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Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday,
the twenty second day of July, nineteen hundred and ninety-one
Republic Act No. 7394
THE CONSUMER ACT OF THE PHILIPPINES
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:
ARTICLE 1. Short Title
- This act shall be known as the "Consumer Act of the Philippines".
ARTICLE 2. Declaration of Basic Policy
-It is the policy of the State to protect the interest of the
consumer, promote his general welfare and to establish standards of conduct for business and industry.
Towards this end, the State shall implement measures to achieve the following objectives:
a. protection against hazards to health and safety; b. protection against deceptive, unfair and unconscionable sales acts and practices; c. provision of information and education to facilitate sound choice and the proper exercise of rights by the consumer; d. provision of adequate rights and means of redress; and e. involvement of consumer representatives in the formulation of social and economic policies.
ARTICLE 3. Construction -
The best interest of the consumer shall be considered in the interpretation
and implementation of the provisions of this Act, including its implementing rules and regulations.
ARTICLE 4. Definition of Terms
- For purposes of this Act, the term:
" means the prepared and through any form of mass medium, subsequently
applied, disseminated or circulated advertising matter.
" means the business of conceptualizing, presenting or making available to the
public, through any form of mass media, fact, data or information about the attributes, features, quality or availability of consumer products, services or credit.
c) "Advertising agency or Agent
" means a service organization or enterprise creating, conducting,
producing, implementing or giving counsel on promotional campaigns or program through any medium for and in behalf of any advertiser.
" means the client of the advertising agency or the sponsor of the Advertisement on
whose account the advertising is prepared, conceptualized, presented or disseminated.
e) "Agricultural purpose"
means a purpose related to the production, harvest, processing,
manufacture, distribution, storage, transportation, marketing, exhibition, or disposition of agricultural, fishery or marine products.
f) "Amount financed"
in a consumer credit sale constitutes the cash price plus non-finance
charges less the amount of any down payment whether made in cash or in property traded in, or in a consumer loan the amount paid to, receivable by or paid or payable to the buyer or to another person in his behalf.
g) "Banned h azardous substance"
means (1) any toy or other articles intended for use by
children, which are hazardous per se, or which bear or contain substances harmful to human beings; or (2) any hazardous substance intended or packaged in a form suitable for use in the household, which the implementing agency by regulation, classifies as "banned hazardous
substance" notwithstanding the existence of cautionary labels, to safeguard public health and safety: Provided, That the implementing agency may, by regulation, exempt from this Act, articles which by reason of their functional purpose require the inclusion of the hazardous substance involved and which bear appropriate labels giving adequate directions and warnings for their safe use. Procedures for the issuance, amendment or repeal of regulations pursuant to clause (2) or paragraph (g) of this Article shall be governed by the rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Health: Provided, That if the use of the hazardous substance involved presents an imminent general circulation a notice of such finding and such substance shall be deemed to be a "banned hazardous substance" pending the issuance of regulation formally banning such substance.
h) "Batch" means
a quantity of any drug or device produced during a given cycle of manufacture.
"Business name, firm name or style"
means any name or designation other than the true name
of a person, partnership, corporation or association which is used or signed in connection with
his/its business or in
1) any written or printed receipt, including receipt for tax on business; 2) any written or printed contract not verified by a notary public; 3) any written or printed evidence of any agreement or business transaction; and 4) any sign or billboard kept conspicuously exhibited in plain view in or the place of the
business, announcing a firm name or business name or style.
"Cash price or delivered price",
in case of trade transaction, means the amount of money
which would constitute full payment upon delivery of the property (except money) or service
purchased at the creditor’s place of business. In the case of financial transactions, cash price
represents the amount received by the debtor upon consummation of the credit transaction, net of
collected at the time the credit is extended, if any;
k) "Chain distribution plans" or "pyramid sales schemes"
means sales devices whereby a
person, upon condition that he makes an investment, is granted by the manufacturer or his representative a right to recruit for profit one or more additional persons who will also be granted such right to recruit upon condition of making similar investments: Provided, That, the profits of the person employing such a plan are derived primarily from the recruitment of other persons into the plan rather than from the sales of consumer products, services and credit: Provided, further, That the limitation on the number of participants does not change the nature of the plan.
"Closing out sale"
means a consumer sale wherein the seller uses the announcement to create
the impression that he is willing to give large discounts or merchandise in order to reduce,
dispose or close out his inventory and business.
means the sale, lease, exchange, traffic or distribution of goods, commodities,
productions, services or property, tangible or intangible.
" means a natural person who is a purchaser, lessee, recipient or prospective
purchase, lease or recipient of consumer products, services or credit.
o) "Consumer credit"
means any credit extended by a creditor to a consumer for the sale or lease
of any consumer product or service under which part or all of the price or payment therefore is payable at some future time, whether in full or in installments.
p) "Consumer loan"
means a loan made by the lender to a person which is payable in installment
for which a finance charge is or may be imposed. This term includes credit transactions pursuant to an open-end-credit plan other than a seller credit card.
q) "Consumer products and services"
means goods, servi ces and credits, debts or obligations
which are primarily for personal, family, household or agricultural purposes, which shall include but not limited to, food, drugs, cosmetics and devices.
r) "Consumer product safety rule"
means a consumer product safety standard described in
Article 78 or a rule under this Chapter declaring a consumer product banned hazardous product.
s) "Consumer transaction"
means (1)(i) a sale, lease, assignment, award by change, or other
disposition of consumer products, including chattels that are intended to be affixed to land, or of services, or of any right, title, or interest therein, except securities as defined in the Securities Act and contracts of insurance under the Insurance Code, or (ii) grant of provision of credit to a consumer
for purposes that are primarily solicitation or promotion by a supplier with respect to a transaction referred to in clause (1).
" means any substance which on contact with living tissue will cause destruction of
" means (1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed on,
introduced into or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and (2) article except that such term shall not include soap.
v) "Counterfeit product"
means any consumer product which or the container or labeling of which,
without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint or device, or any likeness thereof, of a consumer product, manufacturer, processor, packer, distributor, other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, processed, packed or distributed such product and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been packed or distributed by such consumer product manufacturer, processor, packer or distributor.
w) "Credit Card"
means any card, plate, coupon book, or other credit device existing for the
purpose of obtaining money, property, labor or services on credit.
x) "Credit Sale"
mean a sale of products, services or an interest in land to a person on credit where
a debt is payable in installments or a finance charge is imposed and includes any agreement in the form of a bailment of products or lease of products or real property if the bailee or lessee pays or agrees to pay compensation for use a sum substantially equivalent to or in excess of the aggregate value of the products or real property upon full compliance with the terms of the agreement.
means a transaction between a natural person and a creditor in which real or personal
property services or money acquired on credit and the person’s obligation is payable in the installment.
means any person engaged in the business of extending credit and shall include any
person who as a regular business practice makes loans or sells or rents property or services on a time, credit or installment basis, either as principal or as agent who requires as an incident to the extension of credit, the payment of a finance charge.
aa) "Default or delinquency charge"
means with respect to a consumer credit transaction, the
penalty charge payable by the consumer - debtor for failure to pay an amount or installment in full on the date the same becomes due and demandable, or on or before the period specified for the purpose in the consumer credit sale document.
" means an instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro
reagent, or other similar or related article including any component, part or accessory which is (1) recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) or any supplement to them; (2) intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other condition or in the cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in man or other animals; or (3) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, and which does not achieve any of its principal intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of any of its principal intended purposes.
" means any person to whom a consumer product is delivered or sold for purposes of
distribution in commerce, except that such term does not include a manufacturer or retailer of such product.
" means (1) articles recognized in the current official United States Pharmacopoeia-
National Formulary, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, official National
Drug Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; and (2) articles intended for use in the
diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; and (3)
articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or
animals; and (4) articles intended for use as a component of any articles specified in clauses (1),
(2) or (3) but do not include devices or their components, parts or accessories.
The term "drug
" when used in this Act shall include herbal and/or traditional drug. They are
defined as articles from ingenuous plants or animal origin used in fold medicine which are: (1)
recognized in the Philippine National Formulary; (2) intended for use in the treatment or cure,
mitigation of disease symptoms, injury or bodily defect for use in man; (3) other than food, intended to affect the structure of any function of the body of man; (4) put into finishes, ready to use form by means of formulation, dosage or dosage directions; and (5) intended for use as a component of any of the articles specified in clauses (1), (2), (3), and (4) of this paragraph.
ae) "Expiry or expiration date"
means the date stated on the label of food, drug, cosmetic, device
or hazardous substance efficacy and quality or potency and after which it is no longer permissible to sell them.
af) "Extremely flammable"
means any substance which has a flash point at or below negative six
and six-tenths degrees centigrade as determined by the Tagliabue Open Club Tester; and the term "combustible" shall apply to any substance which has flash point of above twenty-six and six-tenths degrees to and including sixty-five and five-tenths degrees centigrade and determined by the Tagliabue Open Club Tester: Provided, That the flammability or combustibility of solids and of the contents of self-pressurized containers shall be determined through methods found by the implementing agency to be generally applicable to such materials or containers, respectively and established by regulations issued by it.
" means any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, intended for human
consumption includes chewing gum, drinks and beverages and any substance which has been used as an ingredient or a component in the manufacture, preparation or treatment of food.
ah) "Food Additives"
means any substance, the intended use of which results or may reasonably be
expected to result directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or other wise affecting the characteristics of any food (including any substance intended for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting or holding food; and including any source of radiation intended for any such use), if such substance is not generally recognized, among experts qualified as having been adequately shown through scientific procedures to be safe under the conditions of the intended use.
is the identification of drugs and medicines by their scientifically and
internationally recognized active ingredients or by their official generic name as determined by the Bureau of Food and Drugs of the Department of Health.
means an expressed or implied assurance of the quality of the consumer products
and services offered for sale or length of satisfactory use to be expected from a product or other similar specified assurances.
ak) "Hazardous Substance"
(1) (i) Any substance or mixture of substances which is toxic, corrosive, irritant, a strong
sensitizer, flammable or combustible or generates pressure through decomposition, heat or other means, if such substance or mixture or substances may cause substantial injury or substantial illness during or as a proximate result of any customary or reasonably foreseable ingestion by children;
(ii) Any substance which the department finds to be under the categories enumerated in
(iii) Any radioactive substance, if, with respect to such substance as used in a particular class
of article or as package, the Department, upon approval of the Department determines by regulation that the substance is sufficiently hazardous to require labeling in accordance with this Section in order to protect the public health;
(iv) Any toy or other articles intended for use by children which the director may, by
regulation, determine the presence of an electrical, mechanical or thermal hazard.
(2) This term shall not apply to food, drugs, cosmetics, and devices nor to substances intended
for use as fuels when stored in containers and used in the heating, cooking or refrigeration system of a house, but such terms shall apply to any article which is not in itself a pesticide but which is a hazardous substance, as construed in clause (a) of paragraph (1) by reason of bearing or containing such harmful substances described therein.
al) "Highly toxic"
means any substance which has any of the following effects: (1) produces death
within fourteen days to one half or more than one half of a group of ten or more laboratory white rats each weighing between Two hundred and three hundred grams, at a single dose of fifty milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight, when orally administered; or (2) produces death within fourteen
days to one half or more of a group of ten or more laboratory white rates each weighing between two hundred and three hundred grams, when inhaled continuously for a period of one hour or less at an atmospheric concentration of two hundred parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor or two milligrams per liter by volume or less of mist or dust, provided such concentration is likely to be encountered by man when the substance is used in any reasonably foreseeable manner; or (3) produces death within fourteen days to one half or more of a group of ten or more rabbits, when tested in a dosage of two hundred milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight, or when administered through continuous contact with the bare skin for twenty-four hours or less.
am) "Home solicitation sale"
means consumer sales or leases which are personally solicited by any
person or organization by telephone, person to person contact or by written or printed communication other than general advertising or consummated at the buyer’s residence or a place of business, at the seller’s transient quarters, or away from a seller’s regular place of business.
an) "Immediate container"
means the container or package which is immediately after or near the
substance but does not include package liners. Imminently hazardous product" means a consumer product which presents a unreasonable risk of death, serious illness or severe personal injury.
ao) "Imminently hazardous product"
means a consumer product which is immediately after or near
the substance but does not include package liners.
" means any substance not corrosive within the meaning of paragraph (t) of this Article
which, on immediate, prolonged, or repeated contact with normal living tissue will induce a local inflammatory reaction.
aq) "Label, labeling"
means the display of written, printed or graphic matter on any consumer
product, its immediate container, tag, literature or other suitable material affixed thereto for the purpose of giving information as to the identity, components, ingredients, attributes, directions for use, specifications, and such other information as may be required by law or regulations.
" means any and all operations involved in the production, including preparation,
propagation, processing, formulating, filling, packing, repacking, altering, ornamenting, finishing or otherwise change the container, wrapper or labeling of a consumer product in the furtherance of the distribution of the same from the original place of manufacture to the person who makes the final delivery or sale to the ultimate consumer.
" means any person who manufactures, assembles or processes consumer
products except that if the goods are manufactured, assembled or processed for another person who attaches his own brand name to the consumer products, the latter shall be deemed the manufacturer. In case of imported products, the manufacture’s representative or, in his absence, the importer, shall be deemed the manufacturer.
at) "Mass Media"
refers to any means or methods used to convey advertising messages to the
public such as television, radio, magazines, cinema, billboards, posters, streamers, hand bills, leaflets, mails and the like.
au) "Materially defective product"
means a product which, because of the pattern of the defect, the
number of defective products distributed in commerce and the severity of the risk or otherwise, creates a substantial risk of injury to the public.
av) "Mislabeled hazardous substance"
means any hazardous substance intended, or packaged in
a form suitable, for use in households, especially by children, the packaging or labeling of which is in violation of the special packaging regulation issued by the Department of Health under Article 91 or if such substance fails to bear a label which (1) states conspicuously (i) the name and the exact address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor or seller; (ii) the common or usual name of the hazardous substance or of each component which contributes substantially to the harmfulness of the substance, unless the Department by regulation approved by the Department permits or requires the use of the recognized generic name; (iii) the signal word "danger" on substance which are extremely flammable, corrosive, or highly toxic; (iv) the signal word "warning" or "caution" on all other hazardous substance; (v) a frank statement of the principal hazard or hazards involved, as "flammable", "vapor harmful". "Causes burns", "absorbed through skin", or similar wording modified by regulation by the Department pursuant to Section 46 (vi) instructions, when necessary or appropriate, for first aid treatment; (vii) the word "poison" for any hazardous substance which is defined as highly toxic; (viii) instructions for handling and storage
of pac kages which require special care in handling or storage; and (ix) the statement "keep out of the reach of children" or its practical equivalent, if the article is intended for use by children and is not a banned hazardous substance, with adequate directions for the protection of children from the hazard involved. The aforementioned signal words, affirmative statements, description of precautionary measures, necessary instructions or other words or statements may be in the English language or its equivalent in filipino; and 2) on which any statement required under clause (1) of this paragraph are located prominently and in contrast by typography, layout, with other printed matters on the label.
aw) "New Drugs"
means (1) any drug the composition of which is such that said drug is not generally
recognized among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety,
efficacy, and quality of drugs as safe, efficacious, and of good quality for use under the conditions
prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof; or (2) any drug the
composition of which is such that said drug, as a result of its previous investigations to determine
its safety, efficacy and good quality for use under certain conditions, has become so recognized
but which is not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a
material time under new conditions. "New Drugs"
shall include drugs (a) containing a newly discovered active ingredients; (b)
containing a new fixed combination of drugs, either by molecular or physical combination; (c)
intended for new indications; (d) an additional new mode of administration; or (e) in an additional
dosage or strength of the dosage form, which meets the conditions as defined under the new
drugs. The definition of "new drugs" covers, to the extent applicable, "new devices"
ax) "New Product"
means a consumer product which incorporate a design, material or form of
energy exchange which has not previously been used substantially in consumer products and as to which there exists a lack of adequate information to determine the quality and safety of such product if used by the consumers.
ay) "Open-end-credit plan"
means a consumer credit extended on an account pursuant to a plan
1) the credit may permit to person to make purchase or obtain loans, from time to time,
directly from the creditor or indirectly by use of credit card, check or other device;
2) the person has the privilege of paying the balance or a finance charge may be computed
by the creditor from time to time on an outstanding unpaid balance.
az) "Package" or "packaging"
means any container or wrapping in which any consumer product is
enclosed for use in delivery or display of that consumer product to retail purchasers, but does not include:
1) shipping containers or wrappings used solely for the transportation of any consumer
product in bulk or in big quantities by manufacturers, packers, or processors to wholesale, retail, distributors thereof;
2) shipping containers or outer wrappings used by retailers to ship or deliver any product to
retail customers if such containers and wrappings bears no printer matter pertaining any particular product;
3) the wrappers or containers of consumer products sold in small quantities by small retail
stores to the consumer which by tradition are wrapped with ordinary paper.
means any individual, partnership, corporation, or association, trust, government, or
governmental subdivision or any other legal entity.
bb) "Poisonous substance"
means any substance capable of destroying life or seriously
endangering health when applied externally to the body or introduced internally in moderate doses.
bc) "Price comparison"
means the direct comparison in any advertisement of a seller’s current price
for consumer product or services with any other price or statement of value of such property of services expressed in pesos, centavos, fractions, or percentages.
bd) "Price tag"
means any device, written, printed, affixed or attached to a consumer product or
displayed in a consumer repair or service.
be) "Principal display panel"
means that part of the label that is most likely to be displayed,
presented, shown or examined under normal and customary conditions of display for retail or sale.
bf) "Private labeler
" means an owner of a brand of trademark on the label of consumer product
other than a manufacturer of a product. A consumer product bears a private label if (1) the product or its container is labeled with a brand of trade mark of a person other than its manufacturer; or (2) the brand or trade mark of the manufacturer of such product does not appear on such label.
bg) "Radioactive substance"
means any substance which emits ionizing radiation.
bh) "Referral selling"
means the sales device employed by the sellers wherein the buyer is induced
to acquire goods or services by representing that after the acquisition of the goods or services, he will receive a rebate, commission or other benefit in return for the submission of names of potential customers or otherwise helping the seller enter into other sales, if the receipt of such benefits is contingent on an event occurring after an event is made.
bi) "Repair and service firm"
means any business establishment, engaged directly or indirectly, in
the repair, service or maintenance of any consumer product.
means a person engaged in the business of selling consumer products directly to
bl). "Sale or distribution"
shall mean an act made by a manufacturer or seller, or their respective
representative or agent, to make available consumer products, services or credit to the end consumers under a consumer sale transaction. It shall not include sampling or any other distribution not for sale.
bm) "Sales promotion"
means techniques intended for broad consumer participation which contain
promises of gain such as product, security service or winning in contest, game, tournament and other similar competitions which involved determination of winner/s and which utilize mass media or other widespread media of information. It also means techniques purely intended to increase the sales, patronage and/or goodwill of a product.
means a person engaged in the business of selling consumer products directly to
consumers. It shall include a supplier or distributor if (1) the seller is a subsidiary or affiliate of the supplier or distributor; (2) the seller interchanges personnel or maintains common or overlapping officers or directors with the supplier or distributor; or (3) the supplier or distributor provides or exercises supervision, direction or control over the selling practices of the seller.
shall mean, the respect to repair and service, firm services supplied in connection with
a contract for construction, maintenance, repair, processing, treatment or cleaning of goods or of fixtures on land, or distribution of goods, or transportation of goods.
means services that are the subject of a consumer transaction, either together with,
or separate from any kind of personal property, whether tangible or intangible.
bq) "Special packaging"
means packaging that is designed or constructed to be significantly difficult
for children under five years of age to open or to obtain a toxic or harmful amount of difficult for normal adults to use properly but does not mean packaging which all such children cannot open or obtain a toxic or harmful amount within a reasonable time.
means a set of conditions to be fulfilled to ensure the quality and safety of a product.
bs) "Strong sensitizer"
means any substance which will cause on normal living tissue, allergy or
photodynamic quality or hypersensitivity which becomes evident on re-application of the same substance, to be designated as such by the implementing agency. Before designating any substance as a strong sensitizer, the implementing agency, upon consideration of the frequency of occurrence and severity of the reaction, shall find that the substance has a significant capacity to cause hypersensiti vity.
bt) "Substandard product"
means product when fails to comply with an applicable risk of injury to
means a person, other than a consumer, who, in the course of his business, solicits,
offers, advertises, or promotes the disposition or supply of a consumer product or who other than consumer, engages in, enforces, or otherwise participates in a consumer transaction, whether or not any privity of contract actually exists between that person and the consumer, and includes the successor to, or assignee of, any right or obligation on the supplier.
bv) "Technical personnel of repair and service enterprise"
shall mean a mechanic or technician
or any person who works or renders diagnosis or advice in connection with repair, service and maintenance of the consumer products in a repair and service firm.
bw) "Toxic substance"
means any substance other than a radioactive substance which can cause
injury, illness or death to man through ingestion, inhalation or absorption through any body surface.
bx) "Trade name" or "Trademark"
means a word or words, name, title, symbol, emblem, sign or
device or any combination thereof used as an advertisement, sign, label, poster or otherwise for the purpose of enabling the public to distinguish the business of the person who owns and uses said trade name or trademark.
CONSUMER PRODUCT QUALITY AND SAFETY
ARTICLE 5. Declaration of Policy
- It shall be the duty of the State:
a) to develop and provide safety and quality standards for consumer products, including
performance or use-oriented standards codes of practice and methods of tests;
b) to assist the consumer in evaluating the quality, including safety, performance and comparative
c) to protect the public against unreasonable risks to injury associated with consumer products; d) to undertake research on quality improvement of products and investigation into causes and
prevention of product related deaths, illness and injuries.
ARTICLE 6. Implementing Agencies
- The provisions of this Article and its implementing rules and
regulations shall be enforced by:
a) the Department of Health with respect to food, drugs, cosmetics, devices and substances; b) the Department of Agriculture with respect to product related to agriculture, and; c) the Department of Trade and Industry with respect to other consumer products not specified
ARTICLE 7. Promulgation and Adoption of Consumer Product Standards
- The concerned
department shall establish consumer product quality and safety standards which shall consist of one or
more of the following:
a) requirements as to performance, composition, contents, design, construction, finish,
b) requirements as to kind, class, grade, dimensions, weights, material; c) requirements as to the methods of sampling, tests and codes used to check the quality of the
d) requirements as to precautions in storage, transporting and packaging; e) requirements that a consumer product be marked with or accompanied by clear and
adequate safety warnings or instruction, or requirements respecting the form of warnings or instructions.
For this purpose, the concerned department shall adopt existing government domestic product quality and safety standards: Provided, That in the absence of such standards, the concerned department shall form specialized technical committees composed of equal number of representatives from each of the government, business and consumer sector to formulate, develop and propose consumer product quality and safety standards. The said technical committees shall consult with the private sector, which may, motu propio, develop its own quality and safety standards that shall be subject to review and approval of the concerned government agency or agencies after public hearings have been conducted for that purpose; and shall likewise consider existing international standards recognized by the Philippine Government.
ARTICLE 8. Publication of Consumer Product Standards
- The concerned department shall, upon
promulgation of the above standards, publish or cause the publication of the same in two (2) newspapers
of general circulation at least once a week for a period of not less than one (1) month. It may likewise
conduct an information campaign through other means deemed effective to ensure the proper guidance
of consumers, businesses, industries and other sectors concerned.
ARTICLE 9. Effectivity of Rules -
Each consumer product standard or safety rule shall specify the date
such rule is to take effect, which shall not exceed ninety (90) days from the date promulgated unless the
concerned departments finds, for good cause shown, that a later effective date is in the public interest
and publishes its reasons for such finding. After which, it shall no longer be legal to, or cause to, sell or
distribute the consumer product not complying with the standards or rules.
(b) The department may, by regulation, prohibit a manufacturer from stockpiling consumer
products so as to prevent such manufacturer from circumventing the purposes of this
paragraph. The term "stockpiling" means manufacturing or importing a product between
the date of promulgation of its consumer products safety rule and its effective date, at a
rate which is significantly greater than the rate at which such product was produced or
imported during a base period, as prescribed in the regulation under this paragraph,
ending before the date of promulgation of consumer product safety rule.
ARTICLE 10. Injurious, Dangerous and Unsafe Products
- When ever the departments find, by their
own initiative or by petition of a consumer, that a consumer product is found to be injurious, unsafe and
dangerous, it shall, after due notice and hearing , make the appropriate order for its recall, prohibition or
seizure from public sale or distribution: Provided, That, in the sound discretion of the department it may
declare a consumer product to be imminently injurious, unsafe or dangerous, and order its immediate
recall, ban or seizure from public sale or distribution, in which case, the seller, distributor, manufacturer or
producer thereof shall be afforded a hearing within forty-eight (48) hours from such order.
The ban on the sale and distribution of a consumer product adjudged injurious, unsafe or dangerous, or
imminently injurious, unsafe and dangerous under the preceding paragraph shall stay in force until such
time that its safety can be assured or measures to ensure its safety have been established.
ARTICLE 11. Amendment and Revocation of Declaration of the Injurious, Unsafe or Dangerous
Character of a Consumer Product
- Any interested person may petition the appropriate department to
commence a proceeding for the issuance of an amendment or revocation of a consumer product safety
rule or an order declaring a consumer product injurious and unsafe.
In case the department, upon petition by an interested party or its own initiative and after due notice and
hearing, determines a consumer product to be substandard or materially defective, it shall so notify the
manufacturer, distributor or seller thereof of such finding and order such manufacturer, distributor or seller
a) give notice to the public of the defect or failure to comply with the product safety standards;
b) give notice to each distributor or retailer of such product.
The department shall also direct the manufacturer, distributor or seller of such product to extend any or all of the following remedies to the injured person:
a) to bring such product into conformity with the requirements of the applicable consumer
product standards or to repair the defect in order to conform with the same;
b) to replace the product with a like or equivalent product which complies with the applicable
consumer product standards which does not contain the defect;
c) to refund the purchase price of the product less a reasonable allowance for use; and d) to pay the consumer reasonable damages as may be determined by the department.
The manufacturer, distributor or seller shall not charge a consumer who avails himself of the rem edy as provided above of any expense and cost that may be incurred.
ARTICLE 12. Effectivity of Amendment and Revocation of Consumer Product Safety Rule
amendment or revocation of a consumer product safety rule made by the concerned department shall
specify the date on which it shall take effect which shall not exceed ninety days from the date of
amendment or revocation is published unless the concerned department finds, for a good cause show,
that a later effective date is in the public interest and publishes its reasons for such finding. The
department shall promulgate the necessary rule for the issuance, amendment or revocation of any
consumer product safety rule.
ARTICLE 13. New Products
- The concerned department shall take measures to make a list of new
consumer products and to cause the publication by the respective manufacturers or importers of such
products a list thereof together with the descriptions in a newspaper of general circulation.
ARTICLE 14. Certification of Conformity to Consumer Product Standards
- The concerned
department shall aim at having consumer product standards established for every consumer product so
that consumer products shall be distributed in commerce only after inspection and certification of its
quality and safety standards by the department. The manufacturer shall avail of the Philippine Standard
Certification Mark which the department shall grant after determining the product’s compliance with the
relevant standard in accordance with the implementing rules and regulations.
ARTICLE 15. Imported Products -
a) Any consumer product offered for importation into the customs of the Philippine territory shall
1) fails to comply with an applicable consumer product quality and safety standard
2) is or has been determined to be injurious, unsafe and dangerous; 3) is substandard; or 4) has a material defect
b) Samples of consumer products being imported into the Philippines in a quantity necessary for
purposes of determining the existence of any of the above causes for non-admission may be obtained by the concerned department or agency without charge from the owner or consignee thereof. The owner or consignee of the imported consumer product under examination shall be afforded an opportunity to a hearing with respect to the importation of such product does not conform to the consumer product safety rule or is injurious, unsafe and dangerous, is substandard or has a material defect, such product shall be refused admission unless the owner or consignee thereof manifests under bond that none of the above ground for non-admission exist or that measures have been take to cure then before they are sold, distributed or offered for sale to the general public. Any consumer product, the sale or use of which has been banned or withdrawn in the country of manufacture, shall not be imported into the country.
c) If it appears that any consumer product which may not be admitted pursuant to paragraph (a)
of this Article can be so modified that it can already be accepted, the concerned department may defer final determination as to the admission of such product for a period not exceeding ten (10) days, and in accordance with such regulations as the department and the Commission of Customs shall jointly promulgate, such product may be released from customs custody under bond for the purpose of permitting the owner or consignee an opportunity to so modify such product.
d) All modifications taken by an owner or consignee for the purpose of securing admission of an
imported product under paragraph (c) shall be subject to the supervision of the concerned department. If the product cannot be so modified, or if the owner or consignee is not proceeding to satisfactorily modify such product, it shall be refused admission and the department may direct redelivery of the product into customs custody, and to seize the product if not so redelivered.
e) Imported consumer products not admitted must be exported, except that upon application,
the Commissioner of Customs may permit the destruction of the product if, within a reasonable time, the owner or consignee thereof fails to export the same.
f) All expenses in connection with the destruction provided for in this Article, and all expenses in
connection with the storage, cartage or labor with respect to any consumer product refused admission under this Article, shall be paid by the owner or consignee and, in default of such payment, shall constitute a lien against any future importation made by such owner or consignee.
ARTICLE 16. Consumer Products for Export
- The preceding article on safety shall not apply to any
consumer product if:
a) it can be shown that such product is manufactured, sold or held for sale for export from the
Philippines, or that such product was imported for export, unless such consumer product is in fact distributed in commerce for use in the Philippines, and
b) such consumer product or the packaging thereof bears a stamp or label stating that such
consumer product is intended for export and actually exported.
ARTICLE 17. Powers, functions and duties
- In addition to their powers, functions and duties under
existing laws, the concerned department shall have the following powers, functions and duties;
a) to administer and supervise the implementation of the Article and its implementing rules and
b) undertake researches, develop and establish quality and safety standards for consumer
products in coordination with other government and private agencies closely associated with these products;
c) to inspect and analyze consumer products for purposes of determining conformity to
established quality and safety standards;
d) to levy, assess, collect and retain fees as are necessary to cover the cost of inspection,
certification, analysis and tests of samples of consumer products and materials submitted in compliance with the provisions of this Article;
e) to investigate the causes of and maintain a record of product-related deaths, illnesses and
injuries for use in researches or studies on the prevention of such product-related deaths, illnesses and injuries.
f) to accredit independent, competent non-government bodies, to assist in (1) monitoring the
market for the presence of hazardous or non -certified products and other forms of violations of Article 18; and (2) other appropriate means to expand the monitoring and enforcement outreach of the department in relations to its manpower, testing and certification resources at a given time.
g) to accredit independent competent testing laboratories.
PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES
ARTICLE 18. Prohibited Acts
- It shall be unlawful for any person to:
a) manufacture for sale, offer for sale, distribute in commerce, or import into the Philippines any
consumer product which is not in conformity with an applicable consumer product quality or safety standard promulgated in this Act;
b) manufacture for sale, offer for sale, distribute in commerce, or import into the Philippines any
consumer product which has been declared as banned consumer product by a rule in this Act;
c) refuse access to or copying of pertinent records or fail or refuse to permit entry of or inspection by
authorized officers or employees of the department;
d) fail to comply with an order issued under Article 11 relating to notifications of substantial product
hazards and to recall, repair, replacement or refund of unsafe products;
e) fail to comply with the rule prohibiting stockpiling.
ARTICLE 19. Penalties
a) Any person who shall violate any provision of Article 18 shall, upon conviction, be subject to a
fine of not less than One thousand pesos (P1,000.00) but not more than Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) or imprisonment of not less than two (2) months but not more than one (1) year, or both upon the discretion of the court. If the offender is an alien, he shall be deported after service of sentence and payment of fine without further deportation proceedings.
b) In case the offender is a naturalized citizen, he shall, in addition to the penalty prescribed herein,
suffer the penalty of cancellation of his naturalization certificate and its registration in the civil registrar and immediate deportation after service of sentence and payment of fine.
c) any director, officer or agent of a corporation who shall authorize, order or perform any of the acts
or practices constituting in whole or in part a violation of Article 18, and who has knowledge or notice of non-compliance received by the corporation from the concerned department, shall be subject to penalties to which that corporation may be subject. In case the violation is committed by, or in the interest of a foreign juridical person duly licensed to engage in business in the Philippines, such license to engage in business in the Philippines shall immediately be revoked.
FOOD, DRUGS, COSMETICS AND DEVICES
ARTICLE 20. Declaration of Policy
- The State shall ensure safe and good quality of foods, drugs,
cosmetics and devices, and regulate their production, sale distribution and advertisement t protect the
health of the consumer.
ARTICLE 21. Implementing Agency
- In the implementation of the foregoing policy, the State, through
the Department of Health, hereby referred as the Department, shall, in accordance with the provisions of
a) establish standards and quality measures for foods, drugs, devices and cosmetics; b) adopt measures to ensure pure and safe supply of foods and cosmetics, and safe, efficacious
and good quality of drugs and devices in the Country;
c) adopt measures to ensure the rational use of drugs and devices, such as, but not limited to,
banning, recalling or withdrawing from the market drugs and devices which are unregistered, unsafe, inefficacious or of doubtful therapeutic value, the adoption of an official National Drug Formulary, and the use of generic names in the labeling of drugs;
d) strengthen the Bureau of Food and Drugs.
ARTICLE 22. Rules and Regulations on Definitions and Standards
- Whenever in the judgment of the
Department such action will promote honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers. It shall
promulgate rules and regulations fixing and establishing a reasonable definition and standard of identity,
a reasonable standard of quality and/or reasonable standard of fill of containers of foods, drugs,
cosmetics and devices.
ARTICLE 23. Adulterated Food
- A food shall be deemed to be adulterated:
a) (1) If it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it
injurious to health; but in case the substance is not an added substance, such food shall not be considered adulterated under this clause if the quantity of such substance does not ordinarily render it injurious to health; (2) if it bears or contains any added poisonous or deleterious substance other than one which is (i) a pesticide chemical in or on a raw agricultural commodity, (ii) a food additive, (iii) a color additive, for which tolerances have been established and it conform to such tolerances; (3) if it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid or decomposed substance, or if it is otherwise unfit for food; (4) if it has been prepared, packed or held under unsanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; (5) if it is, in whole or part, the product of a diseased animal or of an animal which has died other than by slaughter;
(6) if its container is composed, in whole or in part of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (7) if it has passed its expiry date.
b) (1) if any valuable constituent has been, in whole or in part, omitted or abstracted therefrom
and the same has not been substituted by any healthful equivalent of such constituent; (2) if any substance, not a valuable constituent, has been added or substituted or in part therefor; (3) if damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or (4) if any substance has been added thereto or packed therewith so as to increase its bulk or weight, reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear better or of greater value than it is.
c) if it is, or bears or contains a color additives which is unsafe under existing regulations:
Provided, That the Department shall promulgate regulations providing for the listing of color additives which are harmless and suitable for use in food for which tolerances have been established;
d) if it is confectionery, and it bears or contains any alcohol or non-nutritive article or substance
except harmless coloring, harmless flavoring, harmless resinous glass not in excess of four-tenths (4/10) of one per centum (1%) natural gum and pectin:
Provided, That this clause shall not apply to a safe non -nutritive article or substance if, in the judgment of the Department as provided by regulations, (1) such article or substance is of practical functional value in the manufacture, packaging or storage of such confectionery, (2) if the use of the substance does not promote deception of the consumer or otherwise provision of this Act, and (3) would not render the product injurious or hazardous to health: Provided, further, That this paragraph shall not apply to any confectionery by reason of its containing less than one-half (1/2) of one per centum (1%) by volume of alcohol, derived solely from the use of flavoring extracts, or to any chewing gum by reason of its containing harmless non -nutritive masticatory substance: Provided, finally, that the Department may, for the purposes of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this clause, promulgate regulations allowing or prohibiting the use of particular non-nutritive substances;
ARTICLE 24. Regulations of Unprocessed Food
- The provincial municipal and city governments shall
regulate the preparation and sale of meat, fresh fruits, poultry, milk, fish, vegetables and other foodstuff
for public consumption, pursuant to the Local Government Code.
ARTICLE 25. Tolerance for Poisonous Ingredients in Food
- Any poisonous or deleterious substance
added to any food shall be deemed to be unsafe, except when such substance is required or cannot be
avoided in its production or cannot be avoided by good manufacturing practice. In such case, the
Department shall promulgate regulations limiting the quantity therein in such extent as he finds necessary
for the protection of public health, and any quantity exceeding the limits so fixed shall be deemed to be
unsafe. In determining the quantity of such added substance to be tolerated in different articles of food,
the Department shall take into account the extent to which the use of such article is required or cannot be
avoided in the production or manufacture of such articles and the other ways in which the consumer may
be affected by the same or other poisonous or deleterious substance.
ARTICLE 26. Unsafe Food Additives, Exceptions for Conformity with Regulations
- A food additive,
with respect to any particular use or intended use, shall be deemed unsafe unless;
a) it and its use or intended use conforms to the terms of an exemption for being solely intended
use conforms to the terms of an exemption for being solely intended for investigational use by qualified experts; or
b) it and its use or intended use is in conformity with a regulation issued by the Department
prescribing the conditions under which such additives may be safely used.
ARTICLE 27. Petition for Regulations of Food Additive
- Any person may, with respect to any intended
use of a food additive, file with the Department a petition proposing the issuance of a regulation
prescribing the conditions under which such additives may be safely used.
The Department may, at any time upon his own initiative, issue a regulation prescribing, with respect to
any particular food additive, the conditions under which such additive may be safely used and the
reasons therefor, and caused the publication of the same.
ARTICLE 28. Effectivity of Regulations -
The regulation s promulgated under the preceding articles
shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in a newspaper of general circulation but the
Department may stay such effectivity if, after issuance of such order, a hearing is sought by any person
adversely affected by such order.
DRUGS AND DEVICES
ARTICLE 29. Adulterated Drugs and Devices
- A drug or device shall be deemed to be adulterated:
a) (1) If it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance which may
affect its safety, efficacy, and good quality; or (2) if it has been manufactured, prepared or held under unsanitary conditions whereby it may have been contaminated with dirt or filth or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; or (3) it is container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or (4) if it bears or contains any color other than a permissible one as determined by the Department, taking into consideration standards of safety, efficacy, and good quality.
b) If it purports to be or is represented as a drug, the name of which is recognized in an official
compendium, and its strength differs from, or its safety, efficacy, quality or purity falls below the standards set forth in such compendium, except that whenever tests or methods of assay as prescribed are, in the judgment of the Department, insufficient for the making of such determination, the Department shall promulgate regulations prescribing appropriate tests or methods of assay in accordance with which such determination as to strength, safety, efficacy, quality or purity shall be made. No drug defined in an official compendium shall be deemed to be adulterated under this paragraph becaus e it differs from the standards of strength, safety, efficacy, quality or purity therefore, set forth in such compendium, if its difference in strength, safety, efficacy, quality or purity from such standards is plainly stated in its label and approved for registration as such.
c) If it is not subject to the provision of paragraph (b) and its strength differs from, or its efficacy,
quality or purity falls below that which it purports or is represented to possess.
d) If a drug or device and any substance has been mixed or packed therewith, or any substance
has been substituted wholly or in part thereof, so as to reduce its safety, efficacy, quality, strength or purity.
e) If the methods used in, or the facilities or controls used for its manufacture or holding do not
conform to or are not operated or administered in conformity with current good manufacturing practice to assure that such drug meets the requirements of this Act as to safety, quality and efficacy, and has the identity and strength, and meets the quality and purity characteristics which it purports or is represented to possess.
ARTICLE 30. Exemption in Case of Drugs and Devices
a) The Department is hereby directed to promulgate regulations exempting from any labeling or
packaging requirement of this Act drugs and devices which are, in accordance with the practice of the trade,, to be processed, labeled or repacked in substantial quantities at establishments other than those where originally processed or packed on condition that such drugs and devices are not adulterated or mislabeled under the provisions of this Act upon removal from such processing, labeling or repacking establishment.
b) 1) Drugs intended for use by man which:
ii) because of their toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, or method of their
use is not safe for use except under the supervision of practitioner licensed by law to administer such drug;
iii) are new drugs whose application are limited to investigational use; shall be
dispensed only (a) upon written prescription of a practitioner licensed by law to administer such drug, or (b) upon an oral prescription of such practitioner which is reduced promptly to writing and filed by the pharmacist, or (c) by refilling any such written or oral prescription if such refilling is authorized by the prescriber either in the original prescription or by oral order which is reduced promptly to writing and filed by the pharmacist. The act of dispensing a drug contrary to the provisions of this paragraph shall be deemed to be an act which results in the drug being mislabeled while held for sale.
2) Any drug dispensed by filling or refilling a written prescription of a practitioner licensed by
law to administer such drug shall be exempt from the requirements of Article 89, except paragraphs (a), (h), (2) and (3), and the packaging requirements of paragraphs (f) and (g), if the drug bears a label containing the name and address of the dispenser, the serial number and date of the prescription or its filling, the name of the prescriber, and, if stated in the prescription the name of the patient, and the directions for use and cautionary statements, if any, contained in such prescription.
3) The Department may, by regulation, remove drug, subject to Article 89 (d) and Article 31
from the requirements of sub-article (b) (1) of this Article, when such requirements are not necessary for the protection of the public health.
4) A drug which is subject to sub-article (b)(1) of this Article shall be deemed to be
mislabeled if at any time prior to dispensing, its label fails to bear the statement "Caution: Should not be dispensed without prescription." A drug to which sub-article (b)(1) of this Article does not apply shall be deemed to be mislabeled if at any time prior to dispensing, its label bears the caution statement quoted in the preceding sentence.
ARTICLE 31. Licensing and Registration
a) No person shall manufacture, sell, offer for sale, import, export, distribute or transfer any drug
or device, unless an application filed pursuant to sub-article (b) hereof is effective with respect to such drug or device.
b) Any person may file with the Department, through the Department, an application under oath
with respect to any drug or device subject to the provisions of sub -article (a) hereof. Such persons shall submit to the Department: (1) full reports of investigations which have been made to show whether or not such drug or device is safe, efficacious and of good quality for use based on clinical studies conducted in the Philippi nes; (2) a full list of the articles used as components of such drug or device; (3) a full statement of the composition of such drug or device; (4) a full description of the methods used in and the facilities and controls used for the manufacture of such drug or device; (5) such samples of such drug or device and of the articles used as components thereof as the Department may require; (6) specimens of the labeling proposed to be used of such drug or device; and (7) such other requirements as may be prescribed by regulations to ensure safety, efficacy and good quality of such drug or device.
c) Within one hundred eighty (180) days after the filling of an application under this sub-article,
or such additional period as may be agreed upon by the Department and the applicant, then finds that none of the grounds for denying approval specified in sub-article (d) applies,or (2) give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing before the Department under sub-article (d) on the question whether such application is approved.
d) If the Department finds, after due notice to the applicant and giving him an opportunity for a
hearing, that (1) the reports of the investigations which are required to be submitted to the Department pursuant to sub-article (b) hereof, do not include adequate tests by all methods reasonably applicable to show whether or not such drug or device is safe, efficacious and of good quality for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended or suggested in the proposed labeling thereof; (2) the results of such test show that such drug or device is safe,
efficacious and of good quality for use under such conditions; (3) the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for the manufacture of such drug or device are inadequate to preserve its identity, strength, quality and purity; or (4) upon the basis of the information submitted to him as part of the application, or upon the basis of any other information before him with respect to such drug or device, he has insufficient information to determine whether such drug or device is safe, efficacious and of good quality for use under such conditions; or (5) evaluated on the basis of the information submitted to him as part of the application, and any other information before him with respect to such drug or device, there is lack of substantial evidence that the drug or device will have the effect it purports or is represented to have under the conditions of use prescribed, recommend or suggested in the proposed labeling thereof; or (6) based on a fair evaluation of all materials facts, such labeling is false or misleading in any way; he shall issue an order disapproving the application.
e) The effectiveness of an application with respect to any drug or device shall, after due notice
and opportunity for hearing to the applicant, by order of the Department be suspended if it finds (1) that clinical experience, tests by new methods, or tests by methods not deemed reasonably applicable when such application became effective show that such drug or device is unsafe or ineffective for use under the conditions of use upon the basis of which the application became effective, or (2) that the application contains any untrue statement of a material fact. The order shall state the findings upon which it is based.
f) The Department shall promulgate regulations for exempting from the operation of this Article
drugs or devices intended solely for investigational used by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to investigate the safety and effectiveness of drugs or devices.
g) No person shall manufacture, sell, offer for sale import, export, distribute or transfer any drug
or device without first securing a license to operate from the Department after due compliance with technical requirements in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by the Department pursuant to this Act.
h) No drug or device shall be manufactured, sold, offered for sale imported, exported,
distributed or transferred, unless registered by the manufacturer, importer or distributor thereof in accordance with rules and regulations promulgated by the Department pursuant to this Act. The provisions of Article 31 (b), (d) and (e) to the extent applicable, shall govern the registration of such drugs or devices.
The Department shall promulgate a schedule of fees for the issuance of the certificate of product registration and license to operate provided for under this Article.
ARTICLE 32. Dangerous Drugs
- The importation, distribution, manufacture, production, compounding,
prescription, dispensing and sale of, and other lawful acts in connection with, dangerous drugs of such
kind and quantity as may be deemed necessary according to the medical and research needs of the
country and the determination of the quantity/quantities to be imported, manufactured and held in stock at
any given time by an authorized importer, manufacturer or distributor of dangerous drugs shall be under
the jurisdiction and authority of the Dangerous Drugs Board as provided for by existing laws and
ARTICLE 33. Banned or Restricted Drugs
- Banned or severely restricted drugs for health and safety
reasons in their country of origin shall be banned and confiscated or its uses severely restricted,
whichever is appropriate, by the Department. The Department shall monitor the presence in the market of
such drugs and cause the maintenance and regular publications of an updated consolidated list thereof.
CERTIFICATION OF DRUGS CONTAINING ANTIBIOTICS
ARTICLE 34. Certification of Certain Drug
a) The Department shall, by regulations, provide for the certification of batches of drugs
composed wholly or partially of any kind of antibiotic. A batch of such drug shall be certified if such drug has such characteristics of identity, strength, quality and purity, as the Department prescribes in such regulations as necessary to insure adequately safety and efficacy of use
and good quality, but shall not otherwise be certified. Prior to the effective date of such regulations the Department, in lieu of certification, shall issue a release for any batch which, in his judgment, may be released without risk as to the safety and efficacy of its use. Such release shall prescribe the date of its expiration and other conditions under which it shall cease to the effective as to such batch and as to portions thereof. For purposes of this Article and of Article 89 (j), the term "antibiotic drug" means any drug intended for use by man containing any quantity of any chemical substance which is produced by a micro-organism and which has the capacity to inhibit or destroy micro-organisms in dilute solution (including the chemically synthesized equivalent of any such substance).
b) Whenever in the judgment of the Department, the requirements of this Article and of Article
89 (j), (1) drugs which are to be stored, processed, labeled, or repacked at establishments other than those where manufactured, or condition that such drugs comply with all such requirements upon removal from such establishments; (2) drugs which conform to applicable standards of identity, strength, quality, and purity prescribed by these regulations and are intended for use in manufacturing other drugs; and (3) drugs which are intended for investigational use by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to investigate the safety and efficacy of drugs.
ARTICLE 35. Adulterated Cosmetics
- A cosmetic shall be deemed to be adulterated:
a) if it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to
users under the condition of use prescribed in the labeling thereof, or under the condition of use as are customary or usual: Provided, That this provision shall not apply to color additive hair dye, the label of which bears the following legend conspicuously displayed thereon: "Caution: this product contains ingredients which may cause skin irritation on certain individuals and a preliminary test according to accompanying directions should first be made. This product must not be used for dyeing the eyelashes or eyebrows: to do so may cause blindness" and labeling of which bears adequate directions for such preliminary testing. For purposes of this paragraph (e) the term "hair dye" shall not include eyelash dyes or eyebrow dyes.
b) if it consists in whole or in part of any filthy putrid, or decomposed substance. c) if it has been prepared, packed or held under unsanitary conditions whereby it may have
become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health.
d) if its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance
which may render the contents injurious to health.
e) if it is not a hair dye, and it bears or contains color additive other than which is permissible. f) if any of its substances have been (1) mixed or packed therewith so as to reduce its quality or
strength or (2) substituted wholly or in parts therefor.
ARTICLE 36. Factory Inspection
a) For purposes of enforcement of this Article, officers or employees duly designated by the
Department, upon presenting appropriate credentials to the owner, operator, or agent in charge, are authorized (1) to enter, at reasonable hours, any factory, warehouse or establishment in which food, drugs, devices or cosmetics are manufactured, processed, packed or held, for introduction into domestic commerce or are held after such introduction, or to enter any vehicle being used to transport or hold such food, drugs, devices or cosmetics in domestic commerce; and (2) to inspect, in a reasonable manner, such factory, warehouse, establishment or vehicle and all pertinent equipment, finished and unfinished materials, containers and labeling therein:
b) if the officer or employee making any such inspection of a factory, warehouse or other
establishment has obtained any sample in the course of the inspection, upon completion of
the inspection and prior to leaving the premises he shall give to the owner, operator, or agent in charge a receipt describing the samples obtained.
c) Whenever in the course of any such inspection of a factory or other establishment where food
is manufactured, processed or packed, the officer or employee making the inspection obtains a sample of any such food, and an analysis made of such sample for the purpose of ascertaining whether such food consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid or decomposed substance, or is otherwise unfit for food, a copy of the results of such analysis shall be furnished promptly to the owner, operator, or agent in charge.
ARTICLE 37. Provisional Permits
- Whenever the Department finds, after investigation, that the sale or
distribution in commerce of any class of food, cosmetics, drugs or devices, may be injurious to health,
and that such injurious nature cannot be adequately determined after such articles have entered into
domestic commerce, it shall promulgate regulations providing for the issuance, suspension and
revocation of provisional permits, offer for sale or transfer of such classes of food, cosmetics, drugs or
devices to manufacturers, processors or packers of the same in such locality to which shall be attached
such conditions governing the manufacture, processing or packing of such consumer products for such
temporary period of time as may be necessary to protect public health; and after the effective date of
such regulations, and during such temporary period, no person shall offer for sale or transfer any such
food, cosmetics, drugs or devices unless such manufacturer, processor or packer holds such permit.
ARTICLE 38. Publicity and Publication
a) The Department may cause to disseminated informaiton regarding food, drugs, devices or
cosmetics in situations involving, in the opinion of the Department, imminent danger to health, or gross deception to the consumer. Nothing in this Article shall be construed to prohibit the Department from collecting, reporting, and illustrating the results of its investigations.
b) The Department shall publish a Drug Reference Manual and Drug Bulletin to serve as
reference by manufacturers, distributors, physicians, consumers and such other groups as may be deemed necessary. The Department is hereby authorized to sell the Drug Reference Manual at cost.
ARTICLE 39. Administrative Sanctions
- In addition to the administrative sanctions provided for under
Letter of Instructions No. 1223, the Department is hereby authorized to impose, after notice and hearing,
administrative fines of not less than One thousand pesos (P1,000.00) nor more than Five thousand pesos
(P5,000.00) for any violation of this Act.
PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES
ARTICLE 40. Prohibited Acts
- The following acts and the causing thereof are hereby prohibited:
a) the manufacture, importation, exportation, sale, offering for sale, distribution, or transfer of
any food, drug, device or cosmetic that is adulterated or mislabeled;
b) the adulteration or misbranding of any food, drug, device or cosmetic; c) the refusal to permit entry or inspection as authorized by Article 36 to allow samples to be
d) the giving of guaranty or undertaking referred to in Article 41 (b) hereof which guaranty or
undertaking is false, except by a person who relied upon a guaranty or undertaking to the same effect signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the Philippines from whom he received in good faith the food, drug, device or cosmetic or the giving or a guaranty or undertaking referred to in Article 41 (b) which guaranty or undertaking is false;
e) forging, counterfeiting, simulating, or falsely representing or without proper authority using
any mark, stamp, tag, label, or other identification device authorized or required by regulation promulgated under the provisions of this Act;
f) f) the using by any person to his own advantage, or revealing, other than to the Department
or to the courts when relevant in any judicial proceeding under this Act, any information concerning any method or process which as a trade secret is entitled to protection;
g) the alteration, mutilation, destruction, obliteration, or removal of the whole or any part of the
labeling of, or the doing of any other act with respect to a food, drug, device or cosmetic, if such act is done while such product is held for sale (whether or not the first sale) and results in such product being adulterated or mislabeled;
h) the use, on the labeling of any drug or in any advertising relating to such dru, of any
representation or suggestion that an application with respect to such drug is effective under Article 31 hereof, or that such drug complies with the provisions of such articles.
the use, in labeling, advertising or other sales promotion, of any reference to any report or analysis furnished in compliance with Section 19 of Executive Order 175, series of 1987;
the manufacture, importation, exportation, sale, offering for sale, distribution, or transfer of any drug or device which is not registered with the Department pursuant to this Act;
k) manufacture, importation, exportation, sale, offering for sale, distribution, or transfer of any
drug, device by any person without the license from the Department required in this Act;
the sale or offering for sale of any drug or device beyond its expiration or expiry date;
m) the release for sale or distribution of a batch of drugs without batch certification when
ARTICLE 41. Penalties
a) Any person who violates any of the provisions of Article 40 hereof shall, upon conviction, be
subject to imprisonment of not less than one (1) year but not more than five (5) years, or a fine of not less than Five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) but not more than Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00), or both such imprisonment and fine, in the discretion of the Court. Should the offense be committed by a juridical person, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President, General Manager, or the partners and/or persons directly responsible therefor shall be penalized.
b) No person shall be subject to the penalties of sub -article (a) of this Article for (1) having sold,
offered for sale or transferred any product and delivered it if such delivery was made in good faith, unless he refuses to furnish on request of the Department, the name and address of the person from whom he purchased or received such product and copies of all documents, if any there be, pertaining to the delivery of the product to him; (2) having violated Article 40 (a) if he established a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the Philippines from whom he received in good faith the product, or (3) having violated Article 40 (a), where the violation exists because the product is adulterated by reason of containing a color other than the permissible one under regulations promulgated by the Department in this Act, if such person establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address, of the manufacturer of the color, to the effect that such color is permissible, under applicable regulations promulgated by the Department in this Act.
ARTICLE 42. Declaration of Policy
- The State shall adopt measures designed to protect the consumer
against substances other than food, drugs, cosmetics and devices that are hazardous to his health and
ARTICLE 43. Implementing Agency
- The Department of Health, hereby referred to as the Department,
shall enforce the provisions of this Chapter.
ARTICLE 44. Regulations Declaring Household Hazardous and Establishing Variations and
- The Department shall promulgate the rules and regulations governing the implementation
of this Article.
To resolve uncertainty as to the coverage of this Article, the Department may, by regulations, declare as
hazardous any substance of mixture of substances which he finds meets the requirements of paragraph
(ak), clause (1) (i) of Article 4.
If the Department finds that for good and sufficient reasons, full compliance with the labeling requirements
otherwise applicable under this Chapter is impracticable or is not necessary for the adequate protection of
public health and safety, it shall promulgate regulations exempting such substances from these
requirements to the extent he deems consistent with the objective of adequately safeguarding public
health and safety, and any hazardous substance which does not bear a label in accordance with such
regulations shall be deemed to be a mislabeled hazardous substance.
ARTICLE 45. Imports: Regulations on Imported Household Hazardous –
a) The Commissioner of Customs shall deliver to the Department, upon its request, samples of
hazardous substances being imported or offered for import to the Philippines, giving notice thereof to the owner or consignee who may appear before the Department and exercise the right to make testimony. If it appears from the examination of such samples that such hazardous substance is a mislabeled hazardous substance or banned hazardous substance, then such hazardous substance shall be refused admission except as may be provided in an order issued by the Department authorizing delivery of the refused products or substances under the requirements imposed therein. The Commissioner of Customs shall cause the destruction of any hazardous substance refused admission unless such is exported, under regulations issued by the Commissioner within ninety (90) days from the date of notice of such refusal or within such additional time as may be fixed by him.
b) Pending decision on the admissibility of a hazardous substance being imported or offered for
import, the Commissioner of Customs may authorize delivery of such hazardous substance to the owner or consignee upon execution by him of a good and sufficient bond providing for the payment of such liquidated damages in the event of default. If it appears to the Department that the hazardous substance can, be relabeling or other action be made to comply with the requirements of this Article, final determination as to the admission of such hazardous substance may be deferred and upon filing of a timely written application by the owner or consignee and the execution by him of a bond as provided in the provisions of this paragraph. The Department may in accordance with the regulations, authorize the applicant to perform such relabeling or other action specified in such authorization, including destruction or export of such rejected hazardous substance. All such relabeling or other action pursuant to such authorization shall be in accordance with regulations and shall be under the supervision of an officer or employee of the Commission of Customs and the Department.
PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES
ARTICLE 46. Prohibited Acts -
It shall be unlawful for any person to:
a) introduce or deliver for introduction into commerce of any mislabeled hazardous substance or
b) alter, mutilate, destroy, obliterate or remove the whole or any part of the label of a mislabeled
hazardous substance, or banned hazardous substance, if such act is done while the substance is in commerce or while the substance is held for sale, whether or not it is the first sale;
c) receive in commerce any mislabeled hazardous substance or banned hazardous substance
and the delivery or preferred delivery thereof at cost or otherwise;
d) give the guaranty or undertaking or referred to in paragraph (b) of Article 93 and paragraph
(b) of Article 45 if such guaranty or undertaking if false, except by a person who relied upon a guaranty or undertaking which he received in good faith;
e) introduce or deliver for introduction into commerce or receive in commerce and subsequently
deliver or preferred at cost or otherwise, or a guaranty or undertaking in a reused food, drug,
cosmetic or device container or in a container which, though not a reused container, is identifiable as a food, drug, cosmetic or device container by its labeling or by other identification. The use of used food, drug, cosmetic or device container for a hazardous substance does not diminish the danger posed by the hazardous substance involved, therefore, such substance shall be deemed a mislabeled hazardous substance.
ARTICLE 47. Penalties, exception –
a) Any person who violates any of the provisions of Article 46 shall, upon conviction, be subject
to a fine of not less than One thousand pesos (P1,000.00) or an imprisonment of not less than Six (6) months but not more than five (5) years or both upon the discretion of the court.
b) No person shall be subject to the penalties of paragraph (a) of this Article for (1) having
violated paragraph (c) of this Article 46 unless he refuses to furnish, upon request by the Department or his representative, the name and address of the person from who he purchased such hazardous substances and (2) having violated paragraph (a) of this Article 46, if he establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person from he received in good faith, the hazardous substance to the effect that the hazardous substance is not mislabeled hazardous substance or banned hazardous within the meaning of that term in this Act.
PROTECTION AGAINST DECEPTIVE, UNFAIR
AND UNCONSCIONABLE SALES ACTS OR PRACTICES
DECEPTIVE, UNFAIR AND UNCONSCIONABLE SALES ACTS OR PRACTICES
ARTICLE 48. Declaration of Policy
- The State shall promote and encourage fair, honest and equitable
relations among parties in consumer transactions and protect the consumer against deceptive, unfair and
unconscionable sales acts or practices. Grossly inimical to the interests of the consumer or grossly one
side in favor of the producer, manufacturer, distributor, supplier or seller. In determining whether an act or
practice is unfair and unconscionable, the following circumstances shall be considered:
a) that the producer, manufacturer, distributor, supplier or seller took advantage of the inability
of the consumer to reasonably protect his interest because of his inability to understand the language of an agreement, or similar factors;
b) that when the consumer transaction was entered into, the price grossly exceeded the price at
which similar products or services were readily obtainable in similar transaction by like consumers;
c) that when the consumer transaction was entered into, the consumer was unable to receive a
substantial benefit from the subject of the transaction;
d) that when the consumer transaction was entered into, the seller or supplier was aware that
there was no reasonable probability or payment of the obligation in full by the consumer; and
e) that the tranction that the seller or supplier induced the consumer to enter into was
excessively one-sided in favor of the seller or supplier.
ARTICLE 49. Implementing Agency -
The Department of Trade and Industry, hereby referred to as the
Department, shall enforce the provisions of this Chapter.
REGULATION OF SALES ACTS AND PRACTICES
ARTICLE 50. Prohibition Against Deceptive Sales Acts or Practices
- A deceptive act or practice by a
seller or supplier in connection with a consumper transaction violates this Act whether it occurs before,
during or after the transaction. An act or practice shall be deemed deceptive whenever the producer,
manufacturer, supplier or seller, through concealment, false representation of fraudulent manipulation, induces a consumer to enter into a sales or lease transaction of any consumer product or service. Without limiting the scope of the above paragraph, the act or practice of a seller or supplier is deceptive when it represents that:
a) a consumer product or service has the sponsorship, approval, performance, characteristics,
ingredients, accessories, uses, or benefits it does not have;
b) a consumer product or service is of a particular standard, quality, grade, style, or model when
c) a consumer product is new, original or unused, when in fact, it is in a deteriorated, altered,
reconditioned, reclaimed or second-hand state;
d) a consumer product or service is available to the consumer for a reason that is different from
e) a consumer product or service has been supplied in accordance with the previous
f) a consumer product or service can be supplied in a quantity greater than the supplier intends; g) a service, or repair of a consumer product is needed when in fact it is not; h) a specific price advantage of a consumer product exists when in fact it is not; i)
the sales act or practice involves or does not involve a warranty, a disclaimer of warranties, particular warranty terms or other rights, remedies or obligations if the indication is false; and
the seller or supplier has a sponsorship, approval, or affiliation he does not have.
ARTICLE 51. Deceptive Sales Acts or Practices By Regulation
- The Department shall, after due
notice and hearing, promulgate regulations declaring as deceptive any sales act, practice or technique
which is a misrepresentation of facts other than those enumerated in Article 50.
ARTICLE 52. Unfair or Unconscionable Sales Act or Practice
- An unfair or unconscionable sales act
or practice by a seller or supplier in connection with a consumer transaction violates this Chapter whether
it occurs before, during or after the consumer transaction. An act or practice shall be deemed unfair or
uncionscionable wh enever the producer, manufacturer, distributor, supplier or seller, by taking advantage
of the consumer's physical or mental infirmity, ignorance, illiteracy, lack of time or the general conditions
of the environment or surroundings, induces the consumer to enter into a sales or lease transaction
Grossly inimical to the interests of the consumer or gross one-sided in favor of the producer,
manufacturer, distributor, supplier or seller.
In determining whether an act or practice is unfair and unconscionable, the following circumstances shall
a) that the producer, manufacturer, distributor, supplier or seller took advantage of the inability
of the consumer to reasonable protect his interest because of his inability to understand the language of an agreement, or similar factors;
b) that when the consumer transaction was entered into, the price grossly exceeded the price at
which similar products or services were readily obtainable in similar transaction by like consumers;
c) that when the consumer transaction was entered into, the consumer was unable to receive a
substantial benefit from the subject of the transaction;
d) that when the consumer transaction was entered into, the seller or supplier was aware that
there was no reasonable probability or payment of the obligation in full by the consumer.
e) that the transaction that the seller or supplier induced the consumer to enter into was
excessively one-sided in favor of the seller or supplier.
ARTICLE 53. Chain Distribution Plans or Pyramid Sales Schemes
– Chain distribution plans or
pyramid sales schemes shall not be employed in the sale of consumer products.
ARTICLE 54. Home Solicitation Sales
– No business entity shall conduct any home solicitation sale of
any consumer product or service without first obtaining a permit from the Department. Such permit may
be denied, suspended or revoked upon cause as provided in the rules and regulations promulgated by
the Department, after due notice and hearing.
ARTICLE 55. Home Solicitation Sales: When Conducted
– Home solicitation sales may be conducted
only between the hours of nine o’clock in the morning and seven o’clock in the evening of each working
day: Provided, That solicitation sales may be made at a time other than the prescribed hours where the
person solicited has previously agreed to the same.
ARTICLE 56. Home Solicitation Sales: by Whom Conducted -
Home solicitation sales shall only be
conducted by a person who has the proper identification and authority from his principal to make such
ARTICLE 57. Receipts for Home Solicitation -
Sales generated from home solicitation sales shall be
properly receipted as per existing laws, rules and regulations on sale transactions.
ARTICLE 58. Prohibited Representatives
- A home solicitation sales shall not represent that:
a) a.the buyer has been specially selected; b) b.a survey, test or research is being conducted; or c) c.the seller is making a special offer to a few persons only for a limited period of time.
ARTICLE 59. Referral Sales
- Referral selling plans shall not be used in the sale of consumer products
unless the seller executed in favor of the buyer a written undertaking that will grant a specified
compensation or other benefit to said buyer in return for each and every transaction consummate by said
seller with the persons referred by said buyer or for subsequent sale that said buyer has helped the seller
ARTICLE 60. Penalties –
a) Any person who shall violate the provisions of Title III, Chapter I, shall upon conviction, be
subject to a fine of not less than Five Hundred Pesos (P500.00) but not more than Ten Thousand Pesos (P10,000.00) or imprisonment of not less than five (5) months but not more than one (1) year or both, upon the discretion of the court.
b) In addition to the penalty provided for in paragraph (1), the court may grant an injunction
restraining the conduct constituting the contravention of the provisions of Articles 50 and 51 and/or actual damages and such other orders as it thinks fit to redress injury to the person caused by such conduct.
REGULATION OF PRACTICES RELATIVE TO WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
ARTICLE 61. Implementing Agency -
The provincial, city, or municipal treasurers shall strictly enforce
the provisions of this Chapter, and its implementing rules and regulations: Provided, That, with respect to
the use of the Metric System, it shall be enforced by the Department of Trade and Industry.
ARTICLE 62. Sealing and Testing of Instruments of Weights and Measures -
All instruments for
determining weights and measures in all consumer and consumer related transactions shall be tested,
calibrated and sealed every six (6) months by the official sealer who shall be the provincial or city or
municipal treasurer or his authorized representative upon payment of fees required under existing law:
Provided, That all instruments of weights and measures shall continuously be inspected for compliance
with the provisions of this Chapter.
ARTICLE 63. Use of Metric System -
The system of weights and measures to be used for all products,
commodities, materials, utilities, services and commercial transactions, in all contracts, deeds and other
official and legal instruments and documents shall be the metric system, in accordance with existing laws and their implementing rules and regulations. The Department of Trade and Industry shall also adopt, standard measurement for garments, shoes and other similar consumer products.
ARTICLE 64. Fraudulent Practices Relative to Weights and Measures -
The following acts relating to
weights and measures are prohibited:
a) for any person other than the official sealer or his duly authorized representative to place or
attach an official tag, seal, sticker, mark, stamp, brand or other characteristic sign used to indicate that such instrument of weight and measure has officially been tested, calibrated, sealed or inspected;
b) for any person to imitate any seal, sticker, mark, stamp, brand, tag or other characteristic sign
used to indicate that such instrument of weight and measures has been officially tested, calibrated, sealed or inspected;
c) for any person other than the official sealer or his duly authorized representative to alter in
any way the certificate or receipt given by the official sealer or his duly authorized representative as an acknowledgment that the instrument for determining weight and measure has been fully tested, calibrated, sealed or inspected;
d) for any person to make or knowingly sell or use any false or counterfeit seal, sticker, brand,
stamp, tag, certificate or license or any dye for printing or making the same or any characteristic sign used to indicate that such instrument of weight and measure has been officially tested, calibrated sealed or inspected;
e) or any person other than the official sealer or his duly authorized representative to alter the
written or printed figures, letters or symbols on any official seal, sticker, receipt, stamp, tag, certificate or license used or issued;
f) for any person to use or reuse any restored, altered, expired, damaged stamp, tag certificate
2000R2037 — EN — 30.09.2000 — 000.001 — 1 This document is meant purely as documentation tool and the institutions do not assume any liability for its contents REGULATION (EC) No 2037/2000 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 29 June 2000 on substances that deplete the ozone layer Regulation (EC) No 2038/2000 of the European Parliament and of theCouncil of 28 Septem
LIBRO SEGUNDO. De la parte general. TÍTULO I. De la persona humana. CAPÍTULO I. Comienzo de la existencia. ARTÍCULO 15. Comienzo de la existencia. La existencia de las personas humanas comienza con la concepción ARTÍCULO 16.- Tiempo de la concepción. Duración del embarazo. Se presume que la concepción ha tenido lugar en el espacio de tiempo entre el máximo y el mínim