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Rapport 3 - 1-5,7,8, 1

Chapter 8
Wayfi nding
Wayfi nding
Contents
Introduction
Standards
Output form Projects
User Requirements
Conclusions
Introduction
The term “Wayfi nding” is defi ned as services and products, which could be used as a tool for users to access information which is associated with geographically located information. These tools are used to navigate from one place to another, but could also be used to access other information services, which are location aware.
Wayfi nding is the process the user does when moving from one location to another. E.g. from the hospital to visit a family member and need to fi nd the correct department and room. For the user, this process can be divided in to several subtasks: Where am I going? How to get there? Where am I? Am I on the right track? Am I there? To do these tasks the user need to get information both in the planning stage and from the environment when moving there. This could be a problem for many people - if they are not able to read, they have problems with the orientation, they have problems with handling new information, and they have problems with keeping track of the sequence.
Several projects have shown that properly designed supporting tools will be of great help to persons with these problems.
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Standards
Standardisation work is today mainly located Potential future work
under two headings: – geographic information
CEN/TC 293 Ad-hoc Group on Communication systems and Transport information and control Aids has identifi ed electronic maps as an area systems. There are groups working under ISO and CEN within these areas, but today the main activities is under the ISO umbrella. There are also currently under consideration to come up with a proposal for a standard for In the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) wayfi nding technology under the ISO / TC 204 there is also input to potential activities which Transport information and control systems. This could be of great benefi t in a Design for All has its origin in “Talking Signs” technology.
Under the Mobile Access area in the User Some areas, which could have specifi c interest Interface Domain of the W3C there has been for a Design for All perspective, are the submitted several proposals for markup languages to enable location and related information to be available to web enabled ISO /TC 204 Transport information and devices.
control systems.
Standardisation of information, communication
and control systems in the fi eld of urban
and rural surface transportation, including
intermodal and multimodal aspects thereof,
traveller information, traffi c management, public
transport, commercial transport, emergency
services and commercial services in the
transport information and control systems
(TICS) fi eld.
ISO / TC 211 Geographic information/
Geomatics
Standardisation in the fi eld of digital geographic
information. This work aims to establish a
structured set of standards for information
concerning objects or phenomena that are
directly or indirectly associated with a location
relative to the Earth.
ISO / TC 213 Dimensional and geometrical
product specifi cations and verifi cation
Standardisation in the fi
standardisation includes the basic layout and explanation of drawing indications (symbols). Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Output from Projects
There have been several projects looking at characteristics, e.g. male and female voice. how to support people navigate in the physical The use of voice characteristics should be space. In TIDE there were three projects: consistent throughout the system.
Ariadne, Mobic and Open. Results from the fi rst two projects are reported. In this chapter there Verbal messages should have a user-controlled is also some results from a national project repeat option.
in Norway. In addition there have been other projects like SEAL in Italy and Talking Signs in Messages should be offered by a ”wearable speaker” or headphones as some messages are only for individual use.
Positioning and use of public speakers should ARIADNE - Access, Information and Navigation consider the room acoustics and environment Support in the Labyrinth of Large Buildings background noise.
(4th fw EU project). The main project goal has been to develop and evaluate a technology for navigating in buildings by means of user- Sound buoys:
adapted information supported by a building Blind users depend upon the use of sound network of signs and speakers.
buoys as directional references when navigating in unfamiliar surroundings.
Spoken messages:
Sound buoys should be placed with suffi ciently The use of verbal messages, whether natural or short distance between them, so that the next artifi cial voice, is a challenge for the user, as he sound buoy can easily be detected from the can not investigate and absorb the information Blind users want to be able to control the Spoken messages should be presented in a performance of the sound buoy, in terms of compact language, and should not be too long. onset, offset and duration. In unfamiliar Messages should not contain more than 3-4 surroundings the user will normally require a information elements (geographic references sound signal to guide them all the way to their and/or directional cues), as users tend to forget or mix up elements if they are too many.
Blind users will need an auditive confi rmation The user expects to receive information relevant that they have reached their (sub)goal.
to his navigational goal. Irrelevant information about the environment and localisation When sound buoys are accompanied by a descriptions that include features in the verbal message, the message should be played environment will often distract or mislead the fi rst, and end of message should trigger onset of the sound buoy. Users will have problems focusing on both sound messages at the same Relative directional references (e.g. ”turn right”) as part of route information should be avoided, unless the user movement is controlled in a Sound buoys should be positioned so that room way so that his facial orientation is always acoustics does not make it diffi cult to localise. Open halls with concrete walls are particularly unsuitable.
Different types of verbal information (e.g. route descriptions and environment information) Sound buoys should be positioned in relation should be presented by use of different voice to relevant reference points along the route.
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Visual information:
Visual information includes directional and information must be timed correctly. When a orientation signage, architecture and use of low- sound message address specifi c visual cues, tech solutions (colour, tactile markings etc.). It the user will normally do a visual search for is important to apply a complete way-fi nding the information when it appears in the verbal strategy that includes all aspects contributing message. to better or worse orientation in a building. The use of dynamic information (information When using multiple mode information (sound changing with the situation) requires thorough and illumination) the visual information should last until after the message has fi nished. This because the user will normally face the direction Visual information must be positioned so that it is visible from all areas where the user might have
a natural interest in the information conveyed.
There should not be obstacles between the TIDE Mobic
sign and the user, and it must be considered that users are of different a height (e.g. wheel- The following was found to be essential in the TIDE Mobic project. The service needs to know: When using many signs in the same area denoting several possible destinations, it is • The user’s current location including: direction important to emphasise/attract attention to the information relevant to the user in the situation. Illuminating or marking relevant information can • Directions to destination for example: number of streets/turns, distances (in feet, metres or approximate number of steps).
The use of bright, fl ashing or coloured signs will normally attract the users attention. Irrelevant • Layout of the environment for example: grading information of these types must be placed well away from essential way-fi nding information to surfaces/levels, steps/underpasses, ramps, one When using fl ashing signs and illumination, it • Street information including: numbers of is important to consider the light conditions in buildings.
the environment (light glares and refl ections), choice of colours and contrast in the signs, and • Street furniture for example: trees, parking The appearance of the information must be meters, stands, tables etc. outside shops, consistent throughout the system, i.e. the same grading of street furniture/”clutter”1.
sign behaviour (e.g. fl ashing) should convey the same information in all situations for the • Pedestrian crossings including: Is it meant to same type of signs. Dynamic information must bleep? If it is out of order? Layout of complex appear in a predictable way to the user, and crossings.
same type of information should be controlled/varied by the same principles.
• Useful items in street for example: post boxes, public telephones, public toilets Use of symbols on the signs should be consistent with corresponding use of symbols • Useful buildings and landmarks for example: in other everyday situations (e.g. telephone, post offi ces, hospitals, medical centres, schools, toilets, elevator signs).
banks (including those with cash machines), libraries, restaurants (including whether guide When using multiple mode information (sound Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Speech navigation
If the speech navigator should replace traditional The speech navigator is a project funded mobility aids (dog or white cane), the available by the research council of Norway. A pre- information must be more detailed, positioning project investigating technological and user- must be more accurate, and the information centered potential for development of a hand- supplied must be 100% trustable. Meaning held route planner and navigation unit for the that today’s GPS technology must be radically blind, based on GPS, electronic maps and improved.
speech interface.
Interface requirements for blind users
All information from the wearable unit (WU)
should be available in speech, with an option of
tactile output.
Input should be based on speech command and/or single button presses.
The command set should be limited and have a logical structure related to the navigational task when moving along a predefi ned route.
User interaction with the WU must be profi led for the specifi c user. This profi le should be possible to tailor and set up for personal needs, and be possible to alter at a later stage when the user’s needs and experience change.
Interaction with the WU must not interfere with the users normal way of navigating, meaning: 1) it must be possible to operate with one hand (as blind users use a cane or a dog) and 2) The information from the WU should be considered optional to their traditional navigation aid, and function as supporting the user with extra information.
Navigation
The WU must be able to give the user’s
position at any time with a simple command.
The position information should be available
both with reference to the destination and by
description of local surroundings.
Route information must be available at any point along the route.
The system must give an unsolicited warning when the user moves away from the predefi ned route, and preferably offer information on how to get back on track.
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
User Requirements
Location and Accessing Terminals
Home Environment
The system should enable the user to have access to planning information on the terminals inhis/her home via TV and/or PC.
Public Environment
The user should have access to his position both outdoors and indoors in an understandable formaton his preferred terminal.
The user should have access to basic information of his environment both indoors and outdoors inan understandable format on his preferred terminal.
Mobile Environment
Basic wayfinding information should be available on standard mobile service technology.
Requirements
Standardisation
Physical
The wayfinding service should be based on a standard format such that the user could use A terminal independent format for accessing multimodal navigational information.
deliver services to terminals with differentoutput media and input modalities.
Auditory Visual
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Requirements
Standardisation
Cognitive
If a public area is supported with Wayfinding Dexterity
The wayfinding service should be based on standard format such that the user could use A terminal independent format for accessing multimodal navigational information.
deliver services to terminals with differentoutput media and input modalities.
Combination
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Physical Handling
Home Environment
The system should enable the user to have access to planning information on the terminals inhis/hers home e.g. TV and/or PC.
Public Environment
The user should have access to his position both outdoors and indoors in an understandable formaton his preferred terminal The user should have access to basic information of his environment both indoors and outdoors inan understandable format on his preferred terminal.
Mobile Environment
Basic wayfinding information should be available on standard mobile services technology.
Specialised terminals should not require specialised formatted information.
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
User Interface
Requirements
Standardisation
Physical
Auditory
The service should support both delivery of both spoken messages and use of synthetic Messages should not contain more than 3-4information elements.
Different types of verbal information shouldbe presented by use of different voicecharacteristics.
The service should support the delivery of the information in a visual format both with plain The use of symbols should be consistent with corresponding use in other everydaysituations.
Cognitive
The appearance of the information should be When using multiple mode information, thevisual information should last until after themessage has finished.
Dexterity Combination
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Operation
Home Environment
These should be standardised location technology with high enough resolution in horizontal andvertical space for indoor and outdoor use. This technology should be able to store importantinformation or decision points in the indoor and outdoor environment.
The location technology should contain necessary multimodal information about the environment.
The location technology should be readable with a user portable wayfinding technology.
The wayfinding system should have access to relevant information for the user such as described inthe Mobic project.
Mobile Environment
The wayfinding system should give direction to destination.
Interaction with the wayfinding service must not interfere with the users normal way of navigatione.g. with cane or dog.
Requirements
Standardisation
Physical
The location technology should be easy to Auditory
The wayfinding system should notify the userwhen he has reach a goal feedback when a (sub)goal is reached.
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Requirements
Standardisation
Cognitive
The user should not receive other information than what is relevant for his navigational A standard set of commands for navigation The command set should be limited and havea logical structure related to the navigationaltask.
Relative directional references should beavoided.
Dexterity Combination
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Adaptation to User Profi le
Requirements
Standardisation
Physical Auditory Visual
Cognitive
It should be possible to tailor and set up the A standardised way of storing and using userprofiles with navigational tasks.
Dexterity Combination
Security of Operation
Public Environment
The technology should not put the user in dangerous situations.
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00
Wayfi nding
Conclusions
A terminal independent format for accessing multimodal navigational information should be specifi ed in W3C.
These should be standardised a location technology with high enough resolution in horizontal and vertical space for indoor and outdoor use in ISO/TC 204.
Electronic maps which are accessible to different technology and to different user requirements should be standardised in CEN/TC 293 or a CEN Workshop.
A standard set of commands for navigation tasks should be developed.
Standard symbols for marking wayfi nding technology present should be developed.
Design for All - ICTSB Project Team
Final Background Report 15.05.00

Source: http://www.ict.etsi.org/activities/Design_for_All/Documents/08%20Wayfinding.pdf

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