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Amanda Spink & Minsoo ParkUniversity of Pittsburgh Interactive Information Retrieval
z How is interactive IR constructed by humans? z Interactive IR is a complex process of coordinating and interplay of various tasks, including information tasks and interactive tasks z Interactive IR within a multitasking framework z What do we already know about multitasking behavior? Multitasking Behavior
Interactive IR in the broader interdisciplinary context: cognitive psychology, human factors Multitasking is the ability of humans to handle the demands of multiple tasks by task switching Dual tasking is the human ability to simultaneously handle the demands of multiple tasks simultaneously, e.g., talking while driving Multitasking researchers: Just, et al (2001), Rubenstein, et al (2001), Wickens (1992) Interactive IR as a Multitasking Behavior
z Interactive IR is a multitasking process on two levels: information z Level 1: Multitasking information behavior z Level 2: Interactive/search task interplay Level 1: Multitasking Information Behaviors
z Interactive IR embedded within human information behavior z Humans translate of their information problems into a coherent z Humans are often engaged in multiple information problem z Humans switch between different or related information problems Multitasking Information Behavior or
Information Task Switching

z Humans are often search for information on more than one topic z Information tasks may be related or distinct, e.g., (1) gardening & z Information task switching by library users – Spink (JDoc 2004)z Information task switching and interplay between information and non-information task switching - Spink & Park (forthcoming) z Studies show multitasking by IR system and Web users – Spink, Ozmutlu & Ozmutlu (2002), Ozmutlu, Ozmultu & Spink (2003a, b) z Studies with Excite,, Alta Vista and Vivisimo Web query data - Spink & Jansen (in press) Information Seeking and
Number of Search
Number of Search
Searching Level
Level 1: Single Search
on a Single Topic
Level 2: Successive
Level 3: Multiple Topic
Searching (Multitasking)
Level 4: Multi-Tasking
and Successive
Level 2: Interactive Task Interplay/Switching
z Users coordinate a sustained complex and coherent interplay of z Users switch between different interactive/search tasks Interactive IR as Multitasking
z Model of interactive IR as multitasking z Initial diagramming of the factors that may affect task switching z Draws on cognitive science and human factors studies Model of Interactive IR as Multitasking
Nature/complexity of content in
relation to domain knowledge

High levels of task switching
Amount/depth of information
Cons: possible loss of
Need to batch and
processing required – that may
coordinate multiple
require a stop to the present task
Pros: Deal with multiple
information tasks
for processing elsewhere/another
information tasks effectively
Task Switching:
Information Problem
Tasks and
Cognitive Styles
Individual Differences
Interactive IR within a Multitasking

z Embeds interactive IR research within the broader framework of z In the broader research context, multitasking is considered a common behavior, but counter-productive. z However, interactive IR context is constructed as a process of coordinated task switching on different levels z Therefore, interactive IR is only achieved through multitasking at Further Research
z Currently conducting studies to investigate: z Degree and patterns of interactive IR task switching z How users construct and coordinate their multitasking behaviors z Relation to information seeking stage, domain knowledge, gender QUESTIONS??


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