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Appendix a:

CHEMICAL HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS
POTENTIAL CARCINOGENS+
+Those substances "which may
reasonably be anticipated to be
carcinogens" are defined as
those for which there is a
limited evidence of
carcinogenicity in humans or
sufficient evidence of
carcinogenicity in experimental
animals.
Based on National Toxicology
Program and International
Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC) classifications.
1,3-Propane Sultone Reserpine Saccharin Safrole Selenium Sulfide Streptozotocin Sulfallate 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) Thioacetamide Thiourea Toluene Diisocyanate Toxaphene PROPERTIES OF FLAMMABLE SUBSTANCES
Flammable
% by Volume in Air Flash Point
Substance
Lower Upper (Closed
Aldehydes and Ketones formaldehyde, CH2O Flammable
% by Volume in Air Flash Point
Substance
Lower Upper (Closed

Mode of Ignition of Flammable Vapors

Flammable vapors are easily ignited with an open flame, a spark or even a catalytic surface such as a small bit of platinum-blavek. Most combustible vapors are denser than air, which has an effective molecular weight of 29. Therefore, they settle down onto bench tops and floors, where they may accumulate and spread out horizontally and eventually reach an ignition source. Flammable vapors from massive sources such as spillage have also been known to descend into stirwells and elevator shafts and ignite on a lower story. If the path of vapor within the flammable range is continuous, the flame will propagate itself from the point of ignition back to its source. Source: Green ME and Turk A (1978). Safety in Working with
Chemicals. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co.
KNOWN AND PROBABLE CARCINOGENS*

KNOWN
4-Aminobiphenyl
1,4-Butanediol
Dimethylsulfonate
(Myleran)
PROBABLE
Acrylonitrile
Cadmium Chloride
Cadmium Powder
Cadmium Sulfate
Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Ethylene Oxide Nickel Powder 0-Toluidine Based on National Toxicology Program and International Agency for Research on Cancer Classifications HIGHLY TOXIC SUBSTANCES
The substances listed below are highly toxic as defined by the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA). Very small amounts of these chemicals may cause immediate, acutely toxic reactions. All necessary precautions should be taken to limit exposure to these highly toxic chemicals and substitutes for such chemicals should be used whenever possible. The FHSA used the LD50 and LC50 as a measure of the acute toxicity of a substance. The FHSA defines a highly toxic substance as one where the LD50 is 50 mg/kg or less when orally administered or where the LC50 is 200 ppm or less when a gas or vapor is inhaled. The LD50 is the dose of a substance that produces death in 50% of a group of laboratory animals. The LC50 is the vapor concentration of a substance that produces death in 50% of animals. Although this measure of lethality can be influenced by a variety of factors, historically they have provided a measure of toxicity which can be used in estimating the comparative safety of substances. The LD50 values in this table are determined for the most part following oral administration of the chemical to rats and are expressed in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The LC50 is expressed in parts per million (ppm). The lowest LD50 or LC50 reported in the literature is shown for each substance.
Substance
No. LD (mg/kg) or LC (ppm)
of hazard due to acute and chronic neurotoxicity of mercury vapors.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set the
Acceptable Ceiling Concentration at 100 micrograms per cubic meter*
Substance
No. LD (mg/kg) or LC (ppm)

Mercuric Chloride
* Acceptable Ceiling Concentration is the level which can never be exceeded, even for an instant. ** Toxicity is expected to be similar to other mercuric salts *** Toxicity is expected to be similar to Sodium Cyanide Source: Council of State Science Supervisors (1984). School Science Laboratories: A Guide to Some Hazardous Substances. Wash, DC: US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the National Institue for Occupational Safety and Health. CORROSIVES AND IRRITANTS*
For those substances labeled corrosive, great care should be taken to prevent contact with the skin and especially with the
eyes, since blindness or impaired vision could result. For those
chemicals labeled as irritants, care should be taken to avoid
skin and eye contact; for volatile substances, additional care
should be exercised to avoid inhalation of vapors.
SUBSTANCE
CORROSIVE IRRITANT
SUBSTANCE
CORROSIVE IRRITANT
(sodium Silicofluoride) Stannic Chloride + According to NFPA and RTECS ++ Highly toxic substances included here for their corrosive or irritant characteristics Source: Council of State Science Supervisors (1984). School of Science Laboratories: A Guide to Some hazardous Substances. Wash, DC: US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. SELECTED ALLERGIC CONTACT SENSITIZERS

Causes of Contact Allergy.
Contact allergy may occur
from a very large number of antigens; it seems possible
that most substances may at least very rarely be
antigens. However, there is a great range in antigenic
potency, and a relatively small number of strong
sensitizers have been identified experimentally or in
humans. Strong allergens are often aromatic substances
with molecular weights less than 500; they tend to be
highly lipid soluble and quite reactive with protein,
although exceptions occur.
Organomercurials
PLANT SENSITIZERS

Toxicodendron genus: pentadecylcatechols Primula obconica: -methylene- -butyrolactone Compositae family: sesquiterpene lactones
RUBBER ADDITIVES
Mercaptobenzthiazoic
Thiuram

Epoxy oligomer (m.W. 340)
Methyl methacrylate and other acrylic monomers
Pentaerythritol triacrylate and other multifunctional
acrylates
Hexamethylenediisocyanate
p-Tertiary butyl phenol
Ethylenediamine, hexamethylenetetramine, and
other aliphatic amines
Formaldehyde
Neomycin
Benzocaine
Captan
Source: "Toxic Responses of the Skin" in Klaassen CD,
Amdur MO, and Doull J. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology:
The Basic Science of Poisons.
1986, Macmillan
Publishing Co. New York.

AGENTS REPORTED TO AFFECT MALE REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY+
Steroids
Natural and synthetic androgens (antiandrogens),
estrogens (antiestrogens) and progestins
Antineoplastic Agents
Alkaloids--vinca alkaloids (vinblastine, vincristine)
Alkylating agents--esters of methanesulfonic acid (MMS,
EMS, busulfan); ethylenimines (TEM, TEPA); hydrazines (procarbazine); nitrogen mustards (chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide); nitrosoureas (CCNU, CNU, MNU) Antimetalbolites--amino acid analogs (azaserine {DON}; nucleic acid analogs (azauridine, 5-bromodeoxyuridine, cytosine arabinoside, 5-fluouoracil, 6-mercaptopurine) Antitumor antibotics--actinomycin D, adriamycin,
Drugs That Modify the Central Nervous System
Alcohols
Anesthetic gases and vapors--enflurane, halothane,
Antiparkinsonism drugs--levodopa Appetite suppressants Narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics--opioids Neuroleptics (antidepressants, antimanic, and Tranquilizers--phenothiazines, reserpine, monoamine
oxidase inhibitors
Drugs That Modify the Autonomic Nervous System
Antiadrenergic drugs (for hypertensive and cardiac
disorders)--alpha and beta-blocking agents, clonidine,
methyldopa, guanethidine, bretylium, reserpine
Other Therapeutic Agents
Alcoholism--tetraethylithiuram disulfide (antabuse)
Analgesics and antipyretics--phenacetin
Anticonvulsants--diphenylhydantoin (phenytoin)
Antiinfective agents--amphotericin B, hexachlorophene,
hycanthone, nitrofuran derivatives (furacin, Antischistosomal agents--niridazole, hycanthone Antiparasitic drugs--quinine, quinacrine, chloroquine Diuretics--aldactone, thiazides
Gout suppressants--colchicine
Histamins and histamine antagonists--chlorcyclizine,
cimetidine
Oral hypoglycemic agents--chlorpropamide
Xanthine--caffeine, theobromine
Metals and Trace Elements
Aluminum, arsenic, boranes, boron, cadmium, cobalt,
lead, mercury, methylmercury, molybdenum, nickel,
silver, uranium

Insecticides
Benzene hexachlorides--lindane
Carbamates--carbaryl
Chlorobenzene derivatives--chlorophenothane(DDT),
methoxychlor
Indane derivatives--aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin
Phosphate esters (cholinesterase inhibitors)--
dichlorvos (DDVP), hexamethylphosphoramide Miscellaneous--chlordecone (kepone)
Herbicides
Chlorinated phenoxyacetic acids--2,4-
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5- trichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), yalane Quaternary Ammonium compounds--diquat, paraquat
Rodenticides
Metabolic inhibitors--fluoroacetate (fluoroacetamide)
Fungicides, Fumigants, and Sterilants
Apholate, captan, carbon disulfide,
dibromide, ethylene oxide, thiocarbamates (cineb, maneb), triphenyltin
Food Additives and Contaminants
Aflatoxins, cyclamate, diethylstilbestrol (DES),
yellow, monosodium glutamate, nitrofuran derivatives
Industrial Chemicals
Chlorinated hydrocarbons-hexafluoroacetone,
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCCD) Hydrazines--dithiocarbamoylhydrazine Monomers--vinyl chloride, chloroprene Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-- dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), benzo(a)pyrene Solvents--benzene, carbon disulfide, glycolethers,
hexane, thiophe, toluene, xylene
Miscellaneous--diethyl adipate, chloroprene, ethylene
oxide cyclic tetramer
Consumer Products
Flame retardants--tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl phosphate
(TRIS)
Plasticizers--phthalate esters (DBP, DEHP)
Antispermatogenic Drugs (Investigational)
Derivatives of 1-benzylindazole-3-carboxylic acid, 1-
pchlorobenzyl-1H indazol-3-carboxylic acid,
chlorohydrins, chlorosugars (6-chloroglucose),
dichloracetyldiamines derivatives (Win 13,099, 17,416,
18,466), dihydronaphthalenes (nafoxidine),
dinitropyrroles (ORF-1616), gossypol, 5-thioglucose, a-
chlorohydrin, monothioglycerol
Miscellaneous
Personal habits--alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking
Agents of abuse--marijuana and other centrally acting
drugs
Physical factors--heat, light, hypoxia
Radiation--alpha, beta, and gamma radiation; x-rays
Stable isotopes--deuterium oxide
+ Both laboratory and clinical reports are included
(Target Organ Toxicity Center Reproductive Toxicity
Information File)
Source: "Toxic Responses of the Reproductive System" in
Klaassen CD, Amdur MO, and Doull J, Casarett and


Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. 1986,
Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.

AGENTS REPORTED TO AFFECT FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY+
Steroids
Natural and synthetic androgens (antiandrogens),
estrogens (antiestrogens) and progestins
Antineoplastic Agents
Alkylating agents--cyclophosphamide, busulfan
Antimetalbolites--folic acid antagonists (methotrexate)
Other Therapeutic Agents
Anesthetic gases and vapors--halothane, enflurane,
methoxyflurane
Antiparkinsonism drugs--levodopa
Antiparasitic drugs-quinacrine
Appetite suppressants
Narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics--opiods
Neuroleptics (antidepressants, antimanic, and
Serotonin
Sympathominetic amines--epinephrine, norepinephrine,
amphetamines
Tranquilizers-phenothiazines, reserpine, monoamine
oxidase inhibitors
Metals and Trace Elements
Arsenic, lead, lithium, mercury and methylmercury,
molybdenum, nickel, selenium, thallium
Insecticides
Benzene hexachlorides--lindane
Carbamates--carbaryl Chlorobenzene derivatives--chlorophenothane (DDT), methoxychlor Indane derivatives--aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin Phosphate esters (cholinesterase inhibitors)--parathion Miscellaneous--chlordecone (kepone), merex,
Herbicides
Chlorinated phenoxyacetic acids--2,4-
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-
Food Additives and Contaminants
Cyclohexylamine, diethylstilbestrol (DES),
dimethylnitrosamine, monosodium glutamate, nitrofuran derivatives (AF2), nitrosamines, sodium nitrite

Industrial Chemicals and Processes
Building materials-formaldehyde
Chlorinated hydrocarbons--polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs), chloroform, trichloroethylene
Paints and dyes--aniline
Plastic monomers--caprolactam, styrene, vinyl chloride
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--benzo(a)pyrene
Rubber manufacturing--chloroprene
Solvents--benzene, carbon disulfide, chloroform,
ethanol, glycol ethers, hexane, toluene, Miscellaneous--cyanoketone, hydrazines
Consumer Products
Flame retardants--TRIS, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
Plasticizers--phthalic acid esters (DEHP)
Miscellaneous
Personal habits--alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking
Agents of abuse--marijuana and other centrally acting
drugs
Radiation--alpha, beta, and gamma radiation; x-rays
++ Both laboratory and clinical reports are included (Target Organ Toxicity Center Reproductive Toxicity Information File) HIGH ENERGY OXIDIZERS

Ammonium perchlorate
AIR AND WATER REACTIVE CHEMICALS

Air Reactive: (Pyrophorics)
Grignard reagents
Metal alkyls and aryls, such as RLi, RNa, R Al, R Zn
Metal carbonyls, such as Ni(CO)4, Fe(CO)5, Co2(CO)8
Alkali metals such as Na, K

Metal powders, such as Al, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pd, Pt, Ti,
Sn, Zn, Zr
Metal hydrides, such as NaH, LiAlH4
Nonmetal hydrides, such as B2H6 and other boranes, PH3,
AsH3
Nonmetal alkyl, such as R3B, R3P, R3As
Phosphorus (white)
Water Reactive:
Alkali metals
Alkali metal hydrides
Alkali metal amides
Metal alkyls, such as lithium alkyls
Grignard reagents
Halides of nonmetals such as BCl3, BE3, PCl3, PCl5,
SiCl4, S2Cl2
Inorganic acid halides such as POCl2, SOCl2, SO2Cl2
Phosphorus pentoxide
Calcium carbide
Organic acid halides and anhydrides of low molecular
weight
COMMON PEROXIDE-FORMING CHEMICALS
Severe Peroxide Hazard on Storage with Exposure to Air Discard within 3 months
Vinylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethylenea)
Peroxide Hazard on Concentration: Do Not Distill or
Evaporate Without First Testing for the Presence of
Peroxides
Discard or test for peroxides after 6 months

* Acetaldehyde

Hazard of Rapid Plymerization Initiated by Internally
Formed Peroxidesa
a. Normal Liquids: Discard or test for peroxides
after 6 monthsb

* Styrene
b.
Normal Gases: Discard after 12 monthsd

* Butadienec
a Polymerizable monomers should be stored with a polymerization inhibitor from which the monomer can be separated by distillation just before use. b Although common acrylic monomers such as acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, ethyl acrylate, and methyl methacrylate can form peroxides, they have not been reported to develop hazardous levels in normal use and storage. c The hazard from peroxides in these compounds is substantially greater when they are stored in the liquid phase, and if so stored without an inhibitor they should be considered as in LIST A. d Although air will not enter a gas cylinder in which gases are stored under pressure, these gases are sometimes transferred from the original cylinder to another in the laboratory, and it is difficult to be sure that there is no residual air in the receiving cylinder. An inhibitor should be put into any such secondary cylinder before one of these gases is transferred into it; the supplier can suggest inhibitors to be used. The hazard posed by these gases is much greater if there is a liquid phase in
such a secondary container, and even inhibited gases
that have been put into a secondary container under
conditions that create a liquid phase should be
discarded within 12 months.
SHOCK-SENSITIVE
COMPOUNDS

Acetylenic compounds, especially polyacetylenes,
haloacetylenes, and heavy metal salts of acetylenes
(copper, silver, and mercury salts are particularly
sensitive)
Acyl nitrates
Alkyl nitrates, particularly polyol nitrates such as
nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine
Alkyl and acyl nitrites
Alkyl perchlorates
Ammininemetal oxosalts: metal compounds with
coordinated ammonia, hydrazine, or similar nitrogenous
donors and ionic perchlorate, nitrate, permanganate, or
other oxidizing group
Azides, including metal, nonmetal, and organic azides
Chlorite salts of metals, such as AgClO2 and Hg(ClO)2)2
Diazo compounds such as CH2N2
Diazonium salts, when dry
Fulminates (silver fulminate, AgCNO, can form in the
reaction mixture from the Tollens' test for aldehydes
if it is allowed to stand for some time; this can be
prevented by adding dilute nitric acid to the mixture
as soon as the test has been completed)
Hydrogen peroxide becomes increasingly treacherous as
the concentration rises above 30%, forming explosive
mixtures with organic materials and decomposing
violently in the presence of traces of transition
metals
N-Halogen compounds such as difluoroamino compounds and halogen azides N-Nitro compounds such as N-nitromethylamine, nitrourea, nitroguanidine, and nitric amide Oxo salts of nitrogenous bases: perchlorates, dichromates, nitrates, iodates, chlorites, chlorates, and permanganates of ammonia, amines, hydroxylamine, guianidines, etc. Perchlorates salts. Most metal, nonmetal, and amine perchlorates can be detonated and may undergo violent reaction in contact with combustible materials Peroxides and hydroperoxides, organic Peroxides (solid) that crystallize from or are left from evaporation of peroxidizable solvents Peroxides, transition-metal salts Picrates, especially salts of transition and heavy metals, such as Ni, Pb, Hg, Cu, and Zn; picric acid is explosive but is less sensitive to shock or friction than its metal salts and is relatively safe as a water-wet paste (See Section VII) Polynitroalkyl compounds such as tetranitromethane and dinitroacetonitrile Polynitroaromatic compounds, especially polynitro hydrocarbons, phenols, and amines Source: "Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories", 1981, National Academy of Sciences. Published by National Academy Press, Wash. DC.

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