The World in a Cup
by Sheridan Rogers
Trumpets were blaring, balloons flying and children were
running through the crowd with painted faces. Monica
Trapaga and Rachael (of Rachael’s Little Band) were singing
their hearts out and strolling musicians were squeezing
Even the weather was festive – the sun was out, the sky clear and blue,
and in the background, Sydney Harbour was sparkling.
Through it all wafted the irresistible smell of freshly made coffee.
Spirits were high. And why wouldn’t they be?
After all this was a coffee fest and most people – after a cup or two of
coffee – were on a natural high. Coffee contains caffeine, a mild central
nervous stimulant (CNS) which is rapidly absorbed by the body when
taken in beverage form.
As you’ve probably noticed, it makes you feel brighter and more alert
within a few minutes and can help postpone feelings of fatigue for up
to four hours. The fourth Aroma Coffee Festival held at The Rocks in
Sydney is indicative of the explosive interest in coffee which has taken
place over the past five years in Australia. This year over 100,000
people swarmed to the Harbour foreshores to taste coffee from all over
the world – well over double the numbers who attended the first
Aroma Festival four years ago. They had come not just to taste various
blends and brews but to learn more about the finer aspects of roasting,
grinding and making the perfect cup at home. Nineteen gourmet
coffee roasters were present and thousands of cups of coffee
According to Gary Trye, one of the organisers, the Aroma Festival
is the largest coffee festival in the world and the only one of its
“The heart and soul of the festival is the boutique roaster,” he said.
“They’ve been springing up all over the place over the past few years
as have single origin or estate roasters. They’re very passionate about
their craft and have definite ideas about what they consider to be the
best roast and the best blend.”
Toby’s Estate Coffee, Forsyth Coffee & Tea, Karmee, Café Hernandez
and Caffe Bianchi were just some of the boutique roasters who
participated. Major players like Andronicus (who sponsored the
event), Segafredo and Vittoria were also present.
Café culture has become very much part of the modern Australian
lifestyle. Our cities and suburbs are spilling over with cafes on virtually
every street corner. Coffee has become a gourmet product and a
fashion statement and like wine, discerning consumers now want to
know where the coffee they drink has come from, what blend of beans
is being used and how they were roasted and ground. However, there
are still many people paying a lot of money for poor quality brews
made from low-grade coffee beans.
According to Les Schirato, managing director of Vittoria Coffee,
the importance of good quality coffee is still vastly underestimated.
“Taste, quality and freshness of the beans should guide consumers in
their choice of coffee,” he said. “While this is a very individual thing,
in general good coffee should have a strong rich taste and should
never be bitter or leave a stale aftertaste.”
You can rest assured that little or no evidence of a stale aftertaste could
be detected at this year’s Aroma Coffee Festival.
Aroma Coffee Festival, The Rocks July 8, 2001.
■ Australians consume approximately 2.4 kilograms of coffee per person per
annum -and that’s nearly 1 kg more than the amount of coffee each of usdrank in 1979!
■ Percentage breakdown of coffee consumed in cafes nationally: ■ Cappuccino 50 per cent (men and women almost equal)■ Café latte 12 per cent ■ Flat white 18 per cent■ Espresso 9 per cent (men consume ten per cent more than women)■ Long Black 11 per cent (men consume 12 per cent more than women)■ Cappuccino represents 21 per cent of all coffee sales to 25 – 44 year olds.
■ Seventy one per cent of all sales (in cafes) are milk-based with males being
■ Espresso sales are higher in 25 – 34 year old males.
(Source BIS Shrapnel Out of home sales 2001)
■ Total value of the roasted coffee category is $68.2 million, which is increasing
■ The top three brands in Australia are Vittoria, Lavazza and Harris followed by
Robert Timms, Aurora, Melitta, Moccona, Andronicus, Bushells and Brothers.
■ 76,000 foodservice outlets (approx 60,000 commercial and 16,000 institutional)
serve roasted coffee with Victoria and NSW accounting for 60 per cent of
a short black coffee topped
a double shot of
a concentrated espresso that
made with espresso and
an espresso run longer
until the cup is nearly full. Should have
standard dose of coffee
meaning stained or spotted
cup is filled two-thirds
a full-bodied intense
a cappuccino with chocolate
Excellent coffee is made up of three essential components:
■ 50 per cent – the person (barista) making it!
■ With the upcoming World Barista Championships in Oslo, Norway, in
2002, the search is on worldwide to select the best. Representing Australia
will be the winner of the Barista Championship. Heats begin at The
Gourmet Coffee Institute, 298 Harbord Rd., Brookvale, Sydney on
September 11, 2001. Semi-finals will be held at St Ives Shopping Centre,
166 Mona Vale Rd., September 22nd. The Grand Final will be hosted by
The International College of Tourism and Hospitality Management in
Manly on Eastern Hill on September 29th. The competition is being run
For more information: phone 02 9938 1233 www.danes.com.au
■ Café Art - this is the “theatre” attached to coffee making
e you just making cof
performed by the barista. If you wish to learn more about
The Lavazza Training Centre, phone 03 9429 5999
Forsyth Coffee and Tea, phone 02 9906 6281
Is it true love… or ar
The Vittoria Coffee College, phone 02 9748 0299
■ Café society is extending into the office and home and increasingly
sophisticated ways of serving coffee are taking place in cafes around the world.
■ At the office, tins of instant coffee are being replaced by small individual
■ In the home, roasting and grinding coffee beans of choice is beginning to
■ From green bean to cup: in cafes, fresh beans are now being roasted in
boutique roasting machines alongside the espresso machine. Many cafes have
begun installing Green Bean Coffee Roasters to ensure they are serving the
■ Around the world with coffee: many cafes now offer several different grinds
and blends along with daily specials (eg. Kenyan, Sumatran, Guatemalan,
■ Café society has also become part of the open-air market scene at producers
and farmers markets. Even freshly roasted bean sales are becoming popular.
Check out Toby’s Estate Coffee and Australian Estate Coffee at North Sydney and
Pyrmont Growers Markets in Sydney and Paddington Bean Brokers at Sydney’s
Paddington Markets or on the net at www.beanbroker.com.au.
■ Flavoured coffees are on the increase. A variety of flavours is available:
hazelnut, chocolate, almond, macadamia, Sambucca.
■ A greater range of choices in size is on offer – from milk-shake container (4
shots of coffee) to super, large and regular.
■ Frozen ice coffees and frappes like freezaccinos and mochaccinos are becoming
more popular. They are sold by “direct pour”.
■ Toppings like whipped cream with hundred and thousands or freshly grated
■ Fizzy coffee drinks: from Attiva Al Caffe in Italy, a deliciously refreshing
frizzante coffee which comes in a nifty 6 pack of 180ml bottles at $16-50.
Coffee has frequently suffered from a health image problem. As Ian Berstenpoints out in “Coffee, Sex & Health” (Helian Books), it could be coffee’s bad luckto have had a name so close to its alkaloid component, caffeine. However, coffeecan play a role in keeping you healthy if consumed in moderation as indicated inthe following research:
■ Mark Florence, former chief scientist with the CSIRO and co-author of “TheHandbook of Preventive Medicine” (Kingsclear Books) found that brewed coffeeminimalises the action of a chemical called theophylline which helps dilate
bronchial muscles which become constricted during cold or flu epidemics or inasthmatics. He recommends drinking no more than 2 cups brewed or 4 cups
friend or foe?
instant per day.
■ In Mark Walqvist’s book “Agefit: Fitness and Nutrition For An IndependentFuture” (Pan MacMillan), it is reported that coffee releases fat from fat cells and
assists in weight loss. He also says that coffee may play a role in cancer preventionbut stresses the links are weak. He points out that the way in which coffee ismade may determine how beneficial it is – freshly filtered is best.
■ After analysing 17 published studies on coffee consumption and colorectalcancer, Professor Edward Giovanucci of Harvard Medical School found the risk of colorectal cancer to be 24 per cent lower among those who drink four or more cups of coffee per day than the risk among those who rarely or never drink coffee.
■ Coffee contains potentially cardioprotective flavonoids, which have antioxidantproperties, so the occasional cup of coffee may not be bad for you, it may evenprovide some benefit.
■ Common levels of caffeine in foods and beverages are described in the table below.
friend or foe?
■ The recommended intake of caffeine is less than 200mg/day.
■ Based on recent evidence, it seems that up to three cups of coffee orequivalent caffeine intake a day will not do any harm (unless you are pregnant,suffer from stomach ulcers, hypertension or heart arrhythmia) and may indeedprovide some health benefits.
Food Facts - Wahlqvist ML, Briggs D.
Caffeine Food Questions and Answers - Wahlqvist ML, Briggs, D.
1 tbsp coffee essence 250g (2 cups) plain flour 1 tsp baking powder 1 tsp bi-carb of soda 1/2 tsp salt 2 tsp finely ground fresh coffee 200ml buttermilk
Preheat the oven to 180degC. Grease a 23cm round tin – we used a 1.2 litre stainless steel bowl . Cream the butter and sugar until light, add the eggs one at a time, beating well after each addition. Stir in the coffee essence. Sift the remaining dry ingredients together and stir through the ground coffee. Fold the dry ingredients through the mixture, alternating with the buttermilk and finishing with the flour. Pour into the prepared tin and bake 45 – 55 minutes. Cool in the tin for ten minutes then turn onto a rack to cool completely. Cover with chocolate ganache and sprinkle with chocolate covered coffee beans.
250g good quality dark chocolate, chopped in small pieces
65g unsalted butter, diced
200 ml fresh cream
Place the chopped chocolate and butter in a bowl. In a pan, heat the cream just until boiling and pour overthe chocolate. Stir gently until the butter and chocolate have melted and the ganache is glossy. Leave to cooland thicken slightly before using.
the number of ingredients, this is an easy
1 tbsp olive oil 1 small onion, finely chopped 125ml (1/2 cup) strong coffee
2 racks American-style pork ribs (approx 1kg)
1 tbsp Mc Cormick’s Mexican chilli powder
2 tsp Worcestershire sauce 1/2 tsp mustard
1/2 tsp Mc Cormick’s Mexican chilli powder
1/2 tsp ground cumin pinch cinnamon pinch cayenne pepper
For the sauc
e: heat the oil in a heavy pan and saute onions until translucent. Add the other ingredients,
whisking to combine, and bring to the boil. Simmer to reduce the sauce by half. Keep to one side.
For the ribs:
place ribs in a large pan and cover with cold water. Add the cider vinegar and bring to the boil.
Simmer for ten minutes then drain. Place in a roasting tray. Mix the dry spices together and rub over both
sides of the ribs.
: preheat oven to 180degC. Brush ribs generously with the sauce and roast for ten minutes.
Brush with more sauce and roast a further 15 minutes. Remove from oven and leave to rest, covered with foil,
for ten minutes. Serve with the extra sauce, baked potatoes with sour cream and a salad or coleslaw.
: you can make the sauce several days ahead and keep covered in the fridge.
this dessert is perfect for special occasions.
2 eggs, separated1 1/2 – 2 tbsp caster sugar400g mascarponeCognac or Grand Marnier, to tastefinely ground fresh coffee grainsIn a bowl, whisk together the egg yolks and sugar until thick andcreamy.
Fold through the mascarpone.
In a separate bowl, whisk the egg whites until stiff then fold throughthe mascarpone mixture. Add liqueur to taste. Pour into a serving bowl (or individual bowls) andsprinkle with the coffee grains.
: the coffee grains can be layered through the mixture – just take
care not to overdo them. Make sure they are fresh and finely ground.
If you prefer a lighter mixture, use 200g mascarpone mixed until
smooth with 200g drained fresh ricotta.
This is Eleni Coluzzi’s version of Tiramisu.
250 ml long black (espresso) coffee 1/2 tsp Sambucca 4 tbsp sugar 125g (1/2 packet) Savoiardi biscuits 3 free range eggs, separated 250g light Philadelphia cream cheese 600ml thickened cream Shaved dark chocolate or chocolate sprinkles
Mix the coffee, Sambucca and 1 tbsp of the sugar together. Break the Savoiardi biscuits into halves and dunkeach half in the coffee mixture. Line a small lasagne dish or seven dessert bowls with the biscuits. Put the eggyolks and remaining sugar into the bowl of a food processor and process for 3 minutes. Whisk the egg whitesuntil frothy and add to the egg yolk mixture. Add the cream cheese and thickened cream and process untilsmooth and thick, about 5 - 10 minutes. Spoon cream cheese mixture evenly over biscuits. Decorate top withshaved chocolate. Refrigerate, covered, for one hour before serving.
With thanks to
Andy Payne (Photographix) for food photography
Karen Uren for assistance with styling
Veronica Gillmer (Alphabet Soup) for design
Eyup Akgün Education/Training University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany, B.S. (Chemistry) University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany, M.S. (Organic Chemistry) University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany, Ph.D. (Medicinal Chemistry) Assoc. Prof. (registered Technical University of Istanbul) Faculty of no tenure tract of University of Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh, PA Faculty of no tenure tract
Traveller’s Diarrhea This fact sheet provides basic information only. It must not take the place of medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always talk to a healthcare professional about any health concerns you have, and before you make any changes to your diet, lifestyle or treatment. What is traveller's diarrhea? Traveller's diarrhea is frequent, loose, or watery bowel movements resulti