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Year 8 - structures and materials programme

Churchlands Senior High School - Biological Sciences 2014 Year 10 – Biological Science – Student Program - 2014 – Specialist
Reference text abbreviations:

Program Content
Science Aspects
Cell Structure and Function:
 Label and describe the basic function of the following structures and organelles of an animal cell: - cell membrane: controls what enters and leaves the cell - nucleus: contains DNA which controls cell functioning - mitochondria: site of cellular respiration Reproduction:
 Functions of human reproductive systems: gamete production, internal fertilisation and “housing” of developing foetus and birth.  Label the parts of the male reproductive system and outline the function of the following: - seminal vesicles: adds a sugary fluid to semen - epididymis: sperm maturation and storage - erectile tissue: to allow the penis to become erect for insertion into the vagina - prostate glands: adds an alkaline fluid to the semen - vas deferens: transport of semen to urethra - urethra: transport of either semen or urine out of the penis - penis: to deposit semen in the vagina upon ejaculation - testes: production of male sex hormone (testosterone) and sperm - scrotum: regulates temperature of the testes  Label the female reproductive system and outline the basic function of the following: - vagina: structure that receives the penis during sexual intercourse and becomes part of the birth canal during birth -cervix: narrow structure that separates the vagina from the uterus -uterus: muscular organ that “houses” the developing baby -clitoris: contains erectile and nerve tissue and highly stimulatory -fallopian tubes: main site of fertilisation -ovaries: produces female sex hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) and ova. Cellular reproduction
 Define meiosis: cellular division for the production of gametes (sex cells). - Occurs in ovaries (produces ova) and testes (produces sperm) - Describe the sequence of events that occurs to the chromosomes during meiosis (including the processes of independent assortment and crossing over) - Sex cells are haploid (no homologous chromosomes): they contain half the number of human chromosomes (DNA) as a regular body cell. They contain only a single copy of each of the 23 different human chromosomes. - There may be some variation amongst the chromosomes in sex cells due to the following: independent assortment and crossing over - Fertilisation: the result of a haploid sperm fusing with a haploid ovum to produce a diploid zygote, that further develops into the foetus  A brief overview of mitosis (taught in Year 8)  Compare mitosis and meiosis as follows: Number of daughter cells produced from one parent cell? Are there homologous pairs in the daughter Churchlands Senior High School - Biological Sciences 2014 Introduction to Genetics
 Environment vs Heredity (some basic studies of identical twins)  Structure of DNA – double helix, constructed of nucleotides (nucleotide is a base-sugar-phosphate molecule)  Complementary base pairing (ie adenine bonded with thymine and cytosine bonded with guanine)  DNA replication (emphasize complementary base pair rule)  Chromatin- DNA wrapped around histones / less densely packed and can be transcribed / in this form for most of the cell’s life  Chromosomes- densely packed chromatin/ appears as threadlike structures prior to cell division/ cannot be transcribed in this state  Define gene: a section of a chromosome (a particular sequence of nucleotides) that codes for production of a particular protein  Structure of RNA- single strand of nucleotides (with complementary base pairing as follows: adenine bonds with uracil and guanine bonds with cytosine)  Transcription of a gene to form mRNA: - The transcription (“copying”) of a gene results in the production a strand of mRNA, complementary to the nucleotide sequence on the template strand of a - A sequence of three nucleotides in DNA (a triplet code) codes for a particular amino acid - A sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA, complementary to the triplet code on the DNA, is a codon  Translation of mRNA to form a protein: - A ribosome translates (“reads”) the mRNA at the ribosome - A sequence of three nucleotides in tRNA, complementary to the codon on the mRNA, is the anti-codon - tRNA releases the appropriate amino acids at the ribosome (based on anti-codons on tRNA being complementary to the codons on the mRNA) - amino acids are chemically bonded to form a protein  Proteins are composed of approximately 100 or more amino acids  Proteins determine an organism’s structure and function. Some examples of proteins e.g. enzymes, hormones, structural proteins Genetic terminology
- Phenotype: the characteristics of an individual - Genotype: the allele combinations for a particular gene - Homozygous: an individual possessing two of the same alleles for a particular gene - Heterozygous: an individual possessing two different alleles for a particular gene - Dominant allele : in a heterozygous individual this is the allele that determines phenotype - Recessive allele: only determines the phenotype in a homozygous recessive individual Genetic problems (autosomal dominant & co-dominant and sex linked)
 Punnett Squares
 Probability of offspring
 All Monohybrid cross problems, including F1 and F2 crosses (sex linked- cover red-green colour blindness and haemophilia)
Pedigree analysis (autosomal and sex-linked inheritance)
 Construction and analysis of pedigree diagrams
 Determining mode of inheritance (dominant or recessive) from pedigrees  Mutation is permanent change to DNA which results in a source of variation (new alleles in population)  Causes of mutation (e.g. carcinogens, radiation)  Define species: a group of similar individuals capable interbreeding and producing fertile offspring  Link biotic and abiotic factors that limit survival and reproduction  Environment change causes change in biotic and abiotic factors  Selection pressure: an environmental factor that may affect survival/reproduction success  Allele frequency changes in a population due to changes in selection pressure  Isolation between individuals within a species (ie geographic and sociocultural) prevents allele flow  Natural selection: variation exists amongst individuals of a species due to different alleles. Some individuals have alleles that provide them with a survival advantage (enables them to survive to a reproductive age and produce offspring)  Evolution: changes in selection pressures may favour certain alleles. Overtime these alleles may become more frequent amongst the individuals of a species. Evolution may result in new species forming  Examples of evolutionary changes, e.g. antibiotic resistance in bacteria; selective breeding (advantages and disadvantages) Churchlands Senior High School - Biological Sciences 2014 Evidence for Evolution
 Fossils increase in complexity, diversity
 DNA comparisons
 Comparison of homologous structures (e.g. pentadactyl limb)


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