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Microsoft word - potassium.doc

_______________________________________________________________________________________ Name(s): Potassium chloride, potassium bicarbonate,
papaya, fresh passion fruit juice, dried sulphured peaches, chelated potassium (potassium aspartate, potassium citrate) dried sulphured pears, boiled pink beans, boiled pinto beans, cooked plantain, potato flour, baked potato with skin, Description: Potassium is an intracellular mineral involved
prune juice, quinoa, raisins, refried beans, dark rye flour, in maintaining osmotic pressure and the acid/base balance. raw sapote, soy flour, roasted soybean nuts, boiled mature This means that, along with sodium, it regulates the fluids soybeans, boiled split peas, sun-dried red tomatoes, raw on both sides of the cell and maintains the proper pH of the tamarind, whole grain triticale flour, boiled black turtle body. Potassium also helps other nutrients in and out of the beans, boiled white beans and dried zante.20 cell. This mineral is also involved in the conversion of glucose to glycogen (the form in which the liver stores Medium (25-39% US DRI): baked acorn squash, boiled glucose) and the synthesis of protein from amino acids. amaranth, dried sulphured apricots, raw bamboo shoots, raw Other functions of this mineral include, normalizing the banana, boiled black beans, boiled black eye peas, raw heartbeat, stimulating the kidneys to excrete poisonous breadfruit, boiled broad beans, boiled burdock root, raw waste, and in the metabolism of carbohydrates.1 cantaloupe, carrot juice, chickpeas, raw coconut milk, coconut water, corn pudding, low fat cottonseed flour, Absorption/Storage: The small intestines absorb about
partially defatted cottonseed meal, dried dates, boiled 90% of that ingested. Most is excreted through perspiration dishcloth gourd, raw elderberries, boiled garland and some is excreted through urination.1 chrysanthemum, fresh grapefruit juice, raw honeydew melon, boiled horseradish tree pods, dried jujube, raw lotus Recommended Dietary Allowance/Dietary Reference
root, frozen melon balls, boiled moth beans, boiled mung Intake: Because lack of potassium is rare, there is no RDA
beans, fresh orange juice, boiled pigeon peas, baked potato or RNI for this mineral. However, it is thought that 1600 to without skin, dried prunes, raw pummelo, rice bran, brown 2000 mg (40 to 50 milliequivalents [mEq]) per day for rice flour, raw sour sop, boiled green soybeans, boiled spinach, raw vine spinach, boiled Swiss chard, cooked Tahitian taro, fresh tangerine juice, tomato juice, canned Optimum Daily Allowance (Adult): 99-500 mg.3
tomato paste or puree, whole wheat flour, boiled winged beans, baked or boiled yam, boiled yard long beans and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels: None available.
Principal Uses: Hypertension (if not on potassium sparing
Contraindications: In deciding to use a medicine, the risks
medications),4-12 and kidney stones (citrate with magnesium of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For potassium supplements, the following should be Proposed Uses: Cardiac arrhythmia, congestive heart
failure, premenstrual syndrome and stroke.19 Allergies--Tell your doctor if you have ever had any Traditional Uses: None.19
unusual or allergic reaction to potassium preparations. Also tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to any Healthy Sources:
other substances, such as foods, preservatives, or dyes. High (40%+ US DRI): Boiled adzuki beans, dried agar, amaranth, boiled artichoke, raw avocado, homemade baked Pregnancy--Potassium supplements have not been shown to beans, boiled bamboo shoots, boiled beet greens, whole groat buckwheat flour, carob (St. John's bread) flour, raw Breast-feeding--Potassium supplements pass into breast cassava, raw coconut cream, boiled catjang cowpeas, boiled milk. However, this medicine has not been reported to cause cranberry beans, dried figs, boiled French beans, raw strawberry guava, red kidney beans, boiled lentils, boiled lima beans, dried logans, dried lychees, dried mixed fruit, Children--Although there is no specific information boiled great northern beans, dried oriental radish, raw comparing use of potassium supplements in children with _______________________________________________________________________________________ Updated: April 2002. _______________________________________________________________________________________ use in other age groups, they are not expected to cause supplements may cause or worsen certain stomach or different side effects or problems in children than they do in • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (benazepril [e.g., Lotensin], captopril [e.g., Capoten], Older adults--Many medicines have not been studied enalapril [e.g., Vasotec], fosinopril [e.g., Monotril], specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known lisinopril [e.g., Prinivil, Zestril], quinapril [e.g., whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. Although there is no specific information comparing use of potassium supplements in the elderly with use in • Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (acebutolol [e.g., other age groups, they are not expected to cause different Sectral], atenolol [e.g., Tenormin], betaxolol [e.g., side effects or problems in older people than they do in Kerlone], carteolol [e.g., Cartrol], labetalol [e.g., Normodyne], metoprolol [e.g., Lopressor], nadolol [e.g., Corgard], oxprenolol [e.g., Trasicor], penbutolol Older adults may be at a greater risk of developing high [e.g., Levatol], pindolol [e.g., Visken], propranolol blood levels of potassium (hyperkalaemia). [e.g., Inderal], sotalol [e.g., Sotacor], timolol [e.g., Other medicines--Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines • Inflammation or pain medicine (except narcotics) or may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In • Potassium-containing medicines (other) or these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or • Salt substitutes, low-salt foods, or milk or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking potassium supplements, it is especially important that your • Triamterene (e.g., Dyrenium)--Use with potassium doctor and pharmacist know if you are taking any of the supplements may further increase potassium blood levels, which may cause or worsen heart problems Digitalis glycosides (heart medicine)--Use with Anticholinergics (medicine for abdominal or stomach potassium supplements may make heart problems • Antidepressants (medicine for depression) or • Thiazide diuretics (water pills)--If you have been taking • Antidyskinetics (medicine for Parkinson's disease or a potassium supplement and a thiazide diuretic other conditions affecting control of muscles) or together, stopping the thiazide diuretic may cause hyperkalaemia (high blood levels of potassium) • Antipsychotic medicine (medicine for mental illness) or Other medical problems--The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of potassium supplements. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other • Addison's disease (underactive adrenal glands) or • Dehydration (excessive loss of body water, continuing • Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes) or • Kidney disease--Potassium supplements may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (high blood levels of potassium), which may worsen or cause heart problems • Diarrhoea (continuing or severe)--The loss of fluid in combination with potassium supplements may cause • Trimeprazine (e.g., Temaril)--Use with potassium kidney problems, which may increase the risk of _______________________________________________________________________________________ Updated: April 2002. _______________________________________________________________________________________ hyperkalaemia (high blood levels of potassium) Prescription levels of potassium are higher than the amount • Heart disease--Potassium supplements may make this sold over the counter but not more than the amount found in • Intestinal or oesophageal blockage--Potassium Toxicity/Side Effects: Along with its needed effects, a
• Stomach ulcer--Potassium supplements may make this medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they Interactions:
Stop taking this medicine and check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur: felodipine, ipecac, mineral oil, laxative • Confusion; irregular or slow heartbeat; numbness or tingling in hands, feet, or lips; shortness of breath or diuretics, tetracyclines, thiazides,19,21 difficult breathing; unexplained anxiety; unusual tiredness or weakness; weakness or heaviness of legs Also, check with your doctor if any of the following side • Abdominal or stomach pain, cramping, or soreness (continuing); chest or throat pain, especially when inhibitors and potassium-containing salt swallowing; stools with signs of blood (red or black Other side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. However, check with your doctor if any of the following side effects • Diarrhoea; nausea; stomach pain, discomfort, or gas Sometimes you may see what appears to be a whole tablet in the stool after taking certain extended-release potassium chloride tablets. This is to be expected. Your body has absorbed the potassium from the tablet and the shell is then Deficiency: So-called primitive diets provided much greater
levels of potassium; modern diets may provide too little. Gross deficiencies, however, are rare except in cases of Other side effects not listed above may also occur in some prolonged vomiting, diarrhoea, or use of “potassium patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your depleting” diuretic drugs. People taking one of these drugs should be informed by their doctor to take potassium. Your doctor should check your progress at regular visits to _______________________________________________________________________________________ Updated: April 2002. _______________________________________________________________________________________ make sure the medicine is working properly and that possible side effects are avoided. Laboratory tests may be http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/potassiu 3. Balch, P.A. & Balch, J.F. (2000). Prescription for Do not use salt substitutes, eat low-sodium foods, especially nutritional healing (third edition). Garden City Park: some breads and canned foods, or drink low-sodium milk unless you are told to do so by your doctor, since these 4. Whelton, P.K., He, J., Cutler, J.A. et al. (1997). Effects products may contain potassium. It is important to read the of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of labels carefully on all low-sodium food products. randomised controlled clinical trials. JAMA, 277(20): Check with your doctor before starting any physical 5. Whelton, P.K., Buring, J., Borhani, N.O. et al. (1995). exercise program, especially if you are out of condition and The effect of potassium supplementation in persons are taking any other medicine. Exercise and certain with a high-normal blood pressure. Results from phase medicines may increase the amount of potassium in the I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP). 6. National Research Council, Diet & Health (1989). Check with your doctor at once if you notice blackish stools Implications for reducing chronic disease risk. or other signs of stomach or intestinal bleeding. This medicine may cause such a condition to become worse, 7. MacGregor, S.A. et al. (1982). Moderate potassium supplementation in essential hypertension. Lancet, ii: The best way to get extra potassium is to eat several pieces 8. Kaplan, N.M. (1985). Potassium supplementation in of fruit per day. The amount allowed in supplements—99 hypertensive patients with diuretic-induced mg per tablet or capsule—is very low, considering that one hypokalaemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 312: banana can contain 500 mg. Multiple potassium pills should not be taken in an attempt to get a higher amount, because 9. Matlou, S.M. et al. (1986). Potassium supplementation they can irritate the stomach—a problem not encountered in blacks with mild to moderate essential hypertension. 10. Oble, A.O. (1989). Placebo controlled trial of Treatment For Overdose: Push fluids.
potassium supplements in black patients with mild essential hypertension. Journal of Cardiovascular Storage: To store this medicine:
11. Patki, P.S. (1990). Efficacy of potassium and • Store away from heat and direct light. magnesium in essential hypertension: A double-blind, • Do not store in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or placebo-controlled, crossover study. British Journal of in other damp places. Heat or moisture may cause the 12. Fotherby, M.D. & Potter, J.F. (1992). Potassium • Keep the liquid form of this medicine from freezing. supplementation reduces clinic and ambulatory blood • Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer pressure in elderly hypertensive patients. Journal of needed. Be sure that any discarded medicine is out of 13. Lehman, J. Jr., Pleuss, J.A., Gray, R.W. & Hoffman, R.G. (1991). Potassium administration increases and References:
potassium deprivation reduces urinary calcium 1. Dr. Morrow's Library of Vitamins, Minerals, Amino excretion in healthy adults. Kidney International, 39: 14. Curhan, G.C., Willett, W.C., Rimm, E.B. & Stampfer, M.J. (1993). A prospective study of dietary calcium and 2. National Library of Medicine. (1995). Potassium other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney _______________________________________________________________________________________ Updated: April 2002. _______________________________________________________________________________________ stones. New England Journal of Medicine, 328: 833– 21. Meletis, C. & Jacobs, T. (1999). Interactions between drugs & natural medicines. Sandy, OR.: Eclectic 15. Lee, Y.H., Huang, W.C., Tsai, J.Y. & Huang, J.K. (1999). The efficacy of potassium citrate based medical prophylaxis for preventing upper urinary tract calculi: a Information in this booklet is provided for informational midterm follow-up study. Journal of Urology, 161: purposes and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own physician or other medical 16. Breslau, N.A., Padalino, P., Kok, D.J. et al. (1995). professional. You should not use the information contained Physicochemical effects of a new slow-release herein for diagnosing or treating a health problem or potassium phosphate preparation (UroPhos-K) in disease, or prescribing any medication. You should read absorptive hypercalciuria. Journal of Bone Mineral carefully all product packaging. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health 17. Ettinger, B., Pak, C.Y., Citron, J.T. et al. (1997). care provider. Information and statements regarding dietary Potassium-magnesium citrate is an effective supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, nephrolithiasis. Journal of Urology, 158: 2069–2073. 18. Pak, C.Y. (1999). Medical prevention of renal stone disease. Nephron, 81(Suppl 1): 60–65 [review]. 19. Austin, S., Gaby, A., Appleton, J. et al. (2001). HealthNotes Online. [Online] http://healthnotes.com 20. Pennington, J.A. (1998). Boes and Church's food values of portions commonly used (seventeenth _______________________________________________________________________________________ Updated: April 2002.

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UMASS TOBACCO STUDY ADULT BASELINE ______________________________________________________________________________ SECTION A: INTRODUCTION & LIFETIME SMOKING HISTORY SECTION A: INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND INFORMATION, AND SMOKING STATUS (*IF SELECTED RESPONDENT IS NOT INFORMANT FROM SCREENER) DETERMINE SPEAKING TO CORRECT PERSON VERIFY AGE, GENDER, SMOKING STATUS We are gatherin

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