collisions with existing and planned offshore wind farms.
Consequences of collisions for different sized animals of Crown estate - Modelling collision risk for marine mammals Collision risk models for different at risk species in relation to MESPG : Estimate of collision risk of harbour porpoises and marine Collision risk assessment workshop in different infrastructure components (devices, moorings etc.) energy devices at high tidal stream sites (Completed Jun 2011) MESPG : Assessment methodology for determining collision risk of working on collision risk models - Mark marine renewable energy devices (excluding offshore wind farms) on marine birds (completed Sept 2010) Crown estate : the interaction of marine wildlife with tidal stream turbines at Ramsay Sound, Pembs (see also Risk assessment section below) How to reduce collision risk - considering location, device DEFRA / AEA projects by BTO ; SOSS-05: A review of bird migration routes in relation to offshore wind farm development Need to collate existing data on interactions with devices and SOSS-02: A review of methods to estimate the risk of bird collisions obtain new empirical / field data on impacts with offshore wind farms. plus Aquatera report about to be released (SG) DRAFT MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY KNOWLEDGE NEEDS AND ISSUES  (iii) Displacement / disturbance
Impacts on individuals and knock on impacts for MAMMAL
MESPG : Utilisation of space by grey and harbour seals in the High priority for both birds and mammals BIRD AND FISH populations (behaviour / reproduction / Pentalnd Firth and Orkney waters (completed Jan 2011) Review of migratory routes and behaviour of salmon trout and eels in Scotland (completed Jan 2011) Land based observations of vertebrate behaviour at EMEC Scapa Flow and Shapinsay nursery sites to establish whether changes as result of presence of wave and tidal devices (TBC March 2012) LCRI - Behaviour of marine mammals at Ramsay Sound development site (2011 - 2013) Tools / methods to measure displacement - both temporal SOSS-01A: Collation and review of bird survey data from existing High priority for both birds and mammals offshore wind farm sites to assess data suitability for estimating bird displacement rates.
What are the factors driving displacement / habituation (dose RESPONSE - NERC - DEFRA just started ; HRWallingford response + thresholds) and development of predictive predictive model development for noise (recently announced) models The ecological significance of field responses of fish and seals to electromagnetic fields associated with cables; (iv) Socio-economic impacts
Methods to quantify socio-economic impacts of temporarily
DECC / TCE : Fine scale distribution of fishing effort gears and disrupted or permanently displaced fishing activity with knock long term sustainability of catches for smaller vessels in R3 wind farm zones (Completion date unknown) DEFRA : Low-cost VMS data analysis: Assessment Quantitative information on effects (both short and longer Cost impact review of fishing effects and lrecovery times for term) of fishing activity in and immediately adjacent to different gears (Completed 2010) NERc - PhD case study area North Hoyle (TBC March 2012) Crown Estate study of potential impact of fishing no-take zones on seabed habitats. (completed 2010 ?) (v) Risk assessment
Adaptation of generic risk assessment methods for :
- integration risk approaches into whole project life cycle - risks to specific legally protected species (population - risks of collision with devices / arrays - risk based approaches to post implementation monitoring (vi) Cumulative impact assessment
Development of framework for Cumulative Impact
CROWN ESTATE : discussion paper - responses being collated Joint initiative RUK / TCE and MREKE for two High priority (Nov 2011) MMO review Tender out : 'Evaluation of the current state of knowledge on potential cumulative effects from offshore Framework / approach to assessing cumulative impact of windfarms to inform marine planning and licensing' (TBC Feb 2012) MESPG : Assessment methodology for determining cumulative Implications of array size(s) / location (s) for collision risk / impacts of marine renewable energy devices (excluding offshore wind farms) on marine birds (completed august 2010) Implications of clusters of schemes for determining impacts of individual schemes Implications of arrays and multiple arrays on birds and mammals with Uk wide / European distributions (carrying capacity ? ) DRAFT MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY KNOWLEDGE NEEDS AND ISSUES  (4) MITIGATION and MONITORING
Facilitate development of central data repositories for Promotes cost effective use and Crown estate, DECC NaREC Capital baseline, monitoring and other data products Facilitate access to field research data and monitoring at Promotes and facilitates industry Potential ecological impacts of a small scale tidal device at the Isle Faciltate learning from other sectors to support monitoring - eg. Ports and harbours, aggregates, cabling, onshore wind - indigenous sector knowledge much of data is under analysed about environmental; impacts of technology to support licensing Review design principles for monitoring programmes and Cost efficiencies combined with MESPG : Guidance on survey and monitoring in relation to marine Check CEFAS guidance adequate _ meeting High priority for all to reduce costs of mechanisms for feedback to 'deploy and monitor' improved information to support renewable energy development in Scotland (Completed March 2011) Peer review of land based observations and their capacity to detect impacts (Mar 2011 - delayed) Review consenting processes and identify where barriers to Cost efficiencies combined with streamlining improved information to support decision making Review new, currently used or potential monitoring technologies - develop strategy for field testing and Mitigation of noise impacts from piledriving turbine towers for Legislation and impact on build TCE : Workshop series to define cross industry programme to test offshore wind (and some tidal turbine technologies) Mitigation of collision risk - considering location, device type, Legislation and long term MESPG : Use of acoustic devices to warn marine mammals of tidal species (once we know the mechanisms of interaction) energy devices (Completed June 2011) DEFRA : Identifying a range of options to prevent avian collision with wind turbines, using a UK-based case study (completed Oct 2010) Mitigation of displacement risk for legally protected species MESPG : Production of guidance wrt to EPS (ongoing) Mitigation of displacement risks for migrating species birds, or those foraging / breeding in SPAs adjacent to development sites Mitigation of conflict with marine conservation zones MMO : (about to be commissioned) 'Evaluation of the potential for co-location of activities and interests in Marine Plan areas'. (completion due feb 2012) Quantifying spillover effects at energy development sites Cost efficiencies combined with MESPG : Monitoring of the fishery in a no-take zone established at improved information to support the Billia Croo wave test sites at EMEC (August 2011) NERC - decision making DEFRA : QBEX - quantifying the benefits of no take as result of development of a marine renewable energy site (Commissioning still underway) CROWN ESTATE : an examination of the potential impact of fishing no-take zones on seabed habitats. Case studies to demonstrate effective economic mitigation of DEFRA : Lyme Bay: A case study. Assessing recovery of benthic species; spill over effects and socio-economic impacts (2008 to 2012) NERC - DEFRA QBEX project just starting NERC PhD student ship (2012 finish) Longer term studies to assess ecosystem and socio-economic impact of windfarms Ecological consequences of introducing novel structures for enhanced productivity and / or biodiversity protection

Source: https://ke.services.nerc.ac.uk/Marine/Members/Documents/MRE%20Knowledge%20Needs%20Inventory%20-%20Jan%202012.pdf

Microsoft word - 0508_stryjan_pdf.doc

Fachbereich Wirtschaft Faculty of Business The practice of social entrepreneurship: Wismarer Diskussionspapiere / Wismar Discussion Papers Der Fachbereich Wirtschaft der Hochschule Wismar, University of Technology, Busi-ness and Design bietet die Präsenzstudiengänge Betriebswirtschaft, Management so-zialer Dienstleistungen, Wirtschaftsinformatik und Wirtschaftsrecht sowie die Fer

San felice ok

Quest'umile fratello laico cappuccino nacque il 18-5-1515 a Cantalice (Rieti) da poveri, ma onesti contadini. Felice aveva appena otto anni quando il padre, costretto dalla necessità, anziché a scuola, lo mandò a custodire gli armenti del nobile Marco Tullio Pichi di Cittaducale. Il predestinato fanciullo s'impose presto all'ammirazione del suo padrone, che volle dargli alloggio nel suo stess

Copyright © 2010-2014 Medicament Inoculation Pdf