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Biodiversity of the Potomac River Valley(work-in-progress, draft of 11 April 2013) Edward M. BarrowsLaboratory of Biodiversity and Entomology, Georgetown Univerisity, Washington, D.C. ______________________________________________________________ Introduction (Goals, Background, Disclaimers, Organism Names) Table 1. Some Large Divisions of Life on Earth.
Table 2. LifeA. Domain ArchaeaB. Domain BacteriaC. Domain Eukarya1. Kingdom Animalia 2. Kingdom Fungi3. Kingdom Plantae Nonflowering Plants4. Kingdom Protista Appendix 1. Abbreviations and DefinitionsAppendix 2. Glossary (taxa and other terms)Appendix 3. Map key. Literature Cited__________________________________________________________________ Increase our nature and scientific literacy in view of Earth Stewardship.
Learn about local biodiversity.
Learn about local plant communities.
Pool our knowledge and update this list as a group. _________________________________ I started this document in 2009 for my Forest Ecology class, and hope to update it over the years. This is primarily an annotated list of local biota. I include more detailed information for selected taxon in Table 5. For full information you should consult reference books and scientific papers, some of which I list in the References. Please give me corrections, additions, suggestions, etc. A wonderful introduction to the biota of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region is Alden, P., B. Cassie, J. D. W. Kahl, E. A. Oches, H. Zirlin, and W. B. Zomlefer. 2007. National Audubon Society. Field Guide to the Mid-Atlantic States. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY. 448 pp. _________________________________Background How do many biologists now classify life from large through small taxonomic groups (= taxa)? (domain, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, subspecies (variety and forma in plants) and categories between the larger categories) Table 1. Some Large Divisions of Life on Earth.
Flatworms, Roundworms, Arthropods, Echinoderms, Urochordates, Hemichordates, Cephalochordates, Chordates Clubmosses, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms Note: There are likely over 20,000 species in the the Washington, D.C., Area. Due to time and space limitations, I include only some of these fascinating taxa below, emphasizing the Potomac Valley Area. Species counts are from Brown and Brown 1972, 1984, and other sources. _________________________________ The list in Table 2 is a conglomeration from bioblitz lists, Michigan banana, poor man’s banana, and West Virginia lists from my forest ecology course, and other lists. The list banana, respectively. Why the capitalized names? Some is far from complete. I have not included all known biologists including myself consider the so called common nonscientific names and scientific names of listed names of plants, in truth, to be proper English nonscientific organisms. Further, this list is obviously very incomplete. names (that is, proper nouns). Each of the above English I include full names of some of the taxon authors for fun. I names stands for a total species — the Pawpaw. Why the have not yet had a chance to italicize all genus, species, hyphens? Well, I’m an admitted hyphenist and a commaist for enhanced-communcation reasons. Regarding the hyphens, I follow the lead of some prominent botanists (e.g., Stanwyn G. Shetler) who evidently think we should Organism Consumption. I am not responsible for anyone use nonscientific names that indicate true botanical who consumes anything on field trips organized by me. taxonomy of plants ( Shetler and Orli 2001, 2002; Barrows 2011). Pawpaw is in the Custard-apple Family (Annonaceae), not the Rose Family (which includes apple species) or the Banana Family (which includes the Antianthropocentrism and Demystifying Organism Names Bananas, and Birds-of-Paradise, and Traveler’s-palms). Therefore, we should indicate that Pawpaw is not an apple or a banana through hyphenation or joining words. For People have given organisms many names, both proper example, we could write “Custard-apple” or “Custardapple.” names (nonscientific names) in Chinese, English, French, Further, I use a proper noun such as “Bananas,” as a German, Indian, Japanese, Russian, and so forth as well synonym for the genus Musa which includes all Banana as scientific names. These thousands of names and rules species of the world. If all of these names and rules are of English and binomial nomenclature confuse many of us. driving you bananas and bandanas, you are likely not At Georgetown University, students learn some classical biology in my ecology courses when I present a learning Finally, I respectfully consider the use of proper nouns for module called “Demystifying Organism Names.” Some organism names to be a means of paying homage to students are surprised that there are rules of binomial biodiversity and a conceptual move away from too much nomenclature and the rules differ among taxonomic groups rampant, and even destructive, anthropocentrism that we as well as some other facts about organism names. I’ll say constantly perceive around us. Why should we make the name of just one individual of one of the millions of species on Earth such as Roger Tory Peterson a proper noun, yet For example, a plant that I usually call Pawpaw or Asimina not capitalize the name of entire species? triloba is also called the Common Pawpaw, Custard-apple __________________________________________ (in Central USA), Hoosier-banana (Ohio), Michigan-banana __________________________________________ (Michigan), Poor Man's-banana (by underpaid professors), and West-Virginia-banana (West Virginia). It likely has Table 1. Selected organisms of TRP. If it is sunny, you some Native American names as well. The Pawpaw’s full might see some of the insects listed below in flight (bees, scientific name is Asimina triloba (Linnaeus) Dunal, 1817. butterflies, and wasps). Many of the plants listed below “Asimina” is its generic name, and “triloba” is its specific epithet. Why are human names attached to this plant’s __________________________________________ scientific name? Carolus Linnaeus, the father of binomial Domain Archaea, Archaeans (WDCA, possibly 100 spp.) nomenclature, originally named this plant. In 1817, Felix Michel Dunal (French biologist, 1789–1856) published his Clade Euryarhaeota (Greek eurys, broad in reference to work that reclassified Pawpaw into is current genus the broad habitat range of this clade. All methanogen (Asimina). By botanical taxonomic convention, the first author to name this plant (Linnaeus) went into __________________________________________ You might have noticed that I wrote Common Pawpaw, Custard-apple, Hoosier-banana, Michigan-banana, Poor Man's-banana, and West-Virginia-banana instead of common pawpaw, custard apple, and Hoosier banana, ☐ sewage-treatment-plant methanogen species __________________________________________ Group Proteobacteria (All are gram-negative.) __________________________________________ Clade Crenarchoaeota (Greek? Cren, spring of water) ☐ Agrobacterium spp. (Plant-tumor-producing bacteria) ☐ Rhizobium spp. (Legume symbionts, nitrogen-fixing __________________________________________ Clade Korarachaeota (tiny archaens with only 500,000 base pairs in their genomes, in Icelandic hydrothermal vents) ☐ Nitrosomonas spp. (Soil bacteria that oxidize __________________________________________ ammonium and produce nitrite as a waste product.) Clade Nanoarchaeota (Greek nanos, dwarf, at least 4 ____________________________________________________________________________________ ☐ Chromatium spp. (Sulfur Bacteria which obtain energy by oxidizing Hydrogen Sulfide and produce Sulfur as a Domain Bacteria, Bacteria (WDCA, about 10,000 spp.) waste product.)☐ Escherichia coli (Migula 1895) Castellani and Chalmers As a group, Bacteria are commensals, decomposers, food 1919, Mammal-gut Bacterium, “E. coli” material of other organisms, mutualists, parasites, ☐ ☹ Escherichia coli O104:H4 (human pathological, even pathogens, predators, prey, and scavengers.
deadly form)☐ Legionella pneumophila Brenner, Steigerwalt, & Humans each carry about 4000 bacterial species, and McDade, 1979; Legionnaires’ Disease Bacterium there is bacterial succession throughout a person’s life.
(causative agent of legionellosis = Legionnaires' Disease) Bacteria perform all ecosystem functions, except for ☐ Salmonella sp., Food-poisoning Bacterium (causative producing major ecosystem architecture, pollination, seed ☐ Salmonella enterica enterica, serovar Typhi,Typhoid __________________________________________ ☐ Vibrio cholerae Pacini, 1854; Cholera Bacterium ☐ Propionobacteria acnes (Gilchrist 1900) Douglas & Gunter 1946 (on human skin, in human gastro-intestinal ☐ Propionibacterium propionicus (in human mouths) Slime-secreting Myxobacteria (“Slime-molds”, including ☐ Propionobacterium sp., Human body-odor Bacterium Chondromyces crocatus). Some people place ☐ Bdellovibrio spp. (Consume other bacteria.)_________________________________ Subgroup Epsilon Proteobacteria (Most species are animal Subgroup Gamma ProteobacteriaSubgroup Delta Proteobacteria ☐ Campylobactera (causes blood poisoning and intestinal Subgroup Epsilon Proteobacteria_________________________________ ☐ Helicobacter pylori (Marshall et al. 1985) Goodwin et al., 1989; Human Stomach-ulcer Bacterium (causative ☐ Chlamydia trachomatis (the most common cause of ☐ Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson et al., 1984 emend. human blindness worldwide and the causeof Baranton et al., 1992; Lyme Disease Bacterium (in nongonococcal urethritis, the most common sexually Humans, Ixodes ticks, White-footed Mice, White-footed ☐ Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905, Group Cyanobacteria (Photoautotrophs, possible source of ____________________________________________________________________________________ ☐ Anabaena sp. ☐ Oscillatoria sp. (filmentous) Domain Eukarya, Eukaryans (WDCA, about 10,000 spp.) __________________________________________ Group Gram-positive bacteria (A very large diverse group.) Kingdom Animalia, Animalia (World, over 4,000,000 spp.; Subgroup Acinomycetes (Greek myuks, fungus) As a group, Animals are commensals, food material of other organisms, mutualists, parasites, pollinators, ☐ Bacillus anthracis Cohn, 1872; Anthrax Bacterium __________________________________________ ☐ Clostridium botulinum van Ermengem, 1896; Botulism Phylum Annelida, Annelids (Earthworms and kin) Phylum Arthropoda, Arthropods (WDCA, about 5,000 spp.) ☐ Mycobacterium leprae Hansen, 1874; Leprosy Lists: DMWP (Kjar and Barrows, 2004, some forest species), PI (Krombein 1963, wasps; Leonard 1966, ☐ Mycobacterium lepromatosis, Leprosy Bacterium aphids; Wirth and Grogan 1981, ceratopogonid midges; ☐ Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zopf, 1883; Tuberculosis Erwin 1981, carabid beetles; Brown 2001, tortricid moths; Brown et al. 2008, Lepidoptera; Vann 2008, butterflies), ☐ Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach, 1884 (on human skin and in human respiratory tracts, often disease- causing; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), an important hospital pathogen) Barbara J. Abraham and her team found 45 species of ☐ Staphylococcus epidermidis (Winslow & Winslow, 1908) arachnids during the 2006 Bioblitz (Evans 2008, 37). This ☐ Streptomyces (soil-dwelling bacteria, sources of many ☐ Argiope aurantia (Black-and-yellow Garden Spider, ☐ Many free-living species, including many decomposers Golden Garden Spider; Araneidae (AEA, 199) (GU, NB, that produce geosmin (“earth odor’”) ☐ Dermacentor variabilis (American Dog Tick, Wood Tick; Subgroup Mycoplasma (tiny bacteria, without cell walls) Ixodidae (AEA, 200) (FEF, PCSBF, WDCA)☐ Leiobunum and other genera, Daddy-long-legs ☐ Mycoplasma genitalium Tully et al., 1983 (only 517 genes, on ciliated epithelial cells of primate genital and respiratory tracts, can cause unpleasant symptoms in ☐ Mycoplasma pneumoniae Somerson et al., 1963; ☐ Coccinellidae, Ladybird Beetle Family ☐ ☹ Harmonia axyridis Pallas, 1773; Multicolored Asian ☐ Celastrina neglecta (Edward, 1862), Summer Azure ☐ Nymphalidae, Brush-footed Butterfly Family ☐ Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus) 1758, Mourning Cloak ☐ Polygonia comma (Harris) 1842; American Comma ☐ ☹ Halyomorpha halys (Stål), Brown Marmorated Stink ☐ Polygonia intgerrogationis (Fabricius, 1798), Question ☐ Vanessa atalanta rubria (Fruhstorfer), Red Admiral, ☐ Papilionidae, Swallowtail Family (WDCA, 6 spp.) ☐ Eurytides marcellus (Cramer), 1777; Zebra Swallowtail ☐ Andrena, Miner Bees (WDCA, c. 30 spp.) ☐ Papilio troilus Linnaeus,1758; Spicebush Swallowtail ☐ Papilio (Pterourus) glaucus Linnaeus, 1758; Eastern ☐ Apis (World, 7 spp.; WDCA, 1 introduced sp.) ☐ ☹ Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758; Western Honey Bee ☐ Pieridae, Pierid Family (Orange-tips, Sulfers and ☐ Bombus, Bumble Bees (WDCA, c. 8 spp.) ☐ Anthocharis midea (Hübner 1809), Falcate Orange Tip ☐ Bombus bimaculatus Cresson, 1863; Two-spotted ☐ ☹ Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758), Imported Cabbage ☐ Bombus impatiens Cresson, 1863; Impatient Bumble Butterfly, Dancing White (native in Eurasia) ☐ Colias philodice Godart, 1819 (Clouded Sulphur; black- ☐ Bombus pennsylvaticus (American Bumble Bee, ☐ Bombus sp. (bumble bee, Apidae) ☐ Bombus vagans Smith, 1854; Half-black Bumble Bee, Class Amphibia, Amphibians (WDCA, c. 13 spp; DMWP, ☐ Nomada (WDCA, c 30 spp., parasites of Andrena bees) ☐ Xylocopa virginica virginica Linnaeus, 1771; Giant (Frost et al., 2006, a major anatomical and nucleotide ☐ Halictidae, Sweat Bee Family (WDCA about 80 spp.) ☐ Augochlora pura Say, Gold-green Sweat Bee ☐ Bufonidae, Toad Family☐ Bufo americanus Holbrook, 1836; Eastern American Toad; Anaxyrus americanus (Holbrook, 1835) (DMWP) ☐ Campanotus, Carpenter Ants (WDCA, c. 4 spp.) ☐ Bufo fowleri (Hinckley, 1882); Woodhouse's Toad; ☐ Prenolepis imparis (Say, 1836), False Honey Ant Anaxyrus fowleri Hinckley, 1882; Bufo woodhousei fowleri, Fowler's Toad ☐ Vespidae, Vespid Wasp Family (WDCA, c. 30 spp.) ☐ Hylidae; Tree Frogs, Chorus Frogs and Cricket Frogs ☐ Dolichovespula maculata (Linnaeus, 1763), Bald-faced- ☐ Hyla cinerea (Schneider, 1799), Green Tree Frog ☐ Polistes fuscatus (Fabricius, 1793), Fuscate Paper ☐ Hyla versicolor LeConte, 1825; Eastern Gray Tree Frog ☐ Vespula maculifrons (Buysson, 1905), Eastern ☐ Pseudacris crucifer crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1838), __________________________Order Lepidoptera, Butterflies and Moths (WDCA, 104 ☐ Plethodon cinereus (Green), Red-back Salamander ☐ Lycaenidae, Gossamer-winged Butterfly Family ☐ Celastrina ladon (Cramer, 1780), Summer Azure (A taxon name with “iformes” is an order.) ☐ Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, 1780; White- tailed Deer, Virginia Deer (38 ssp. in Central, North, and ☐ Anatidae, Duck Family☐ Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758; Mallard ☐ ☹ Canis familiaris; Domestic Dog (descendent of ☐ ☹ Columba livia Gmelin, 1789; Domestic Pigeon ☐ Canis latrans Say, 1823; Coyote ☐ Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus, 1758), Mourning Dove ☐ Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber, 1775), Common ☐ Archilochus colubris Linnaeus, 1758; Ruby-throated ☐ Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758; Red Fox (native to ☐ Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot, 1808, Cedar Waxwing ☐ ☹ Felis catus (Linnaeus, 1758), Domestic Cat (native to Africa) ☐ Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm, 1822; American Crow ☐ Corvus ossifragus Wilson, 1812; Fish Crow ☐ Mephitis mephitis (Schreber, 1776), Striped Skunk ☐ Falconiformes, Falcons (including Eagles, Hawks, and ☐ Lutra canadensis (Schreber, 1777), Northern River ☐ Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1788), Red-tailed Hawk ☐ Cathartes aura (Linnaeus, 1758), Turkey Vulture ☐ Coragyps atratus (Bechstein, 1793), American Black ☐ Procyon lotor Linnaeus, 1758; Common Raccoon (“pre- ☐ Mimidae, Mockingbird Family☐ Mimus polyglottos Linnaeus, 1758; Northern ☐ Didelphidae Gray, 1821; O’possum Famly ☐ Didelphis virginiana (Kerr, 1792),Virginia O’possum ☐ ☹ Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758), English Sparrow (House Sparrow) (native to Eurasia)☐ Sturnidae, Mynah Bird Family ☐ ☹ Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758; European Starling; ☐ Blarina brevicauda Say, 1823; Short-tailed Shrew Common Starling; Starling (native to Eurasia) ☐ Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus, 1758), Common Mole; ☐ Turdus migratorius (Linnaeus, 1766), American Robin, Class Mammalia (WDCA, about 24 native spp. and 5 ☐ Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen, 1890), Eastern ☐ Bison bison Hamilton Smith, 1827; American Bison, ☐ Homo sapiens sapiens L., 1758; Human (H. sapiens ☐ Cervidae, Deer Family☐ Cervus canadensis Erxleben, 1777; American Elk, Elk, ☐ Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818); White-footed Mouse; Wood Mouse (Canada, Mexico, U.S., DMWP; can carry hantaviruses dangerous ot Humans)☐ Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner, 1845), Deer Mouse Kingdom Fungi, Fungi (WDCA, about 1000 spp.) (DMWP)☐ Muridae, Mouse and Rat Family (World, c. 700 spp.) As a group, Fungi are commensals, decomposers, food material of other organisms, mutualists, parasites, ☐ ☹ Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758; House Mouse pathogens, predators, prey, and scavengers.
(native to Europe, used as laboratory mice)Rattus (World, 64 spp.; DMWP) ☐ Cladonia pyxidata (Pixie-cups, Cladoniaceae) ☐ ☹ Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769), Norway Rat (native to Europe; alien in the Americas; DMWP; used as ☐ Cladonia cristatella (British-soliders, Cladoniaceae) ☐ ☹ Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758; Black Rat (native to ☐ Cladonia rangiferina (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. (1780) (Reindeer-moss, Reindeer Lichen, Cladoniaceae) ☐ Ganoderma applanatum (Persoon) Pat., Artist’s Fungus ☐ Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus, 1758), Southern Flying Squirrel (DMWP) ☐ Gymnosporangium sp. (a fungus on Amelanchier fruit) ☐ Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae Schwein., 1822; Cedar-apple Rust (a fungus on apples, hawthorns, ☐ Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788; Eastern Gray ☐ Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill, 1920; Sulfur Shelf ☐ Tamias striatus Linnaeus,1758; Eastern Chipmunk ☐ Lycoperdon pyriforme Jacob Christian Schaeffer, 1774; Class Reptilia (WDCA about 20 spp.; DMWP, 20 spp.; GU, ☐ Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Baker’s Yeast, Yeast _________________________________ ☐ Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus, 1758), Box Turtle Eucarya: Plantae: Nonflowering Plants. This list is not complete for TRP. _________________________________ ☐ Sceloporus undulatus (Bosc & Daudin, 1801), Eastern Fence Lizard ☐ Scincella lateralis Say, 1823; Ground Skink (DMWP) Phylum Bryophyta (Mosses and Liverworts): 100s of spp. ☐ Eumeces fasciatus (Linnaeus, 1758); Five-lined Skink Dr. Charles Davis and Mrs. Linda Davis (Davis and Davis 2006), extensively surveyed bryophytes of Great Falls ☐ Pantherophis obsoletus (Say in James, 1823), Black Park. They found 29 families and 48 genera of mosses, 17 Rat Snake; Elaphe obsoleta Stejneger & Barbour, 1917, families and 20 genera of liverworts, and no hornwort Black Rat Snake; Black Snake; Pilot Black Snake; Western Rat Snake_________________________________ Dorothy Belle Poli and her team found 22 kinds of bryophytes of which they identified 2 liverwort and 15 moss Phylum Mollusca, Molluscs (Clams, Oysters, Slugs, Snails, species during June in the 2006 Bioblitz, a poor time to Lists: DMWP (Johnston 2000): 35 species of freshwater molluscs; Potomac Gorge (Evans 2008, 2006 Bioblitz). Lists: PI (Leonard 1935, mosses; Leonard and Pierce ☐ ☹ Corbicula fluminea (Muller, 1774), Asian Clam Subclass Sphagnidae, Peat Mosses (= Bog Mosses) ☐ Sphagnum (Conard and Redfearn 1979, 24).
(Earth, about 12,000 extant spp.; MD, 63 spp.; WDCA, 5 exotic spp., 2 hybrids, 54 native spp., Shetler and Orli Andreaeidae (Conard and Redfearn 1979, 27).
Subclass Bryidae (many genera) (Conard and Redfearn 1979, 28).
Lists: WDCA (Shetler and Orli 2000), DMWP (Xu 1991, ☐ Leucobryum glaucum (Hedw.) Angstr. Ex Fr. (White Haug 1993), GFP (Steury et al. 2008), PI (Killip and Blake, Cushion Moss, Leucobryaceae) (Conard and Redfearn ☐ Polytrichum (Tree Mosses, shaped like tiny trees, ☐ Asplenium, Spleenworts (WDCA, 7 native spp., 1 native Polytrichaceae) (Conard and Redfearn 1979, 227). ☐ Asplenium platyneuron (L.) B. S. P., Ebony Spleenwort, Conard, Henry S. and Paul L. Redfearn, Jr. 1979. How to including A. ×virginicum (A. platyneuron × A. trichomanes) Know the Mosses and Liverworts. Second Edition. WCB Ophioglossaceae (Adder’s-tongue Family)☐ Botrychium (Moonworts, Grape Ferns) (MD, 6 spp., BB Crum, H. A. and L. E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America. (All local species are likely to be in this ☐ Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. (Rattlesnake Fern) (Twice compound pinnate leaves, sterile and fertile.) ☐ Ophioglossum vulgatum L. (Adder’s-tongue) (Simple leaf, the only Ophioglossum in MD.) ☐ Lycopodium, Clubmosses (MD, 10 spp., BB 1984, 1) ☐ Osmunda cinnamomea L. (Cinnamon Fern) ☐ Osmunda claytoniana L. (Interrupted Fern) ☐ Selaginella, Spikemosses (MD, 2 spp., BB 1984, 7) ☐ Osmunda regalis L. (Royal Fern).
Isoetes, Quillworts (MD, 3 spp., BB 1984, 7) Lists: BWA (Shetler and Orli 2000), DMWP (Xu 1991, Haug 1993), GFV (Steury et al. 2008), PI (Killip and Blake, 1935, 1953; Shetler et al. 2006). ☐ Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. (Climbing Fern) Polypodiaceae (Fern Family): Adiantum (MD, 2 spp.), Asplenium (8 spp. and at least 2 hybrids), Athyrium (4), Camptosorus (1), Cheilanthes (2), Cystopteris(3), Dennstaedtia (1), Dryopteris (8 sp. and 1 hybrid), ☐ Equisetum (MD, 4 spp., BB 1984, 1).
Gymnocarpium (1), Matteuccia (1), Onoclea (1), Pellaea(2), Phegopteris (2), Phyllitis(1), Polypodium (2), ☐ Equisetum arvense L. (Common Horsetail) Polystichum (1), Pteridium (1), Thelypteris (3), WoodsiaEquisetum fluviatile L. (Water Horsetail) ☐ Equisetum hyemale L. (Scouring-rush) ☐ Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun (Smooth Horsetail) ☐ Adiantum pedatum L., Maidenhair Fern. ☐ Equisetum sylvaticum L. (Woodland Horsetail) ☐ Athyrium angustum (Willdenow) C. Presl., Lady Fern; ☐ Equisetum ×ferrissii Clute (pro sp.) [hyemale × other scientific names) (twice–thrice pinnately compound ☐ Athyrium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) Tidestr., Narrow- leaved Glade Fern, Narrow-leaved Spleenwort; many other scientific names(once-pinnately compound leaves)(TRP, 100417, large leaves) ☐ Matteuccia pensylvanica Raymond (Ostrich Fern) (TRP, ☐ ☹ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Douglas-fir ☐ Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. (Brittle Fern, Fragile ☐ Tsuga canadensis (Carolus Linnaeus) Élie Abel Carrière, Canada Hemlock, Eastern Hemlock, Hemlock, ☐ Onoclea sensibilis L. (Bead Fern, Sensitive Fern) Hemlock Spruce, Pruche du Canada (in Quebec), Spruce- [sensitive, after the fact the early light frosts kill leaves of pine (in WV) (GU, Kober-Kogan, north side, 1 tree; Observatory Hill, several trees; St. Mary’s Hall, north side, ☐ Polystichum acrostichoides (Michaux) Schott, 1 tree; White-Gravenor Hall, north side, several trees) [Christmas, after the fact that this is an evergreen fern that ☐ Pinus echinata Mill., Shortleaf Pine, Yellow Pine ☐ Pinus virginiana Mill., Jersey Pine, Poverty Pine, Scrub ☐ Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn (Brake, Braken Fern) (Native to the U.S. Tree; small bark patches compared to P rigida. Leaves (needles) are in fascicles of 2. Cones are ☐ Marsiliea (MD, 1 sp., BB 1984, 41) spiney. In River Terrace Forest of BI, TRP. AEA, 99.) __________________________ ☐ ☹ Marsilea quadrifolia L. (Pepperwort) _________________________________Salviniacae, Water Fern Family ☐ ☹ Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu and Cheng, 1948; Dawn Redwood, Chinese Redwood, Shui Sa ☐ Azolla caroliniana Willd. (Mosquito Fern). This is the (= Water-fir, Chinese name) (GU, Lauinger Library, west side, about 5 trees; Observatory Hill, 1 tree) ☐ Salvinia rotundifolia Willd. (Salvinia). This is the only ☐ ☹ Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich., Bald-cypress (not a true cypress) (GU, Reiss, east side across the sidewalk) Lists: BWA (Shetler and Orli 2000), DMWP (Xu 1991, Lists: BWA (Shetler and Orli 2000), DMWP (Xu 1991, Haug 1993), GFV (Steury et al. 2008), PI (Killip and Blake, Haug 1993), GFV (Steury et al. 2008), PI (Killip and Blake, Phylum Ginkgophyta (Ginkgos) (Earth, 1 living sp.) Phylum Coniferophyta (Conifers). This list is likely complete for BI. _________________________________ ☐ ☹ Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, Ginkgo (VA, Blandy Research Farm, a grove of scores of trees; GU, about 10 trees; WDC, lines of trees along some roads) ☐ Juniperus virginiana Linnaeus; Cèdre Rouge (Quebec), Eastern Juniper, Juniper, Pencil Cedar, Eastern Redcedar, Eucarya: Plantae: Anthophyta (Flowering Plants). Plants Redcedar, Red Juniper, Savin, Virginia Redcedar; are in families in alphabetical order with dicots and Cupressaceae) (BI, River Terrace Forest; GU) monocots interdigitated. This list is likely near complete for ☐ ☹ XCupressocyparis leylandii (A. B. Jackson and Dallimore) Dallimore and A. B. Jackson, Leyland Cypress (Keyhole Field, east side, 3 trees; Medical Center Loading Lists: BWA (Shetler and Orli 2000), DMWP (Xu 1991, Haug 1993), GFV (Steury et al. 2008), PI (Killip and Blake, ☐ ☹ Cedrus atlantica ‘Glauca’, Blue Atlas Cedar 1935, 1953; Shetler et al. 2006; Evans, 2008, page 27, (Building D, north side, 2 trees; White-Gravenor Hall, south ☐ ☹ ? Pinus strobus L., Eastern White Pine (GU, Kober- Aceraceae, Maple Family. See Sapindaceae.
Kogan, north side, 2 trees (1 dead in 2012), St. Mary’s Hall, east side, 13 trees; Southwest Quad, formerly 55 trees in ☐ Viburnum prunifolium L., Black Haw ☐ Viburnum rafinesquianum Schultes, Downy Arrowwood ☐ Apium graveolens var. dulcum (Miller) Persoon, Celery ☐ Chaerophyllum procumbens xxxx, Spreading Chervil Alliaceae, Onion Family (see Amaryllidaceae) ☐ ☹ Conium maculatum L., Poison Hemlock (BI, Amaranthaceae, Amaranth Family (now includes ☐ Cryptotaenia canadensis Augustin Pyramus De Candolle, Honewort, Wild Chervil (GAP, GU) ☐ ☹ Daucus carota L., Carrot, Queen-Ann’s-lace, Wild Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllis Family (Fruits are capsules.)Allium, Camassia, Hippeaestrum, Leuocojum, Narcissus, Manfreda, Northoscordum, Sternbergia, Tristagma, ☐ Erigeron philadelphicus, Daisy Fleabane ☐ Erigenia bulbosa (Michaux) Nuttall, Harbinger-of-spring ☐ ☹ Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Fennel ☐ Allium (Fruits are capsules) (WDCA, 3 native spp., 6 ☐ Osmorrhiza claytonii (Michaux) C. B. Clarke, Bland Sweet-cicely; Hairy Sweet-cicely, Sweet-cicely, Sweet ☐ Allium canadense L., Meadow-garlic, Wild-onion (GFP, Cicely, Sweet-jarvil, Wild-anise (BI, GAP, TRP) ☐ Osmorrhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC, Anise-root, Long- ☐ ☹ Allium cepa L., Garden Onion (Walmart plant area.) styled Sweet-cicely, Smooth Sweet-cicely, Sweet Cicely ☐ ☹ Pastinaca sativa L., Parsnip, Wild Parsnip (GU ☐ ☹ Allium schoenoprasum L., Chives Medical Campus)☐ Petroselinum crispum, Parsley ☐ Allium tricoccum Aiton, Ramp, Wildleek (BI, GFP, TRP) ☐ Zizia aurea xxxx, Golden-alexander (BI, TRP) ☐ ☹ Allium tuberosum, Chinese Chives ☐ ☹ Allium vineale L., Wild-garlic (GAP, GFP, TRP) ☐ ☹ Hippeaestrum spp and cvs., Amaryllus Ascelpias, Amsonia, Apocynum, Hoya, Matelea, ☐ ☹ Narcissus spp., varieties, and cvs.
Apocynum cannabinum, Apocynum medium, Common ☐ Rhus spp., Sumacs (WDCA, 4 spp.) ☐ Rhus aromatica Aiton, Fragrant Sumac (BI) ☐ Asclepias syriaca L., Common Milkweed ☐ Rhus glabra L. , Smooth Sumac (BI, TRP) ☐ Asclepias verticillata L., Whorled Milkweed ☐ Rhus typhina L., Staghorn Sumac ☐ ☹ Hoya carnosa (L. f.) R. Br., Porcelain-flower, ☐ Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze, Bois de Chien, Waxplant (GU, Observatory plant collection) (HOYA Herbe à la Puce, Cow-itch, Markry, Mercury, Poison-ivy, Poison Ivy (poor name), Rhus radicans (BI, COCNHP, ☐ ☹ Vinca minor L., Common Periwinkle (GAP, TRP) Aquifoliaceae, Holly Family (GU has a large Holly collection Annonaceae, Custard-apple Family (WDCA, 1 sp.) of about 85 cvs. and spp. of Ilex.) ☐ Asimina triloba (Linnaeus) Michel Félix Dunal, Custard ☐ ☹ Ilex aquifolia L., English Holly (GU, Obs. Hill) Apple (Central USA), Hoosier Banana (Ohio), Michigan ☐ ☹ Ilex chinensis xxxx, Chinese Holly Banana (Michigan), Pawpaw, Poor Man's Banana, West ☐ Ilex decidua Walter, Possum-haw Virginia Banana (WV) (BI, COCNHP, TRP)_________________________________ ☐ Ilex glabra (L.), A. Gray, Inkberry (GU, Observatory Hill) ☐ Ilex opaca Aiton, American Holly (GU, Observatory Hill) NOTE: It is dangerous to eat unknown members of this ☐ Ilex verticillata (L.) Asa Gray, Black-alder, Michigan family in the field because some are very poisonous to ☐ ☹ Ilex xaquipernyi ‘Dragon Lady’, Dragon Lady Holly ☐ ☹ Anethum graveolens L., Dill ☐ ☹ Ilex xattenua ‘Sunny Foster’, Sunny Foster Topel ☐ ☹ Yucca filamentosa L., Adam’s-needle (formerly in Holly (GU, Observatory Hill, 1 female tree) ☐ Nemopanthus mucronata (L.) Trel., Mountain Holly, ☐ ☹ Yucca recurvifolia Salibsb.s, Curve-leaf Yucca Araceae, Aroid Family, Arum Family (now includes Achillea, Ambrosia, Arnica, Artemisia, Arctium, Anaphalis, ☐ Calla palustris L., Wild Calla Antennaria, Anthemis, Aster, Bellis, Bidens, Boltonia, ☐ Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott, Jack-in-the-pulpit, Jill- Chrysanthemum, Chrysogonum, Chrysopsis, Cirsium, ☐ Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb ex. Nuttall, Cnicus, Condrilla, Conza, Coreopsis, Crepis, Eclipta, Elephantopus, erectites, Erigeron, Eupatorium, Filago, Galinsoga, Gnaphalium, Grindelia, Helianthus, Heliopsis, Araliaceae, Spikenard Family, Ginseng Family Haplopappus, Helenium, Heterotheca, Hieraceum, Aralia, Hedera, Panax. Hypochaeris, Inula, Krigia, Kuhnia, Lactuca, Lapsana, Leontodon, Liatris, Madia, Marshallia, Matricaria, ☐ ☹ Hedera helix Linnaeus, English Ivy (GU, many areas Megalodonta, Mikania, Parthenium, Picris, Pluchea, of ground cover) (major alien, invasive plant, TRP) Polymnia, Prenanthes, Pulicaria, Pyrropappus, ☐ ☹ Hedera hibernica (Kirchn.) Bean, Irish Ivy (GU, many Onopordum, Rudbeckia, Sclerolepsis, Senecio, areas of ground cover) (major alien, invasive plant) Seriocarpus, Silphium, Silybum, Solidago, Sonchus, ☐ Panax quinquefolius L., Ginseng, Sang (TRP, extinct?) Tanacetum, Taraxacum, Tragopogon, Tussilago, ☐ Panax trifolius L., Dwarf Ginseng (TRP) _________________________________Aristolochaceae, Dutchman-pipe Family (Fruits are ☐ & ☹ Achillea millefolium L., Yarrow, Milfoil (TRP) ☐ Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) C. B. Clarke, Pearly ☐ Aristolochia durior Hill, Aristolochia macrophylla Lam., Dutchman’s-pipe, Pipevine (GU, Observatory Hill) ☐ Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards, Plantain-leaved ☐ Asarum canadense L., Broad-leaved Asarabaccais, Canada Wild Ginger, Canadian Snakeroot, Wild-ginger, ☐ Arnica acaulis, Leopard’s-bane (BI) many scientific other names (BI; GU, Hariri courtyard, west ☐ ☹ Artemisia annua L., Annual Wormwood, Sweet- Annie, Sweet Sagewort, Sweet Wormwood (BI, GU) __________________________Asparagaceae, Asparagus Family ☐ “Asters” (Almutaster, Canadanthus, Dellingeria, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Lionactis, Olioneuro, Oreostemma, ☐ ☹ Asparagus officinalis L., Asparagus Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum, ☐ ☹ Convallaria majalis L., Lily-of-the-valley (was in ☐ Erigeron philadelphicus L., Common Fleabane, ☐ Maianthemum (Smilacina) racemosum (L.) Link, False Philadelphia-daisy, Philadelphia Fleabane, Kevish (BI, Solomon’s-seal (was in Liliaceae) (GFP) ☐ Maianthemum (Smilacina) racemosum (L.) Link (was in ☐ Hieracium venosum L., Rattlesnake-weed, Poor ☐ ☹ Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill., Common Grape- ☐ ☹ Jacobaea maritimia (L.) Pelser & Meijden (2005), Senecio cineraria (L.) L., Dusty Miller, Silver-ragwort; S. ☐ ☹ Ornithogalum nutans, Drooping Star-of-Bethlehem bicolor subsp. cineraria, S. candicans, S. maritimusPolygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliot, Dwarf Solomon’s- ☐ Krigia dandelion (L.) Nuttall., Potato Dandelion (BI) seal, Smooth Solomon’s-seal (was in Liliaceae) (GFP) ☐ Krigia virginica (L.) Willd., Virginia Dwarf-dandelion (BI) ☐ Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desfontaines, False ☐ Lactuca canadenis L., Wild Lettuce, Horseweed (BI) Solomon’s-seal (was in Liliaceae) (TRP) ☐ Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh, Lion’s-foot, Gall-of-the- ☐ Yucca (was in Agavaceae, now in Asparagaceae: ☐ Senecio aureus L., Golden Groundsel, Golden Ragwort, ☐ Phacelia purshii Buckl., Miami-mist, Pursh’s Phacelia Heart-leaved Groundsel Squaw-weed (BI, TRP) ☐ ☹ Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber, Common ☐ ☹ Phacelia ranunculacea (Nuttall) Const. (Not in the ☐ ☹ Youngia japonica (L.) DC., Oriental False Brassicaceae, Mustard Family (Fruits are silicles and Alliaria, Alyssum, Arabidopsis, Arabis, Armoracia, ☐ ☹ Begonia sempervirens, Wax Begonia (GU) Barbarea, Berteroa, Brassica, Cakile, Capsella, Cardamine, Cardaria, Camelina, Conringia, Cronopus, Dentarium, Descurainia, Diplotaxus, Erysimum, Berberis, Caulophyllum, Jeffersonia, Mahonia, Eurucastrum, Eruca, Hesperis, Lepedium, Lobularia, Lunaria, Nasturtium, Raphanus, Rorippa, Sibara, ☐ Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michaux, Blue Cohosh, Papoose-root (TRP)☐ Jeffersonia diphylla (L.) Persoon, Twinleaf (BI, ☐ ☹ Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, Garlic- mustard (BI, COCNHP, TRP; a major invasive species) ☐ Podophyllum peltatum L., Mayapple (BI, COCNHP, ☐ Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir., Smooth Rockcress (Lower leaves are toothed.) (BI) ☐ Arabis lyrata L., Lyre-leaved Rockcress (BI) Betulaceae, Birch Family (Fruits are capsules.) ☐ Barbarea vulgaris Brown, Winter Cress (BI) Alnus (MD, 3 spp.), Betula (4), Carpinus (1), Corylus (2), ☐ Barbarea vulgaris, Aiton f., Springcress, Wintercress, ☐ Alnus serrulata xxxx, Hazel Alder, Smooth Alder (BI) ☐ Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus, Shepherd’s-purse ☐ Betula nigra L., River Birch, Water Birch (GU) ☐ Carpinus caroliniana Walter, American Hornbeam, ☐ Cardamine angustata O. E. Schultz, Dentaria Blue-beech, Ironwood, Musclewood (smooth, gray bark) ☐ Cardamine arenicola xxxx, Tiny Sandcress (BI) ☐ Ostrya virginica (Mill.) K. Koch (Hop-hornbeam, ☐ Cardamine concatenata (Michaux) Sw., Dentaria laciniata, Cutleaf Toothwort, Cutleaf-pepperroot (BI, GAP, Boraginaceae Juss., Borage Family, Forget-me-not Family ☐ ☹ Cardamine hirsuta (Linnaeus) Medicus, Bitter Cress, (world, about 2,000 spp in 145 genera, worldwide; now Hairy Bittercress, Winter Cress (COCNHP, BI, GAP, TRP) ☐ ☹ Lepidium campestre (L.) Aiton f., Fieldcress (Stem Borago, Ellisia, Hydrophyllum, Lithospermum (including Onosmodium), Nemophila, PhaceliaLepidium virginicum L., Wild Peppergrass (BI) ☐ ☹ Borago officinalis L., Borage (WDCA, gardens) ☐ ☹ Erysimum repandum xxxx, Treacle-mustard (Stem ☐ Ellisia nyctelea L., Ellisia (BI) ☐ Hydrophyllum canadense L., Broad-leaved Waterleaf ☐ Lepidium virginicum xxxx, Wild Peppergrass (BI) ☐ Mertensia virginica (L.) Persoon, Bluebells, Virginia Buddleijaceae, Butterflybush Family. See Loganiaceae ☐ Lithospermum virginianum L., Onosmodium virginianum (L.) A. DC., False Groomwell, Jacob’s-tears (GFP, 4 shoot ☐ ☹ Aucuba japonica Thunberg, Aucuba, Spotted-laurel ☐ Phacelia covillei S. Watson, Blue Scorpionweed, ☐ Phacelia dubia (L.) Trel., Small-flowered Phacelia (BI) ☐ & ☹ Euonymus (Earth, ca. 180 spp.; WDCA, 2 native ☐ Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf., Eastern Pricklypear, ☐ ☹ Euonymus alatus (Thunberg) Siebold, Winged ☐ Euonymus americanus L., Strawberrybush (TRP) Callitrichaceae (Water-starwort Family): ☐ ☹ Euonymus fortunei (Turcz) Hand.-Mazz., Winter- ☐ Callitriche (4 spp. in MD).
Callitriche heterophylla Pursh, Larger Water-starwort ☐ Uvularia sessilifolia L., Sessile Bellwort, Wild-oats Caprifoliaceae, Honeysuckle Family (See also Adoxaceae ☐ ☹ Lonicera japonica Thunberg, Japanese Honeysuckle ☐ Cornus florida L., Eastern Flowering Dogwood (GU, ☐ ☹ Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder, Amur Honeysuckle Med-Dent Building, north side, 6 trees; TRP) ☐ ☹ Cornus florida var. rubra, Pink-flowering Dogwood ☐ ☹ Lonicera morrowii A. Gray, Morrow’s Honeysuckle ☐ ☹ Cornus ‘Celestial’ (C. florida x C. kousa), Celestial ☐ ☹ Cornus kousa Hance, Kousa, Japanese Dogwood, Caryophyllaceae, Carnation Family (now includes Korean Dogwood (GU, Copley Square near Copley Hall, Agrostema, Arenaria, Cerastium, Corrigiola, Dianthus, DIpsacus, Holosteum, Honkenya, Lychnis, Myosoton, Paronychia, Sagina, Saponaria, Scleranthus, Silene, ☐ Cerastium arvense (Field Chickweed). Biennial forb. 5 ☐ Sedum telephioides Michaux (Wild Live-forever) (BI) styles per pistil, petals are longer than sepals. April–May. ☐ Sedum ternatum Michaux, Wild Stonecrop, Three- ☐ Cerastium fontanum Baumg. ssp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet, Cerastium vulgatum, Big Chickweed, Cyperaceae, Sedge Family (MD: hundreds of species) Bulbostylis, Carex, Cladium, Cymophyllus, Cyperus, ☐ & ☹ Dianthus cv., Carnation Dulichium, Eleocharis, Eriophorum, Fimbristylis, Fuirena, ☐ Silene caroliniana (Wild Pink). Perennial forb. Pink Hemicarpha, Psilocarya, Rhynchospora, Scleria, Scirpus petals, connate sepals. April–May. BI.
Carex careyana Torrey (Carey’s Sedge) (BI) ☐ & ☹ Stellaria, Chickweeds (WDCA, 5 native spp., 2 ☐ Carex pensylvanica Lam., Pennsylvania Sedge (BI) ☐ ☹ Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Chickenwort, Common Chickweed, Craches, Maruns, Winterweed (BI, GAP, GU, ☐ Stellaria pubera Michaux, Alsine pubera (Michaux) Britton, Star Chickweed (BI; GAP; GU; PI, TRP) Celastraceae, Stafftree Family (Fruit are capsules.) Ericaceae, Heath Family (now includes Pyrolaceae) (MD: 33 spp. in MD. Chimaphila (2), Epigaea (1), Gaulteria ☐ ☹ Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb., Oriental Bittersweet (1), Gaylussacia (4), Kalmia (2), Leucothoe (1), Lyonia (2), (major alien, invasive plant from Asia) (BI; TRP, common Menziesia (1), Oxydendron (1), Rhododendron (8), along some shores; a major invasive plant) Vaccinium (12) (Brown and Brown 1984, 247).) ☐ Celastrus scandens L., American Bittersweet ☐ Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Barton, Pipsissewa, Prince’s-pine, Umbellate-wintergreen (TRP) ☐ Epigaea repens L., Mayflower, Ground-laurel, Trailing ☐ ☹ Wisteria floribunda, Japanese Wisteria ☐ ☹ Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC, Chinese Wisteria (GFP; ☐ Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch, Black ☐ Kalmia latifolia L., Calico-bush, Ivy-laurel, Mountain- ☐ Leucothoe racemosa (L.) Gray, Swamp Leucothoe, Castanea (MD, 2 native sp., 2 exotic spp.), Fagus (MD, 1 sp.), Quercus (MD, 22 spp.; (BB 1984, 66) ☐ Oxydendron arboreum (L.) DC; Sourwood, Sorrel-tree ☐ Castanea dentata (Marshall) Bborkh; American ☐ & ☹ Rhododendron “Azaleas” (WDCA, many cvs., ☐ ☹ Castanea mollissimia Blume, Chinese Chestnut thousands of plants in parks, yards, etc.) ☐ Rhododendron periclymenoides (Michaux) Shinners, R. ☐ ☹ Castanea pumila (L.) Mill., Chinquapin nudiflorum (L.) Torrey, Pink Azalea, Pink-honeysuckle, ☐ Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., American Beech (BI, GAP, GU, ☐ Kalmia latifolia L., Calico-bush, Ivy-laurel, Mountain- ☐ ☹ Fagus sylvatica Purpurea Group; Copper Beech, ☐ Vaccinium pallidum Aiton, V. vacillans, Mountain ☐ Quercus, Oaks. WDCA, 22 spp., including 1+ introduced sp. Most spp. are large trees.) ☐ Vaccinium stamineum L., Deerberry, Buckberry, ☐ Quercus palustris Muenchh., Pin Oak (GFP, GU) ☐ Quercus phellos Linnaeus, Willow Oak (GFP, GU) Fabaceae, Bean Family, Pea Family (Fruits are legumes = ☐ Quercus rubra L.; Northern Red Oak, Champion Oak, ☐ ☹ Albizia julibrissin Durazzini, Silk-tree, “Mimosa” ☐ Quercus, Oaks. WDCA, 22 spp., including 1+ ☐ Cercis canadensis L., Eastern Redbud, Judas-tree (BI, introduced sp. Most spp. are large trees.) ☐ Quercus alba L., 1753, White Oak (GAP, GFP, GU, ☐ Cercis canadensis ‘Forest Pansy’, Forest Pansy Redbud (GU, on north side of Kober-Kogan Hall) ☐ Quercus falcata Michaux; Southern Red Oak, Spanish ☐ ☹ Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.-Cours.) Rudd., Cladrastis lutea, Yellowwood (Alden et al. 2008, 519) (GU, north side ☐ Quercus macrocarpa Michaux, Bur Oak, Burr Oak ☐ Quercus montana (Linnaeus),Quercus prinus, Chestnut ☐ ☹ Gymnocladus (Earth, 3 spp., North America, 1 sp.) Oak (TRP, one large tree by Ziz-zag Path) [Greek, Gymnocladus, naked branch] ☐ Quercus muehlenbergii Engelmann, Chinkapin Oak, ☐ ☹ Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch, Kentucky ☐ ☹ Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Kudzu, Kudzu-vine Fumariaceae, Fumitory Family (See Paveraceae which ☐ ☹ Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus, 1753; Black Locust ☐ Trifolium (Clovers) (WDCA, 12 spp., including 10 ☐ ☹ Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Saint-Hilaire, Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) Aiton, Yellow Jessamine ☐ ☹ Trifolium pratense L., Red Clover (GU) ☐ ☹ Trifolium repens L., White Clover (GU, TRP) Geraniaceae, Crane’s-bill Family, Geranium Family ☐ ☹ Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Fenugreek, Erodium (MD, 1 sp.), Geranium (MD, 8 spp.) Bockshornklee (German), Bockhornsklöver (Swedish) Methi (Hindi, Nepali, Urdu) (drug, herb, maple flavoring, ☐ Geranium maculatum L., Crane's-bill, Wild Geranium, ☐ ☹ Pelargonium cvs. and spp., Geraniums, ☐ Collinsonia canadensis L., Richweed ☐ Cunila origanoides (L.) Britton, Common Dittany ☐ ☹ Glechoma hederacea L., Alehoof, Catsfoot, Creeping-Charlie, Creeping-Charley, Creeping-Jenny, Field Hamamelidaceae, Witch-hazel Family (Fruits are Balm, Gill-over-the-ground, Ground-ivy, Lierre Terrestre, Nepeta hederacea Trevisan, Nepeta glechoma Benth., ☐ ☹ Corylopsis spicata Siebold & Zucc., Winter-hazel ☐ ☹ Lamium (WDCA, 3 introduced spp.) ☐ ☹ Fothergilla gardenii, Dwarf Fothergilla, Dwarf ☐ ☹ Lamium amplexicaule L., Henbit (GU) ☐ ☹ Lamium maculatum L., Spotted Dead-nettle (GU) ☐ ☹ Hamamelis mollis, Chinese Witch-hazel (GU) ☐ ☹ Lamium purpureum L., Purple Dead-nettle, Red ☐ Hamamelis vernalis Sargent, Ozark Witch-hazel ☐ ☹ Hamamelis virginiana Carolus Linnaeus, Café due ☐ & ☹ Mentha, Mints (WDCA, 5 spp., including 3 Diable, Common Witch-hazel, Winter-bloom, Snapping- ☐ ☹ Mentha spicata L., Spearmint (sessile leaves) ☐ Liquidambar styraciflua Carolus Linnaeus, Bilsted, ☐ ☹ Mentha ×piperita L. (Mentha aquatica x Mentha ☐ ☹ Hamamelis ×intermedia (H. japonica × H. mollis), spicata), Menthe poivrée, Peppermint (leaves with short Hybrid Witch-hazel (parents native to Asia, many cvs.) ☐ Monarda (Beebalms) (WDCA, 5 native spp.) ☐ ☹ Ocimum basilicum L., Basil (WDCA, gardens) ☐ Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, Beefsteak-plant, ☐ Hosta spp., Hostas (GU, gardens) ☐ ☹ Solenostemon scutellarioides (Linnaeus), Coleus Hydrangeaceae, Hydrangea FamilyDeutzia, Hydrangea, Philadelphus, etc. (many cvs.) (WDCA, gardens)_________________________________ ☐ Hydrangea arborescens L., Wild Hydrangea (TRP) ☐ ☹ Cinnamomum camphora L. Sieb., Camphor-laurel, Hydrophyllaceae. See Boraginaceae which now contains Hydrophyllaceae. ☐ ☹ Cinnamomum verum J. Presyl., Ceylon Cinnamon, ☐ ☹ Laurus nobilis L., Baytree, Grecian Laurel, Laurel, ☐ ☹ Iris domestica, Blackberry-lily; Belamcanda Lindera benzoin (L. ) Blume; Northern Spicebush, Juglandaceae, Walnut Family (Fruits are nuts.) Carya, Hickories (MD, 6 spp.), Juglans, Walnuts (MD, 2 ☐ ☹ Persea americana Mill., Avocado ☐ Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch., (Bitternut Hickory, ☐ Sassafras albidum (Thomas Nuttall) Christian Gottfried Nees von Esenbeck, Red Sassafras, Sassafras, Silky ☐ Carya tomentosa Nuttall, Mockernut, White-heart Liliaceae, Lily Family (Fruits are capsules. Many former ☐ Juglans cinerea L., Butternut, White Walnut (TRP, members of Liliaceae are now in Agavaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae, Colchicaceae, Hostaceae, ☐ Juglans nigra Linnaeus, Black Walnut (BI, GAP) Hyacinthaceae, Melanthiaceae, Nartheciaceae, Ruscaceae, Tofieldiaceae, and Xanthorrhoeaceae.) ☐ Erythronium albidum L., White Fawnlily, White Troutlily Melanthiaceae (not to be confused with Melianthaceae) ☐ Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawl., Troutlily, Yellow Amianthium, Helonias, Trillium, Veratrum, Zigadenus, etc. ☐ Trillium sessile Linnaeus, Toadshade, Toad Trillium, ☐ ☹ Lilium longiflorum Thunberg, Easter Lily ☐ ☹ Tulipa cv., tulip (no particular cv.) ☐ Phemeranthus (was Claytonia and Talinium) (Fruit are ☐ Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd., False-mermaid ☐ Phemeranthus virginica, Claytonia virginica L.; Spring- beauty, Virginia Spring-beauty (BI, GAP, TRP) Linnaeaceae, Linnaea Family (Was part of Caprifoliaceae) ☐ ☹ Abelia R. Br. (Earth, 15–30 spp., many hybrids and ☐ ☹ Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L’Her. ex Vent., Paper- ☐ ☹ Abelia ×grandiflora (André) Rehd, Glossy Abelia ☐ ☹ Maclura pomifera (Rafinesque) Schneider, Bois D'Arc, Bodark, Horse-apple, Osage-orange ☐ ☹ Morus alba L., White Mulberry Loganiaceae, Logania Family (Strychnine Family) (Fruit ☐ Musa sp., Banana, Mellow-yellow (Donovan’s song) ☐ ☹ Buddleja See Scrophulariaceae __________________________Myricaceae, Myrtle Family ☐ Spigelia marilandica (L.) L., Indian-pink, Woodland Pinkroot ☐ Morella (formerly Myrica) ☐ ☹ Lagerstroemia cv., crape-myrtle (no particular cv.) Malvaceae, Mallow Family (now includes Tiliaceae) ☐ Tilia americana L., American Linden, Basswood, Tilia Nuphar lutea (L.), Spatterdock (BI, DMWP, GFP) heterophylla Vent., Tilia neglecta Spach (TRP) ☐ Nymphaea odorata Aiton, Fragrant Waterlily ☐ ☹ Tilia cordata Mill., Little-leaf Linden ☐ ☹ Tilia tomentosa Moench, Silver Linden ☐ Nyssa sylvatica Marshall, Beetlebung (on Martha’s Vineyard), Blackgum, Pepperidge, Sourgum, Tupleo (BI, ☐ Liriodendron (MD, 1 sp.), Magnolia (WDCA, 3 native GU, GFP ) (sometimes placed in Cornaceae) _________________________________Oleaceae, Olive Family ☐ ☹ Magnolia grandiflora L., Southern Magnolia — Ya’ll ☐ Chionanthus virginicus L., Fringe-tree, Old-man’s-beard ☐ ☹ Magnolia ‘Judy’; Judy Magnolia (a hybrid of hybrids ☐ ☹ Forsythia suspensa (Thunberg) Vahl., Forsythia ☐ ☹ Magnolia stellata (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim., Star ☐ ☹ Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl., Winter Jasmine ☐ Magnolia virginiana L., Small Magnolia, Swamp-bay, ☐ Fraxinus (WDCA, 6 native spp.) ☐ ☹ Magnolia ×soulangiana (Étienne Soulange-Bodin, 1820), Saucer Magnolia (many cvs., a hybrid of 2 Asian ☐ Fraxinus americana Carolus Linnaeus, White Ash ☐ Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Green Ash, Red Ash ☐ Sanguinaria canadense ‘Flore Pleno’ (in gardens) ☐ Stylophorum diphyllum (Michaux) Nuttall, Celandine - ☐ ☹ Syringa (Earth, 20 spp., many cvs., some being poppy, Mock-poppy, Wood-poppy (possibly an introduced ☐ ☹ Syringa vulgaris L., Lilac There are about 8 spp. of parasitic plants in the WDCA. (MD: 44 spp., BB 1984, 367; GFP, 12 spp.) They are in the genera Cuscuta, Conophilis, Epifagus, and ☐ Aplectrum hyemale (Muhlenberg) Torrey, Adam-and- ☐ ☹ Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz, Broadleaf Helleborine Orchid, Helleborine Orchid (DMWP) ☐ Spiranthes cernua (Linnaeus) Richard, Nodding ☐ Spiranthes gracilis (Bigelow) Beck von Mannagetta, ☐ ☹ Paulownia tomentosa (Thunberg) Siebold & Zucc. ex Steud., Empress-tree, Foxglove-tree; Imperial-tree, Kiri (Japanese), Pao Tong (Chinese), Princess-tree (also ☐ Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nuttall, Cranefly Orchid placed in Scrophulariaceae) (GU, along the border of GAP) Phrymaceae, Lopseed Family, Gauklerblumengewächse Mazus, Micranthemum, Phyrma Agalinis, Aureolaria, Buchnera, Conopholis, Castilleja, Epifagus, Melampyrum, Peduncularis, OrobancheConopholis americana (L.) Wallr., Cancerroot, Squaw- ☐ Phytolacca americana L., American Pokeweed, root (root parasite, especially on Quercus spp.) (BI, ☐ Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bartram, Beechdrops (BI, GAP, Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Chelone, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, ☐ Orobanche uniflora L., One-flowered Broomrape, One- Gratioa, Kickxia, Limonsella, Linaria, Lindernia, Mecardonia, Misopates, Natallanthus, Penstemon, ☐ Chelone glabra L., White Turtlehead (Alden et al. 2008, ☐ Oxalis europaea Jordan, European Yellow Wood Sorrel ☐ Chelone obliqua L., Purple Turtlehead, Red Turtlehead ☐ Oxalis grandis Small, Great Yellow Wood Sorrel ☐ ☹ Plantago lanceolata L., English Plantain ☐ Oxalis stricta L., Upright Wood Sorrel (BI, GAP) ☐ Plantago rugelii Decaisne, Common Plantain ☐ Oxalis violacea L., Violet Wood Sorrel (BI, TRP) ☐ & ☹ Veronica (WDCA, 5 native spp.; 10 introduced Papaveraceae, Poppy Family (now includes Fumariaceae) ☐ ☹ Veronica hederifolia L., Ivy-leafed Speedwell (GAP, ☐ ☹ Chelidonium majus Linnaeus, Greater-celandine, ☐ ☹ Veronica officinalis L., Common Speedwell (GFP) ☐ Corydalis flavula (Rafinesque-Smaltz) de Candolle, ☐ ☹ Veronica persica Poir, Bird’s-eye, Robin’s-eye (GFP, ☐ Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Walp., Squirrel-corn ☐ Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernhardi, Dutchman’s- ☐ Platanus occidentalis L., American Sycamore, Eastern ☐ ☹ Eschscholzia californica Adelbert von Chamisso, ☐ ☹ Platanus ×acerifolia (Aiton) Willd., London Plane- ☐ Sanguinaria canadense Linnaeus, Bloodroot, Red- tree (possible hybrid of a NA and an Asian sp.) (GU) ☐ Phlox subulata L., Mosspink (BI) ☐ ☹ Polemonium reptans L., Greek Valerian (North America, 100s of spp.; MD, 10s of spp.; BB 1984, Polygonaceae, Knotweed Family, Smartweed Family ☐ Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Sweet Vernal Grass (BI, Fagopyrum, Polygonum (includes Tovara), Rheum, Rumex ☐ & ☹ Polygonum, Knotweeds (= Smartweeds, Renouée (in Quebec) (WDCA, 29 spp., including 10 introduced spp.) ☐ Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Crinkled Hair Grass [Greek poly, many; gonu, knee, joint referring to the ☐ Dichanthelium boscii (Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark, Bosc's ☐ ☹ Polygonum aviculare L., Common Knotweed, Knotweed, Birdgrass, Doorweed, Knotgrass, Waygrass, ☐ ☹ Hordeum vulgare L., Barley many synonymous scientific names (GFP, WDCA, in ☐ ☹ Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) Camus, Japanese Stilt Grass, Asian Stilt grass, Vietnamese Stilt grass, Nepal ☐ ☹ Polygonum cespitosum Blume, nomen inquirendum Microstegium, Chinese Packing Grass (DMWP, GAP, GFP, ☐ ☹ Polygonum cespitosum Blume var. longisetum ☐ ☹ Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Chinese Silver (Bruijn) A. Steward., Asiatic Waterpepper, Bristled Grass, Eulalia (Grass), Japanese Silver Grass, Maiden Knotweed, Oriental Lady’s-thumb (DMWP, GAP, GFP) Grass, Porcupine Grass, Silver Feather, Zebra Grass ☐ & ☹ Persicaria (patterned leaves, etc.) ☐ Muhlenbergia schreberi Gmel., Nimbelwill (BI, GFP) ☐ ☹ Persicaria perfoliata (L. ) H. Gross, Mile-a-minute, ☐ Muhlenbergia sobolifera (Muhl.) Trin., Branched Muhly Polygonum perfoliatum L., Perfoliate Tearthumb (GAP, GFP, WDCA, spreading rapidly, a bad invasive) ☐ ☹ Phleum pratense, Timothy Grass ☐ Persicaria sagittata (L.) Gross, Polygonum sagittatum ☐ & ☹ Poa L., Blue Grass, Meadow Grass, Spear Grass (WDCA, 7 native spp., 5 alien spp.; MD, 11 spp., BB 1984, ☐ Persicaria virginiana (L.) Gaertn., Polygonum virginianum, Tovara virginiana (L.) Rafinesque-Smaltz, ☐ ☹ Poa annua L., Annual Blue Grass, Spear Grass (BI, Jumpseed, Virginia Knotweed, and other scientific names ☐ Poa cuspidata Nuttall, Short-leaved Blue Grass (BI, ☐ ☹ Reyoutria japonica Houtt., Polygonum cuspidatum Philipp Franz von Siebold and Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini, ☐ ☹ Poa pratensis L., June Grass, Kentucky Blue Grass, ☐ ☹ Rheum rhabarbarum L., Rheum raponticum L. ☐ Poa sylvestris Gray, Sylvan Blue Grass (BI, GFP) ☐ ☹ Rumex acetosella L., Sheep-sorrel ☐ Uniola latifolia Michaux, Chasmanthium latifolium, Wild- ☐ ☹ Rumex crispus Linnaeus, Curly Dock, Yellow Dock Sanchez, A., T. M. Schuster, J. M. Burke, and K A. Kron. ☐ Uniola paniculata L., Chasmanthium paniculatum, Sea- 2011. Taxonomy of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): A new tribal classification. Taxon 60: 151–160. (Many Polygonum ☐ ☹ XTriticum aestivum L., Wheat (a trigeneric cross, ☐ ☹ Zea mays L., Corn, Indian Corn, Maize Portulacaceae, Portulaca Family. See Montiaceae. ☐ Zizania aquatica L., Wild-rice (DMWP) ☐ ☹ Portulaca grandiflora Hook., Moss-rose, Moss-rose ☐ Phlox divaricata L., Blue Phlox, Woodland Phlox (GAP, ☐ Phlox paniculata L., Fall Phlox Pyrolaceae, Pyrola Family. See Ericaceae.
Phlox stolonifera Sims, Creeping Phlox Ranunculaceae, Buttercup Family, Crowfoot Family Aconitum, Actaea, Anemone, Anemonella, Aquilegia, Caltha, Cimicifuga, Clematis, Coptis, Delphinium, (World, 1000s of spp.; WDCA, 72 native spp., 3 native Eranthus, Helleborus, Hepatica, Hydrastis, Ranunculus, Agrimonia, Alchemilla, Amelanchier, Aruncus, Crataegus, Dalibarda, Filipendula, Fragaria, Geum, Physocarpus, ☐ Anemone quinquefolia L., Wood Anemone Porteranthus, Potentilla, Prunus, Pyrus, Rosa, Rubus, ☐ Anemone virginiana L., Thimbleweed Sanguisorba, Sorbis, Spiraea, WaldsteiniaAnemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach, Rue Anemone. ☐ Amelanchier Medic. (North America, 16 spp.; MD, c. 8 See Thalictrum thalictroides.
spp.; BI, c. 5 spp.)(In Eastern North American Amelanchier is an agamic ☐ Aquilegia canadensis L., Canada Columbine, Canadian complex in which the combination of apomixis, polyploidy, Columbine, Eastern Columbine, Eastern Red Columbine, and hybridization creates complex patterns of diversification (Campbell and Wright 1996).) ☐ Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nuttall, Black Snakeroot ☐ Amelanchier, Serviceberries (WDCA, 6 native spp., 1 ☐ Clematis virginiana L., Virgin’s-bower ☐ Hepatica nobilis var. acuta, Hepatica acutiloba, ☐ Amelanchier arborea (F. Michaux) Fernald, Common Anemone acutiloba, Sharp-lobed Hepatica Serviceberry, Downy Serviceberry, Shadbush ☐ Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa, Hepatica americana (de ☐ Amelanchier laevis Wiegand, Juneberry, Smooth Candolle) Ker, Anemone americana, Round-lobed ☐ Amelanchier nantucketensis E. P. Bicknell (GFP) ☐ & ☹ Ranunculus (WDCA 19 spp., including 7 alien, ☐ Amelanchier sanginea (Pursh) DC, Roundleaf [Latin, Ranunculus, little frog; Pliny applied this name to plants in this genus, after aquatic species that grow where ☐ Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fernald, Goat’s-beard (TRP) ☐ Ranunculus abortivus L., Aborted Buttercup, Kidney- Crataegus spp., hawthorns (WDCA, c. 15 spp.; GFP, 3 leaved Buttercup, Kidney-leaved Crowfoot, Small-flowered Crataegus uniflora Mueuchhausen, One-flowered Hawthorn (GFP) ☐ ☹ Ranunculus bulbosus L., Bulbous Buttercup, Bulbous Crowfoot ☐ Fragaria virginiana Duchesne, Wild Strawberry, Fraisier(Quebec) (GFP) ☐ ☹ Ranunculus ficaria L., Fig Buttercup, Lesser-celandine, Pilewort, Ficaire (Quebec), Scharbockskraut Geum (WDCA, 5 spp.; GFP, 2 spp.) (Germany) (GAP, GU, TRP; major invasive, watch out!) ☐ Geum canadense Jacquin, White Avens (GFP) [Latin ficaria, old generic name, from Ficus, the genus of ☐ Geum vernum (Raf.) Torr. & A. Gray, Spring Avens figs, after the tuberous roots, of this species that resemble ☐ Gillenia trifoliata (L.) Moench, Bowman’s-root ☐ Ranunculus hispidus Michaux var. nitidus (Chapman) T. ☐ & ☹ Malus, Apples (WDCA, 2 native spp., 5 naturalized Ducan, Ranunculus septentrionalis, Hispid Buttercup, ☐ ☹ Malus cv. (Healy Hall, east side, about 5 large trees, ☐ Ranunculus recurvatus Poiret, Hooked Crowfoot (TRP) ☐ Thalictrum coriaceum (Britton) Small, Thick-leaved ☐ ☹ Malus ×pumila P. Mill., Malus sylvestris, Pyrus Meadow-rue, Maid-of-the-mist (includes Thalictrum steeleanum Boivin, Steele’s Meadow-rue) ☐ Malus ×pumila P. Mill., Domestic Apple ☐ Thalictrum dioicum L., Early Meadow-rue, Quicksilver- ☐ Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maximillian, Ninebark ☐ Thalictrum polygamum Muhlenberg, Tall Meadow-rue, ☐ Potentilla (WDCA, 4 native spp. (including P. norvegica), 4 introduced spp.; GFP, 4 spp.) ☐ Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Eames & B. Boivin, ☐ Potentilla canadensis L., Canada Cinquefoil (BI) Anemonella thalictroides, Rue Anemone (TRP) ☐ ☹ Potentilla norvegica L., Rough Cinquefoil WDCA, 9 native spp., 5 naturalized, exotic spp.; GFP, 8 ☐ ☹ Potentilla recta L., Upright Cinquefoil ☐ Rubus allegheniensis Porter, Allegheny Blackberry ☐ & ☹ Prunus, Apricots, Cherries, Peaches, Plums, Sloe, ☐ Rubus baileyanus Britton, Dewberry etc. (Earth, 420 spp.; Texas, 24 spp, plus some subspp.; ☐ Rubus flagellaris Willd., Northern Dewberry (GFP) WDCA, 11 native spp., 8 introduced spp.; GFP, 6 spp.) ☐ Rubus hispidus L., Groundberry (Earth, 430 spp.; Texas, 24 spp. plus some subspp, ☐ ☹ Rubus idaeus L., Red Raspberry LBJWFC; WDCA, 19 native spp., 8 alien spp.) ☐ Rubus occidentalis L., Black Raspberry (GFP) ☐ ☹ Prunus alleghaniensis Porter, Allegheny Plum (MD, ☐ ☹ Rubus phoenicolasius Carl Johann Maximowicz, ☐ Prunus americana Marsh, American Wild Plum (GAP) ☐ ☹ Sanguisorba canadensis L., American Burnet, ☐ ☹ Prunus avium (L.) L.; Sweet Cherry (BI, possibly ☐ ☹ Spiraea (WDCA: 3 native spp., 2 introduced spp.) ☐ ☹ Prunus cerasus L., Pie Cherry, Sour Cherry ☐ ☹ Prunus laurocerasus Carolus Linnaeus, Laurel Rubiaceae, Bedstraw Family, Madder Family (MD: 21 spp.; Asperula (2 spp.), Cephalanthus (1), Diodia ☐ ☹ Prunus lusitanica Linnaeus, 1753; Portuguese (1), Galium (14), Houstonia (4), Oldenlandia (1), Mitchella ☐ ☹ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, Peach ☐ Cephalanthus occidentalis L., Buttonbush ☐ Prunus melanocarpa (Michaux) Willdenow, Black ☐ Galium aparine L., Goosegrass, Cleavers ☐ Galium circaezans Michaux, Wild Licorice ☐ ☹ Prunus pendula Maximowicz, Weeping Spring ☐ Galium tinctorium, Clayton’s Bedstraw ☐ Houstonia caerulea L., Bluets, Quaker-ladies (GFP) ☐ Prunus serotina Ehrhart, 1788; Black Cherry, Wild ☐ Houstonia longifolia Gaertner, Long-leaved Summer Black Cherry, Wild Cherry (GU, Reiss, east side, large tree, ☐ Houstonia tenuifolia Nuttall, Slender-leaved Summer ☐ ☹ Prunus serrulata John Lindley 'Kwanzan', Kwanzan ☐ Mitchella repens L., Partridgeberry (GFP) ☐ ☹ Prunus ×incamp ‘Okame’ (Prunus incisa × P. campanula), Okame Cherry, Okame Plum (GU) ☐ ☹ Prunus subhirtella Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel 'Autumnalis', Autumn-flowering Cherry (Asia) ☐ Prunus virginiana L., Choke Cherry ☐ ☹ Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., Hardy-orange, Trifoliate- ☐ ☹ Prunus ×subhirtella Miquel, Higan Cherry (PrunusPtelea trifoliata L., Common Hop-tree (BI, COCNHP, ☐ ☹ Prunus ×yedoensis Matsum., Yoshino Cherry ☐ ☹ Pyrus, Pears (Earth 27 spp., WDCA, 2 spp.) ☐ ☹ Pyrus calleryana Decne., Bradford Pear ☐ Pyrus americana Marshall, American Mountain-ash ☐ ☹ Pyrus communis L., Common Pear, Pear ☐ Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall, Eastern ☐ & ☹ Rosa, Roses (Earth, 100+ spp.; WDCA, 4 native ☐ Salix nigra Marshall, Black Willow (BI) ☐ ☹ Rosa multiflora Carl Pehr Thunberg ex Murray, ☐ & ☹ Rubus, Brambles, Briars (including Blackberries, ☐ Comandra umbellata (L.) Nuttall, Bastard-toadflax (BI, Dewberries, and Raspberries) (Earth, scores of spp.; GFP)_________________________________Sapindaceae, Soapberry Family (now includes Aceraceae) ☐ ☹ Verbascum thapsus L., Common Mullein, Great ☐ Acer, Maples (Medical Center Roof Garden, 16 cvs. of ☐ ☹ Acer griseum L.; Paperbark Maple ☐ Acer negundo Linnaeus; Ash-leaf Maple, Boxelder (BI, ☐ ☹ Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Tree-of-heaven, Copal-tree (GAP; TRP, probably historical) ☐ Acer pensylvanicum L., Bois Barré (Quebec), Moosewood, Striped Maple, Whistlewood (GU, ☐ Smilax, Greenbriars (MD, 10 spp.; GFP, 4 spp.) ☐ ☹ Acer platanoides L., Norway Maple (GFP) ☐ Smilax herbacea Michaux, Carrion-flower (TRP, rare) ☐ Acer rubrum Linnaeus, Plaine Rouge (Quebec), Red ☐ Smilax rotundifolia L., Catbrier, Common Greenbrier, Maple, Scarlet Maple, Soft Maple, Swamp Maple (BI, GFP, Horsebrier, Round-leaf Greenbrier (BI, GAP, GFP, TRP) ☐ Acer saccharinum Linnaeus, Plaine Blanche (Quebec), Silver Maple, River Maple, White Maple (BI, TRP) ☐ Staphylea trifolia L., Bladdernut (GFP) ☐ Acer saccharum Marshall sensu lato, including Acer Sterculiaceae, Cocoa Family, Chocolate Family ☐ Acer saccharum Marshall sensu lato, including Acer ☐ ☹ Firmiana simplex (L.) W. F. Wight, Chinese Parasol- nigrum, (Érable à Sucre (Quebec), Rock Maple, Sugar _________________________________ Thymeliaceae, Mezereum Family ☐ ☹ Koelreuteria paniculata Lxm., Golden Rain Tree (GU, both trees might be gone, 2012) ☐ Dirca palustris L., Leatherwood (BI) Tiliaceae, Linden Family, See Malvaceae. Saxifragaceae, Saxifrage Family. (See Grossulariaceae, Hydrangeaceae, and Parnassiaceae for genera that were Astilbe, Boykinia, Chrysoplenium, Heuchera, Mitella, Typhaceae, Cat-tail Family (now includes Sparinaceae) Parnassia, Penthorum, Saxifraga, TiarellaHeuchera americana L., Common Alumroot, Rock- ☐ Mitella diphylla L., Bishop’s-cap, Miterwort (TRP, ☐ Celtis (WDCA, 3 spp.; MD, 2 spp.; GFP, 2 spp.) ☐ Philadelphus (4 spp. in MD), Itea (1), Ribes (4), ☐ Celtis occidentalis L., Hackberry, Sugarberry ☐ & Ulmus (WDCA, 2 native spp., 4 alien spp.; GFP, 3 ☐ Saxifraga virginiensis Michaux, Early Saxifrage (BI, ☐ Ulmus americana L., American Elm (BI, GAP, GFP, GU, Scrophulariaceae, Figwort Family (The Angiosperm ☐ ☹ Ulmus parvifolia Nicholaus Joseph Jacquin, Chinese Phylogeny Group moved many former genera of this family into Orobanchaceae, Phrymaceae, Plantaginaceae, and ☐ ☹ Ulmus pumila L., Dwarf Elm, Siberian Elm (GFP) ☐ ☹ Ulmus rubra Muhl., Chinese Elm (GU, Library Road, ☐ ☹ Buddleja davidii Franch., Butterflybush, Orange-eye, Summer-lilac, (sometimes placed in Buddleyaceae or ☐ ☹ Zelkova serrata (Thunberg) Makino, Japanese ☐ Penstemon laevigatus Aiton, Smooth Beardtongue ☐ ☹ Verbascum blattaria L., Moth Mullein (GFP) Boehmeria, Laportea, Pilea, UrticaLaportea canadensis (L.) Weddell, Wood-nettle (GFP, ☐ Vitis sp., wild grape (BI, TRP) ☐ Vitis vulpina L., Chicken Grape, Winter Grape (GFP) ☐ Urtica dioica L., Stinging Nettle (GFP, TRP) (Order Asparagales, 3 subfamilies, many genera including ☐ Valeriana pauciflora Michaux, Large-flowered Valerian Aloe, Eremurus, Haworthia, and Kniphofia) ☐ ☹ Hemerocallis, Daylilies☐ ☹ Hemerocallis fulva (L.) ☐ Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufresne, Corn-salad (GFP) ☐ Callicarpa americana L., American Beautybush☐ ☹ Lantana cvs. (GU, many cvs. each warm season) Phylum Protista (broad sense = sensu lato) _________________________________Violaceae, Violet Family As a group, Protistans are commensals, food material of other organisms, mutualists, parasites, pathogens, photosynthezers, predators, prey, and scavengers.
Hybanthus concolor (T. F. Forst.) Spreng., Green-violet (BI)☐ Viola (WDCA, 20 native spp., 4 introduced spp.; GFP, ☐ Acanthamoeba castellanii (host of Legionella Dictyostelium discoideum Raper, 1935 (predator of E. Viola conspersa Reichenback, American Dog Violet coli in leaf litter and soil; host of Legionella pneumophila) ☐ Viola cucullata Aiton, Marsh Blue Violet (GFP) ☐ Fuligo septica (Linnaeus) Wiggers, Scrambled-egg ☐ Viola pedata L., Bird’s-foot Violet (GFP) ☐ Viola pubescens Aiton, Yellow Violet (includes V. Hartmannella vermiformis (host of Legionella pensylvanica Michaux), Downy Yellow Violet, Smooth Yellow Violet, Stemmed Yellow Violet) (BI, COCNHP, GFP) ☐ Ophryocystis elektroscirrha McLaughlin & Myers, 1970☐ Tetrahymena sp. (host of Legionella pneumophila) ☐ Viola rafinesquii Greene, Wild Pansy ☐ Viola sororia Willdenow; Viola papilionacea and many other scientific names; Blue Violet, Common Blue Violet, Marsh Violet, Meadow Violet; a species complex (BI, COCNHP, GFP, GU, TRP) Appendix 1. Abbreviations and Definitions ☐ Viola striata Aiton, Striped Violet (COCNHP, GFP) ☐ Viola triloba Schweinitz, Three-lobed Violet ☐ ☹ Viola ×wittrockiana (Viola altaica × Viola cornuta × BB 1972 = Brown and Brown 1972 (woody plants of MD) Viola lutea × Viola tricolor), Pansy (many cvs.) BB 1984 = Brown and Brown 1984 (herbaceous plants of Ampelopsis (2 spp. in MD), Parthenocissus (1), Vitis (6) ☐ ☹ Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Carl Johann Maximowicz) Trautvetter, Porcelainberry (GAP) ☐ Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Carolus Linnaeus) Jules Émile Planchon, Virginia-creeper (BI, GAP, GFP, TRP) DMWP = Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve, VA.
☐ ☹ Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch., Boston-ivy, Grape-ivy, Japanese-creeper, Japanese-ivy, Woodbine (GU, on the wall before the FCSP = Florida Caves State Park, Florida.
entrance to the Southwest Quadrangle parking garage) forb = a nonwoody plant that is not in the families Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Poaceae. ☐ Vitis (WDCA, 7 spp.; MD, 6 spp.; GFP, 5 spp.) ☐ Vitis aestivalis Michaux, Summer Grape (GFP) Specific Ecological Roles. Leaves are food of White-tailed Deer. Nectar and pollen are food of some bee and flower- fly species. This is an invasive species in woodlands and GFVA = Great Falls Area, VA.
grass = a plant in the Family Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, or ☐ Carya cordiformis (Wangenhelm) Karl Koch, Pignut, Bitternut Hickory, Noyer Dur, Swamp Hickoryn. A large, long-lived dicot tree (Juglandaceae) with Magnolia xsoulangiana (Saucer Magnolia). The x joined to alternate, pinnately compound leaves each with up to 11 soulangiana indicates that this plant is a hybrid. leaflets; yellow-brown stem buds; small, greenish flowers; and ellipsoid fruit that is narrowly 6-ridged, up to 2.5 cm long, and extremely bitter and has a thick husk that splits PIA = Plummers Island and adjacent Mainland.
into four valves (Strasbaugh and Core 1978, 290). pers. comm. = personal communication.
Comment: This species grows in rich mesic and xeric woods, on stream banks, and in swamps. [Greek Carya, an ancient name for Walnut; cordiformis, Tree = a woody plant that can grow 15 feet tall or taller. ☐ ☹ Corbicula fluminea (Muller, 1774), Asian Clam n. A freshwater clam (Corbiculidae) that is native to Asia and has spread to Europe, North America, and elsewhere as a result of human introduction of this species.
syn. Asian Clam, Asiatic Clam, Golden Clam and Golden Freshwater Clam (Koi-pond-trade name), Good Luck Clam WDCA = Washington, D.C., Area (which includes WDC, Arlington County, Fairfax County, Montgomery County, Comments: This species is a major, alien, invasive Prince Georges County, and the City of Alexandria). species, and it has done millions of dollars worth of damage to intake pipes used by power, water, and other industries. Many native clams are declining as C. fluminea out competes them for food and space. Corbicula fluminea Appendix 2. Descriptions of selected species of the requires well-oxygenated waters and prefers fine, clean Potomac River Valley. The species are in alphabetical sand, clay, and coarse sand substrates. This species order by genus and species. Table 1. Shows some of spreads when it is attached to boats, carried in ballast water and water currents, sold through the aquarium trade, and used as bait ( ☐ ☹ Allium vineale L., Wild-garlic n. A bulbous, perennial monocot (Amaryllidaceae); native to Europe and North Africa; with a strong garlic odor; narrow leaves; bulblets, white through pink flowers, or both ☐ ☹ Euonymus fortunei (Turczaninow) Handel-Mazzetti, on scapes; and green through brown capsules (Brown and Wintercreeper n. A woody, evergreen, dicot vine (Celastraceae); native to East Asia (including China, syn. Cow-garlic, Field-garlic, Meadow-garlic Japan, Korea, and the Philippines); with areal rootlets; Comments: In the WDCA, this naturalized plant grows in opposite, simple leaves; small greenish-yellow flowers; and fields, gardens, lawns, woodlands (Brown and Brown 1984, capsules with seeds in reddish arils (, 2010).
333). This plant often has green leaves during the cold syn. Euonymus radicans, Fortune’s Spindle, Fu Fang season. Cows that consume this plant produce milk with Teng (in China), Vining Euonymus, Winterberry-vine, an unpleasant taste. This plant’s bublets thresh out with Wheat grains and reduce Wheat’s value. Comments: This species has a juvenile creeping, climbing, General ecological roles. Like other organisms, and nonflowering phase and an adult flowering phase (also Halyomorpha halys is part of food webs. Eggs are food of found in Helix). There are several similar species. a parasitic wasps. Although lab tests show that some Euonymus fortunei is a major alien, invasive species in the North American bird species and a lizard species tend not U.S. Euonymus fortunei grows in a wide range of habitats to eat Halyomorpha halys, there may be vertebrates in its from those in deep shade through full sun. native range that readily consume it. Dead Halyomorpha [fortunei, after the plant explorer Robert Fortune] halys are likely food of many microorganism species. Specific ecological roles. Euonymus fortunei is a Specific ecological roles. Eggs of Halyomorpha halys are significant ecological threat to forests where it grows over food of the parasitic scelionid wasp Trissolcus the ground and up trees. This species invades natural halyomorphae Yang, 2009 in China where Halyomorpha areas in most states in Eastern U.S. It can cover ground halys is native (Yang et al. 2009). where it out-competes native organisms. It also can cover tree trunks and large limbs, making the trees heavier and Halyomorpha halys consumes about 300 kinds of host causes them to fall in storms. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife plants in its native range (Nielsen and Hamilton 2009, 608). Service and National Park Service says, “Do not plant this This Bug consumes many plant species including some plant” (Swearingen et al. 2010, 121). When I moved into Citrus species and varieties, Glycine max (Soybeans), my current home, my yard was greatly invaded by some Ficus (fig) species, Fraxinus americana (White Ash), Euonymus fortunei. Over the years I removed it from tree Malus xxxx (Domestic Apples), Paulownia tomentosa trunks, plant beds, and lawn areas. Stems of this vine (Princess-tree), Prunus persicum (Peaches), Pears, some grew in the furrows of the trunk of my large Sassafras tree, Diospyros (persimmon) species, some Rubus spp. and were very difficult to remove. I cut the vine stems near (raspberries), Rosa rugosa (Japanese Rose), Solanum their bases and let the stems loosen during their death, lycopersicum (Tomatoes), Viburnum prunifolium before I could easily remove them. This tenacious vine can (Blackhaw), Zea mays (Corn), and some other native live in lawns as a low plant below lawn-mower blades. plants and ornamental shrubs and trees (Nielsen and Hamilton 2009, 608; Roylance 2010, 1, 19; Sun 2010, A1, Euonymus fortunei nectar is food of some insect species including bot flies. Leaves and stems are food of some scale-insect species. Seeds are food of Sciurus Feeding on Domestic Apples causes dry, tan cavities and carolinensis (Eastern Gray Squirrel), Sturnus vulgaris dimpling and blemishes on the outside of the Apples. This (European Starlings), and likely other animals in the U.S. insect caused up to 100% of fruit loss in some West Virginia orchards in 2010. Halyomorpha halys can render fruit unmarketable after they feed on fruit. Halyomorpha ☐ ☹ Halyomorpha halys (Stål), Brown Marmorated Stink halys evidently sucks fluid from Corn silks which can stop Corn kernel development. Large overwintering groups are n. A stink-bug species (Pentatomidae) that is native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, is becoming more common in the U.S., is now in 29 U.S. states and causes Other information. The life cycle of Halyomorpha halys marked crop damage, and is characterized by a white band comprises eggs, five larval stages, and adults (Jacobs on each antenna of an adult (Roylance 2010, 1, 19; Sun 2010). People first collected Halyomorpha halys in the U.S. in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1998 (Hoebeke and syn. Stinky Big Sisters (Asian name) and Yellow-brown Carter 2003, 225). The original colonizer(s) of Stink Bug (Hoebeke and Carter 2003, 225; Sun 2010, A1) Halyomorpha halys was likely a stowaway in a shipping Comments: A far as I can tell on 1 October 2010, container from Asia. People are expecting a large researchers have not identified the compounds in population size of this species in Allegany and Frederick defensive odors and attractive pheromones of Counties, Maryland, in 2010. Adults move from cornfields, Halyomorpha halys. The compounds trans-2-decenal and gardens, and orchards into homes and other buildings trans-2-octenal are known defensive odors from where they overwinter. This insect is harmless to Humans. metathoracic glands of some stink-bug species. These It does not bite or sting, and there are no data that indicate glands produce 11 compounds in the stink bug it transmits human disease. These insects smell like old Cosmopepla bimaculata (Krall et al. 1999). shoes to some people. Humans control these hapless insects by burning them with propane torches, drowning them in soapy water and flushing the dead insects down Oregon’s Department of Agriculture bans the sale of both toilets, killing them with pesticides, squashing the bugs, and vacuuming them and throwing them in vacuum bags into the trash. If there are no cracks in your home, though which Halyomorpha halys can enter, none or very few of ☐ Juglans nigra Linnaeus, Black Walnut them will enter you home. The GU Center for the n. A large, monoecious, dicot tree (Juglandaceae); native Environment recommends that to get rid of indoor to Canada and the U.S.; with large, alternate, aromatic, Halyomorpha halys be green — collect them in a bag and pinnnately-compound leaves; small greenish flowers; and throw them outside where they can become part of a food web. Vacuuming them and letting them die in a vacuum [Greek Juglans, a contraction after the nut of Juniper, King bag is slow and cruel punishment, and vacuum bags are of the Gods, Jovis glans; Latin nigra, black; walnut < pollution in dumps. Killing Halyomorpha halys in soapy Middle English walnot < Old English; black; probably after water or other solutions is cruel as well. Flushing them the outside color of the nut, dark brown color of the wood, down a toilet is polluting and certainly a waste of water. dark color of the bark, or a combination of these features.] Billions of people do not have access to clean drinking water, but we use it for flush toilets in the U.S.
Specific ecological roles: Decaying nut husks are food of Identification. In Forest Ecology, we don’t have the many Rhagoletis completa Cresson and Rhagoletis suavis hours needed to learn bee anatomy and key specimens to (Osten Sacken) (Walnut Husk Flies). Leaves are the food species. Therefore, we learn them by gestalt. Bees vary in of the 1 leafhopper sp. and at least 20 moth species size, color, hairyness (very hairy through almost glabrous), (Codling Moth, Elm Spanworm, Fall Webworm, Hickory- and shape. All be species have branched hairs which are horned-devil, Hickory Spanworm, Leopard Moth, Luna not found in other kinds of insects.
Moth, Walnut Sphinx Moth, etc.). The Fall Webworm can become common on Black Walnuts and cause much leaf damage. Phloem is food of five aphid species including the Hedera helix L., English Ivy n. A evergreen, woody, dicot Walnut Aphid. The Walnut Aphid and Codling Moth are the vine (Araliaceae); native to Europe, Northern Africa, and serious problems of commercial JN growers. Pollen is a Western Asia; with aerial roots; evergreen, alternate, major food of Western Honey Bees in the Contiguous U.S. lobed, simple leaves; small greenish flowers in racemose (Pellett 1978, 426), although this tree species is wind umbels; and black berries (Swearingen et al. 2010, 106). pollinated. Stems are food of White-tailed Deer. Seeds Comments: Adult-form leaves are not lobed. Hedera helix are foods of mice, Rooks (in Europe), and squirrels, can grow up to 150 ft long, and a French specimen lived including Eastern Gray Squirrels. Eastern Gray Squirrels, Eurasian Red Squirrels, Fox Squirrels, Japanese Squirrels, [Latin Hedera, ancient Latin name for this plant; helix, old and Rooks are seed scatter hoarders (SSHs) (Vander Wall 1990, 199). Some of the seeds that they bury grow into new Black Walnut trees. Juglans nigra is a shade tree Specific ecological roles. Nectar of this species is food of used by Humans. Black Walnuts produce juglone which some species of beneficial pollinating bees, flower-flies, inhibits growth of sapling Black Walnuts and many other wasps,and other insects. Hedera helix is a noxious, invasive weed in parts of the U.S. This species can form mats on forest floors and chokes out 1000s of native ☐ Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume, Spicebush species. Further, this vine can cover trunks and branches n. A small, deciduous, dioecious, much-branched, dicot of trees, making them more likely to rot and making trees tree (Lauraceae); native to Canada and the U.S.; with heavy and more likely to fall in storms. simple, entire, alternate, aromatic leaves; small yellow flowers in February–April; and small green through red, Other information. People often confuse Hedera helix with ovoid drupes (Fernald 1950, 678–679; Alden et al. 2008, Hedera hibernica, which has the same specific ecological roles in the WDCA. Hedera hibernica leaves have flat trichomes with 6–8 rays, resembling small starfish, and Comments: Lindera benzoin grows up to about 18 feet tall. smell of honey when crushed. Hedera helix has erect, This is a wonderful plant for a native-plant garden. This is bristly trichomes with 8–12 rays. Different cultivars of H. a small tree in forest edges and within forests.
helix and H. hibernica are more invasive than others. [Lindera, after Johann Linder, 1676–1723, early Swedish benefitting other bird species through an interspecies prey- botanist; benzoin, an old name for some member of the finding effort. Fishermen and pesticides have killed many P. auritus. _________________________________ Specific Ecological Roles. Nectar and pollen are food of some species of bees, flower flies, and other kinds of flies. ☐ Phemeranthus virginica, Spring-beauty Leaves and stems are food of the Spicebush Silkmoth (= n. A perennial, dicot (Montiaceae); native to North Promethia Moth), and Papilio troilus (Spicebush America; with corms; simple, elongate leaves; pinkish, Swallowtail). Fruit are food of some songbird species. pentamerous flowers with ultraviolet nectar guides; and green through brown capsules Human uses. Humans have used this species for syn. Claytonia virginica L., Fairy-spud, Virginia Spring- medicinal purposes (Foster and Duke 1990, 252). Native Americans made a drupe tea for coughs, cramps, croup, Comments: This species is abundance in some open forest delayed menses, and measles. They made a bark tea for habitats. This species is a polyploid (2N = 12–191 anemia, colds, “purifying blood,” rheumatism, and chromosomes). Different parts of the same plant can have sweating. European Settlers used drupes as an Allspice different chromosome numbers. Flowers solar track, substitute. They ate drupes to treat colic and flatulence. moving with the Sun’s movement across the horizon. They applied an oil from drupes to bruises and to muscles and joints (for chronic rheumatism). They used twig tea for Specific ecological roles. Nectar and pollen are food of colic, colds, fevers, gas, and worms. People once used some species of pollinating bees (Apis, Andrena, etc.) and bark tea to expel worms, treat typhoid and other kinds of flower flies. Leaves and stems are food of two similar Puccinia fungus spp., including Puccinia mariae-wilsoniae Clint., Spring-beauty Rust. _________________________________ ☐ Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson, 1831), Double-crested ☐ Platanus occidentalis Carolus Linnaeus, Eastern n. A carnivorous bird (Phalagrocoracidae); native to North n. A large, monoecious, deciduous, dicot tree America; with adults up to 32 in, 4 lb; all black body (Plantanaceae); native to extreme Southeastern Canada, feathers, and black head tufts in Eastern U.S. and white Eastern U.S., and Northern Mexico; with exfoliating bark with brownish, whitish, and grayish patches; large, Comments: Male calls are deep gutteral grunts (Alsop alternate, sharply-lobed, palmately veined leaves with petiole bases that surround axillary buds; tiny greenish flowers; and tiny fruit with pappi closely-packed spheroidal Specific ecological roles. This species primarily consumes fish and also eats amphibians, crustaceans, and insects. syn. American Sycamore, American Planetree, This bird usually dives underwater in catching prey. Buttonwood, Occidental Plane, Planetree, Plane Tree, Phalacrocorax auritus often feeds as flocks when it is feeding on fish schools. This bird’s eggs and chicks are Comments: Platanus occidentalis has the broadest trunk food of Canis latrans (Coyotes), Corvus spp. (crows), foxes, jays, Larus spp. (gulls), Procyon lotor (Common Racoons), Quiscalus spp. (grackles), and probably other Specific Ecological Roles. Leaves, roots, and stems are animals. Adult birds are food of Bubo virginianus (Great food of organisms including 3 aphid spp., 1 bacterium sp., Horned Owls), Caiman crocodylus (Caimans), Haliaeetus 6 borer spp., 1 butterfly sp., 27 fungus spp., 1 mistletoe sp., leucocephalus (Bald Eagles), Pelecanus occidentalis 3 mite spp., 15 moth spp. (Cynthia Moth, Imperial Moth, Io (Brown Pelicans), and probably other animals. Within Moth, Hickory-horned Devil Moth, Puss Moth, Sycamore mixed colonies, P. auritus can affect nest-site availability of Moth, Tussock Moth, etc.), 10 scale spp., the Sycamore other species and provide food for the other species as Lace Bug, the Sycamore Plant Bug, 1 tree hopper sp., 1 chicks, eggs, pellets, regurgitated fish, and stolen food. whitefly sp., and the White-tailed Deer (Horst 1990, 776; Westcott 1973). Other information. Phalacrocorax auritus may nest with up to thirteen other species of colony-nesting birds. Leaves are food of Neochlamisus platani (Sycamore Leaf Phalacrocorax auritus also hunt in mixed flocks, possibly Beetle) and the alien fungus Apiognomonia veneta (syn. Gnomonia platani), originally a parasite of Platanus [Latin Quercus < Celtic quer, beautiful; cuez, tree; alba, orientalis (Oriental Planetree) which is considerably white, possibly referring to the whitish undersides of its resistant to the fungus. It partially or almost totally defoliates Platanus occidentalis , rendering trees unsightly Specific ecological roles. Leaves are food of many insect with spring leaf loss. Platanus occidentalis trees usually species including Cloudywing Butterflies and Porthetria refoliate in July in the WDCA. Because of this disease, dispar (Gypsy Moth). Acorns are food of Acorn Weevils, people rarely plant Platanus occidentalis ; instead that Eastern Chipmunks, Eastern Gray Squirrels, White-tailed plant the more resistant London Planetree (P. ×hispanica; a presumed hybrid of P. occidentalis × P. orientalis), which are on the Leavey Esplanade. Other information. Quercus alba grows up to 100 ft tall Hollow Platanus occidentalis trunks are homes of bats, (Barnes & Wagner 2011, 230). Mature leaves are to 8 Chimney Swifts (birds), Common Racoons, and many inches long and have 7–9 rounded lobes without spines. others species. After Humans built chimneys in the US, Young leaves are reddish and become bright green above Chimney Swifts birds started using chimneys as homes as and whitish below as they develop. Local members of the well. I see Chimney Swifts flying about GU in the warm White Oak Group have variable leaves due to natural individual variation and hybridization. John James Audubon painted two Gray Jays on a branch of White Oak with green through reddish leaves and a yellowjacket nest ☐ Procyon lotor Linnaeus, 1758; Common Raccoon in 1829 (Plate CVII). He painted four Brown Trashers with n. An omnivorous, usually nocturnal mammal an oak branch (probably Blackjack Oak), their nest with (Procyonidae); native to Central and North America; with eggs, and a Black Rat Snake that is detecting one bird with dark fur on its face around it eyes, a ringed tail, and its tongue and perhaps strangled one of the birds (Plate dextrous front paws (Alden et al. 2008, 357) CXVI). If you have an original Audubon painting, could you syn. Coon, North American Raccoon, Northern Raccoon, sell it for enough money to pay your tuition and other bills? Raccoon, Racoon.
Comments: Procyon lotor carries and transmits the GU notes. A branch of this tree is part of the GU emblem. Rabies Virus. People have introduced PL in Europe and GU President Leo O’Donovan planted the Millenium Oak (Q. alba ) in Healy Quadrangle in 2000. In 2004, 17-year Cicadas killed many small limbs of this tree when they laid Specific ecological roles. Procyon lotor consumes bird eggs in the limbs. The tree recovered well from this eggs, birds (infrequently) insects, fish, fruit (including trimming. GU spared a huge Q. alba when it erected Henle acorns and walnuts) , worms, and mammals (infrequently). I sometimes see Procyon lotor foraging for garbage in GU dumpsters. _________________________________ ☐ Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788; Eastern Gray Squirrel ☐ Quercus alba L., 1753, White Oak n. An aboreal and terrestrial, diurnal, omnivorous squirrel n. A large, deciduous, monoecious, diploid, dicot tree (Sciuridae); native to North America; with long, furry tails, (Fagaceae); native to Canada and the U.S.; with light ash- and fur that ranges from white (albino form) through gray, partially peeling bark; very deep taproots, simple, brownish gray through gray through black. alternate, round-lobed leaves; small male flowers in catkins, greenish female flowers, and acorns each with Specific ecological roles. Sciurus carolinensis consumes, shallow, bowl-shaped cupule with tuberculate, puberulent bones of some species, some insect species, eggs and scales and an ovoid through ellipsoid acorn (Fernald 1950, nestlings of some bird species, nuts, other fruit, seeds, and tree buds of some species. Sciurus carolinensis buries seeds of some species (e.g., Carya spp., Juglans nigra, Comments: Quercus alba can live up to 600 years (Barnes Quercus rubra) some of which grow into trees. & Wagner 2011, 220). It grows in well-drained soil. This species is the State Tree of Maryland. U.S. President Herbert Hoover planted a Quercus alba on the White ☐ Turdus migratorius Linnaeus, 1766; American Robin n. A passerine bird (Turdidae); native to Central, North, and South America; with adults 10 in long and 2.7 oz; grayish heads, backs, wings, and tails and reddish orange lower covers forest floors and crowds out Spring-beauties, Trout- throats and breasts and white lower bellies and undertail lilies, Toothworts, and other plants and many other coverts (Alsop 2001, 556; Alden et al. 2007, 323). organism species (Swearingen et al. 2010, 104). Although Comments: This species forms breeding pairs and occurs is such a problem for naturalistic areas, stores still often in migrating and local groups (Alsop 2001, 556). A male’s call is a bold, gurgling, leisurely sing-song, cheerily cheer-up, cheerio, often with repeated phrases; tut-tut-tut or hip- Specific ecological role. This is an aesthetically-attractive hip-hip. This species’ warning call is chirp, chirp, chirp; and ecologically-unattractive, alien, invasive species that chuck, chuck, chuck. A fledgling American Robin in my forms mats in forests where is crowds out native garden gave out a screech when I approached to closely, and the bird glided to another location. Adult Robins quickly responded with loud chirps and chucks. When a Domestic ☐ Xylocopa virginica virginica L., Giant Carpenter Bee n. Cat (which was not supposed to wandering about my A carpenter bee (Apidae: Anthophorinae); native to neighborhood) was in my yard, Eastern Gray Squirrels Southern Canada and Eastern U.S.; with robust, black emitted loud chucking sounds and Robins emitted loud adults with yellow hair, and bodies up to 24 mm long. Specific ecological roles. Adult T. migratorius consume Comments: Males have light yellow faces, and females earthworms, insects (beetle larvae, grasshoppers, and have black faces. As Nature, Gardens, and Georgetown lepidopteran larvae), fruits (including berries of the tells us, this species has a highly complicated mating American Holly and Pokeweed). Turdus migratorius are system. Females excavate nesting galleries in solid wood, flexible feeders and consume readily accessible foods, making sawdust that falls to the ground where it although their diet generally consists of approximately 40% decomposes and is food for other organisms. Hovering invertebrates and 60% fruits (Sallabanks and James, male Giant Carpenter Bees (which cannot sting) frighten 1999). Turdus migratorius is food of these known the bejabbers, stuffing, and tar out of some Humans. predators: Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crows), Some people erroneously think that the males are chasing Corvus corax (Common Ravens), Cyanocitta cristata (Blue them with the intention of stinging them. People will be Jays), Felis catus (Domestic Cats), hawks, Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackles), snakes, and squirrels.
Turdus migratorius is a common species in some areas Specific ecological roles. The Giant Carpenter Bee where it can have large impacts on ecosystems as pollinates many kinds of flowers including milkweeds, predators, food of other organisms, and seed dispersers Passionflowers, and sunflowers. This bee species is a (Sallabanks and James, 1999). In most years, a flock of nectar robber at times in that it bites holes in the sides of migrating American Robins removes hundreds of berries long corollas of flowers and sips nectar through the holes. from my American Holly tree within 1–2 days in late winter Carpenter bees rob nectar from Japanese Honeysuckle and other honeysuckles in the WDCA and many flower species with long flowers elsewhere, e.g., the tropics. The Other information. Turdus migratorius sometimes mobs Ruby-throated Hummingbird, and other insects such as small predators such as Blue Jays and some snake spp. Western Honey Bees (which do not slit corollas) and some State Bird of Connecticut, Michigan, and Wisconsin. bumble-bee species obtain nectar through the slits. The Giant Carpenter Bee is the food of the parasitic Tiger Bee ☐ ☹ Vinca minor L., Common Periwinkle n. An Fly, some woodpecker species, and other organisms. evergreen, woody, trailing dicot (Apocynaceae); native to This bee burrows into wood of houses and other buildings Europe; with opposite, simple, entire leaves; and blue in the WDCA, and people spend $100s – 1000s to through lavender through purple through white flowers eradicate this bee. Woodpeckers that obtain larval bees from their burrows in wood cause more destruction to Comments: People brought this beautiful species to the U.S. as a garden plant in the 1700s. Its flowers appear in late winter and early spring in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Region (pers obs.). Vinca minor is an ornamental plant used by gardeners and others as an aestically-pleasing (but not ecologically-pleasing) ground cover. This plant now 32. Riverside Rock Outcrop and Prairie Complex (21 March 2009, list by the National Park Service with 1. Mesic Mixed Hardwood Forest (hardwood forest = 36. Mixed Deciduous Shrubland (Vine Shrubland)


MIKOLÓGIA 1. Heterotróf, szaprofita, parazita, kilotróf (csak oldott felvétel), exocelluláris enzimek, kitines sejtfal, dikariotikus(sejtmagpáros), fonalas szervez., hifa és micélium, dolipórus, lomaszóma, gombatoxinok,lebontó(reducens), endoszimbionta elm., polifiletikus eredet2. SEJTFAL. nincs: zoospórán és nyálkagombákon., kitin(N-acetilglukózamin polimer), cellulóz (

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