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6169

DATA SHEET: 6169/1 02.03
Fire Fighting Foam - “Jargonbuster”
Aeration: The introduction (or entraining) of air into a foam
Application Time: The duration of time over which foam
solution to create bubbles that result in finished foam.
AFE: See Angus Fire Engineering.
Approval: Certificate that ensures a foam concentrate
meets the requirements of a foam Standard.
AFFF: See Aqueous Film-Forming Foam.
Aquatic Toxicity: A measure of how poisonous foam is to
Alcohol Resistant (AR): A foam concentrate for use on
creatures living in the water environment. See LC .
polar solvents in addition to hydrocarbons. Also calledMultipurpose.
Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF): Pronounced
A-triple-F. eg. Tridol. A synthetic foam concentrate
Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film-Forming Foam
containing detergent and fluorocarbon surfactant that forms (AR-AFFF): Pronounced AR-A-triple-F. eg. Tridol ATF. AFFF
a foam capable of producing a vapour-suppressing aqueous that is suitable for use on polar solvents in addition to film on the surface of some hydrocarbon fuels. Provides rapid flame knockdown on short preburn, shallow spill fires(eg. aircraft crash fires), but not suited for use on long Alcohol Resistant Film-Forming FluoroProtein
preburn, deep-seated fires (eg. storage tank fires).
(AR-FFFP): Pronounced AR-triple-FP. eg. Niagara and
Developed in the 1960s, AFFF is today largely replaced Alcoseal. FFFP that is suitable for use on polar solvents AR: See Alcohol Resistant.
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS): US classification
society which establishes and administers standards
AR-AFFF: See Alcohol Resistant Aqueous Film-Forming
known as “Rules” for the design, construction, and periodic survey of ships and other marine structures. Approves foamconcentrates and foam equipment.
ARFF: Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting.
AR-FFFP: See Alcohol Resistant Film-Forming
Angus Fire Engineering: Leading fire engineering
contractor. Division of Angus Fire that combines thecompany’s three core technologies to offer a unique total Aspirated Foam: Foam blanket obtained by mixing water,
capability approach to fire suppression systems from initial foam concentrate, and air. Expansion ratio typically 2:1 or design, through equipment supply, to full-scale more. Also called Finished or Expanded Foam.
AVGAS: Aviation gasoline. Similar to gasoline used in cars
APE: Alkyl phenol ethoxylate. Ingredient in some AFFFs
except that AVGAS has a higher octane rating.
and AR-AFFFs. Causing concern among environmentalauthorites because it is an oestrogen mimicker and suffers Avtur: Aviation kerosene.
poor biodegradability. Not present in FP70, Petroseal orNiagara.
Backboard: Metal sheet attached to back of test fire tray
that enables foam to be applied gently on to a fire.
Application Rate: The rate at which foam solution is
Particularly important for Alcohol Resistant foams.
applied to a fire. Expressed as litres of foam solution persquare metre of fire area per minute (l/m2/min). Typically Back Pressure: Pressure loss or gain created by changes
in elevation between nozzles and pumps.
Bag Tank: eg. Angus Fire Bag Tank Module. A device that
Bund: An area surrounding a storage tank which is
controls the flow of foam concentrate into a BPP at a designed to contain the liquid product in the event of a pressure that is balanced to water line pressure. Also called tank rupture. Also referred to as Dike.
Burnback Resistance: The ability of a foam blanket to
Balanced Pressure Proportioner (BPP): eg. Angus Fire
resist direct flame and heat impingement such as would BPP. A foam concentrate proportioning system designed be evident in a partially extinguished fire.
to inject automatically the correct quantity of foamconcentrate into a water stream over wide flow and pressure Bag Tank Module: eg. Angus Fire Bag Tank Module. A
ranges by balancing the pressure of a foam concentrate device that controls the flow of foam concentrate into a with that of the water supply. Used in combination with a BPP at a pressure that is balanced to water line pressure.
CAFS: Compressed-Air Foam System.
Balance Valve: eg. Angus Fire Balance Valve. A device
that controls the flow of foam concentrate into a BPP at a
CFR: Crash, Fire and Rescue.
pressure that is balanced to water line pressure.
Chemical Foam: Foams (now obsolete) produced as a
result of a reaction between two chemicals.
Base Injection: A technique used for the protection of
fixed roof hydrocarbon fuel storage tanks where fuel-
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): The amount of
resistant aspirated foam is injected into the base of the oxygen required for the complete oxidation of a known tank and rises through the fuel to the surface to effect quantity of an organic material such as a foam concentrate.
extinguishment. Expansion ratios typically between 2 and4:1. Also called Sub-Surface Injection.
Civil Aviation Authority (CAA): Organisation responsibile
for civil aviation.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): The amount of
oxygen consumed by aquatic micro-organisms in a
Class A Fire: A fire in materials such as wood and paper
specified number of days (usually 5 or 28) when where the cooling effect of water is of paramount importance metabolising an organic material such as foam in extinguishing the risk (CEN definition). Fires which occur in ordinary combustible materials, ie. wood, paper, rubber,and certain plastics, etc. (NFPA 10 definition).
Biodegradable: Capable of being broken down into
innocuous products by the action of living creatures such
Class A Foam: eg. Forexpan. Foam specially formulated
for use on Class A fires. Essentially wetting agents thatreduce the surface tension of water and allow it to soak BLEVE: Acronym for Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour
into combustible materials easier than plain water.
Explosion. Explosive fire ball caused by the rapid escapeof flammable gas discharging from sealed pressurised Class B Fire: A fire involving a flammable liquid where a
containers which have ruptured due to adverse heat blanket or smothering effect is of first importance in extinguishment (CEN definition). Fires which occur inflammable liquids, oils, tars, lacquers, etc. and flammable Boilover: Violent ejection of flammable liquid from its
gases (NFPA 10 definition). Fires in flammable and container caused by vapourisation of a water layer beneath combustible liquids, gases, and greases (UL 162 the body of a liquid. It will generally only occur after a lengthy burning period in wide flash point range productssuch as crude oil.
Class B Foam: Foam formulated to be used on fires or
spills of flammable and combustible liquids.
BPP: See Balanced Pressure Proportioner.
Class C Fire: Fires involving gases or liquified gases in
British Standards Institute (BSI): An independent
the form of a liquid spillage, or a liquid or gas leak (CEN national organisation that facilitates the production of definition). Fires involving energised elecrical equipment standards, tests products, and assesses organisations where the electrical nonconductivity of the extinguishing against the national standard for quality management agent is particularly important (NFPA 10 definition).
systems BS EN ISO 9001 : 1994. A member of ISO.
Publishes BS5306: Section 6.1:1988 Specification for LowExpansion Foam Systems.
Class D Fire: A fire involving a metal such as magnesium,
EC : The Effective Concentration in water of a material
sodium, lithium, and potassium, etc (CEN definition). Fires such as foam concentrate that would produce a particular which occur in metals such as magnesium, zirconium, response in 50% of a test batch of animals (eg.
lithium and potassium, etc. (NFPA 10 definition).
Immobilisation of Daphnia) or a 50% reduction in a particularresponse (eg. inhibition of the growth of algae).
Cloud Point: The lowest temperature at which foam
concentrate remains clear. Applies only to synthetic foams.
Eductor: A device that introduces foam concentrate Also
referred to as Inductor or Proportioner.
Control: A reduction in fire intensity of approximately 90
percent.
Eduction Rate: The percentage of foam concentrate mixed
or introduced into the water supply line to produce foam
Critical Application Rate (CAR): The minumum rate at
solution. Also called Induction Rate or Proporioning Rate which foam solution needs to be applied to a fire in order Expanded Foam: Foam blanket obtained by mixing water,
CEN: Comite Europeen de Normalisation (French) or
foam concentrate, and air. Expansion ratio typically 2:1 or European Committee for Standardization (English).
more. Also referred to as Aspirated Foam or Finished Foam.
Brussels-based association of national standards bodiesfrom the eighteen member countries of the European Union Expansion Ratio (ER): The ratio of final foam volume to
(EU) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
original foam solution volume before adding air.
Currently drafting four new foam standards for lowexpansion foam on hydrocarbons, low expansion foam on Explosive Limit: See Flammable Limit.
polar solvents, medium expansion foam, and highexpansion foam.
Explosive Range: See Flammable Range.
Colossus: Large-capacity mobile monitor for applying high
Extinction Time (ET): The time taken by foam to
quality aspirated foam on to large-diameter storage tank F3: See FFF.
Combustible Liquid: Liquid having a flash point at or above
37.8oC (100oF).
Factory Mutual International (FMI): The US industrial
and commercial property insurer specialising in loss
Det Norske Veritas (DNV): The Norwegian Testing House.
prevention engineering and risk management services.
An independent Foundation with the object of safeguarding Internationally recognised as an approved testing body for life and property at sea and ashore. Approves foam loss prevention, equipment, materials, and services.
Approves foam concentrates and foam equipment.
Dike: See Bund.
FDA: See Foam Destroying Action.
Discharge Device: A fixed, semi-fixed, mobile, or portable
device that directs the flow of foam on to a fire.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): The US authority
responsible for civil aviation.
DIN: Deutsches Institut fur Normung. The German national
standards body. Coordinates and publishes standards
FFF: Fluorine-Free Foam. eg. Angus Fire Syndura.
governing foam concentrate performance.
FFFP: See Film-Forming FluoroProtein.
DNV: See Det Norske Veritas.
Film-Forming: A foam concentrate containing fluorocarbon
Drainage Time (DT): The time required in minuites for
surfactants that has a spreading coefficient greater than 25% (usually) or 50% of the total foam solution to drain zero and so forms a foam capable of producing a vapour- from aspirated foam. A measure of foam stability. Also suppressing aqueous film on the surface of some hydrocarbon fuels (eg. Niagara, Petroseal, Tridol).
Film-Forming FluoroProtein (FFFP): Pronounced Triple-
Foam Destroying Action: The ability of polar solvents to
FP. eg. Petroseal. A natural protein-based foam concentrate containing fluorocarbon surfactants that forms a foamcapable of producing a vapour-suppressing aqueous film Foam Generator: A device designed to introduce air into
on the surface of hydrocarbon fuels. Developed in the a pressurised foam solution flow. Also called Foam Maker.
1980s. Combines rapid knockdown of top quality AFFFwith high post-fire security and low environmental impact Foaming Agent: A component in foam concentrate
responsible for foaming properties. Usually natural proteinor synthetic detergent.
Finished Foam: Foam blanket obtained by mixing water,
foam concentrate, and air. Expansion ratio typically 2:1 or
Foamline: World’s foremost journalistic authority on the
more. Also referred to as Aspirated Foam or Expanded latest advances in fire fighting foam technology.
Foam Maker: A device designed to introduce air into a
Fixed System: Complete installation that generates
pressurised foam solution flow. Also called Foam Generator.
aspirated foam and discharges it on to the risk to beprotected.
Foam Pourer: A device designed to deliver aspirated foam
gently on to a burning liquid.
Flame Transmission: Faint flames that flicker over the
surface of an AFFF foam blanket. If the foam blanket does
Foam Quality: A measure of a foam’s physical
not completely cover the fuel, the flames may ignite characteristics expressed in terms of its 25% drainage exposed fuel. Also referred to as AFFF Ghosting Effect.
Flammable Liquid: Any liquid having a flash point below
Foam Solution: A homogeneous mixture of water and
foam concentrate in the correct proportions. Called PremixSolution when in storage.
Flammable Limit: Percentage of a substance in air that
will burn once it is ignited. Most substances have an upper
FOAMSPEX: Large Scale Foam Application Modelling of
(too rich) and lower (too lean) flammable limit. Also called comprehensive independent research project ever Flammable Range: The range between the upper
undertaken into extinguishing major storage tank fires.
flammable limit and lower flammable limit in which asubstance can be ignited. Also called Explosive Range.
Foam Spray: Discharge outlet which delivers aerated foam
of typical expansion ratio 6-10:1 in a spray pattern.
Flashback: Reignition of flammable liquid caused by
exposure of its vapours to a source of ignition such as a
Forestry Foam: eg. Forexpan. Foam concentrate for use
on Class A fuels in vegetation and structural fires.
Freezing Point: The temperature at which foam
Flash Point: The lowest temperature at which a flame
can propogate in the vapours above a liquid.
Freeze/Thaw Cycle: The process of freezing and thawing
Fluororocarbon Surfactant: Fluorocarbon surface active
out a foam concentrate to assess its storage stability.
agent component in some foam concentrates to improvefuel tolerance and fluidity.
Fuel Tolerance: The ability of aspirated foam to withstand
contamination by hydrocarbon fuels.
FluoroProtein (FP): eg. FP70 Plus. A natural protein-based
foam concentrate containing flurorocarbon surfactants.
Foam-Water Sprinkler System (FWSS): A system that
Extensively used in oil and petrochemical industries.
is designed to discharge either finished foam throughaspirating open sprinkler heads, or non-aspirated foam Foam Chamber: See Top Pourer Set.
solution through closed sprinkler heads.
Foam Concentrate: A concentrated liquid foaming agent
Gelling: AR-AFFF foams that contain polymer can “set”
supplied by a manufacturer for mixing with the appropriate or turn into a gel particularly when stored at low amount of water and air to produce finished foam. Also temperatures or when exposed to metal ions.
Glycol Ether: Environmentally hazardous ingredient
Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC): 1000 litre capacity
container used to supply foam concentrates.
Ground Monitor: eg. Angus Fire PGM. A monitor designed
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): A
United Nations (UN) agency which is charged with mattersdealing with the development, co-ordination, and GPM: Gallons per minute.
preservation of international civil aviation. Publishes “Annex14 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Gum: Water-soluble ingredient in Alcoseal and AR-AFFF
International Standards and Recommended Practices, that comes out of solution when brought into contact with Aerodromes, Paragraph 9.2.8” which concludes with a polar solvent flammable liquids to form a physical barrier “Note” directing the reader to a test procedure in the ICAO or “raft” that separates the foam blanket from the polar “Airport Service’s Manual, Part 1, Chapter 8 (3rd edition, 1990)”. This test procedure is the most advanced andstringent method for assessing the suitability of foam Hand Monitor: eg. Streamline HM-80 and HM-100.
concentrates for use at modern civilian airports. Want to Monitor designed to be operated by hand.
know more about the test? Just take a look at Angus Fire’sspecial video “ICAO Foam Test”.
Hazmat: Abbreviation for Hazardous Material. Hazmat spills
are best dealt with by blanketing with Alcoseal VSA.
International Maritime Organisation (IMO): A United
Nations (UN) agency which formulates and publishes
Heat Resistance: The ability of a foam blanket to withstand
conventions concerned with maritime safety. Publishes International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).
Publishes standards for foam systems.
High Back Pressure Generator (HBPG): eg. Angus Fire
HBPG. A device that introduces air into foam solution to
Induction Rate: The percentage of foam concentrate
produce expanded foam in a base injection system.
mixed or introduced into the water supply line to producefoam solution. Also referred to as Proportioning Rate or High Expansion: Foam with expansion ratio in the range
ISO: International Organization for Standardization.
High Fluidity: Modern polymer-free Alcohol Resisant foam
Geneva-based worldwide federation of national standards bodies from about 100 countries.Shouldn’t the acronymbe “IOS”? Yes, if it were an acronym - which it is not. In Hydrocarbon: Fuel based exclusively on chains or rings
fact, “ISO” is a word derived from the Greek “isos” meaning of linked hydrogen and carbon atoms. Hydrocarbon fuels “equal”. From “equal” to “standard”, the line of thinking that led to the choice of “ISO” as the name of the organizationis easy to follow. In addition, the name has the advantage Hydrocarbon Surfactant: Alternative term for synthetic
of being valid in each of the organization’s three official languages - English, French, and Russian.
IBC: See Intermediate Bulk Container.
JCDD: Joint Committee on Design and Development.
Former UK Fire Brigade committee that published
ICAO: See International Civil Aviation Organization.
specifications for fire appliance equipment, including theJCDD 28 (1972) specification for high expansion foam IMO: See International Maritime Organization.
concentrate. Today replaced by Joint Committee onAppliances, Equipment, and Uniform (JCAEU).
Inductor: A device (portable or fixed) that introduces foam
concentrate into the water stream. Also called Eductor or
Jet-A: Kerosene-grade jet fuel. Also called JP-5.
Jet-B: Jet fuel that is a blend of gasoline and kerosene.
Interfacial Tension: The tension in the interface between
Jet Ratio Controller (JRC): In-line venturi proportioner
LUT: See Lowest Use Temperature.
that proportions foam concentrate as a rich solution (over60%) to a self-inducing large capacity monitor such as Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): Document that
Angus Fire Colossus. Allows foam concentrate stocks and communicates hazards associated with a product to the operating personnel to be a safe distance from the fire.
user. With the introduction of the UK Chemicals (HazardInformation and Packaging) Regulations 1993 and JOIFF: Joint Oil and Industry Fire Forum. Leading
subsequent Regulations (CHIP 2 and amending CHIP 96 international organisation for emergency services Regulations), it has become a mandatory requirement for the supplier of potentially hazardous products to send anMSDS to the customer. What is more, this MSDS must JRC: See Jet Ratio Controller.
contain certain information presented in a standard formatwith 16 headings.
K-Factor: The flow rate through a piece of equipment divided
by the square root of the pressure (or in other words the
Marine Safety Agency (MSA): UK agency that publishes
volume of water that passes throught a piece of equipment regulations concerning safety on ships and the prevention in one minute at 1 bar pressure). For example, the of marine pollution. Approves foam concentrates and foam K-factor of the Angus Fire K40 is 40. Also called Discharge Mechanical Foam: Foam produced by a physical agitation
KFPS: Kidde Fire Protection Services Ltd.The UK’s
of a mixture of water, foam concentrate, and air. Also called leading group of fire protection companies, including Angus Medium-Expansion (MEX): Foam with expansion ratio
LC : The “lethal concentration” in water of a material such
as foam concentrate that would kill 50% of a test batch ofanimals (eg. fish) within a given period of time.
Mega Colossus: Large-capacity mobile monitor for
applying high quality aspirated foam on to large-diameter
LASTFIRE: A study of the fire related risks associated
with large diameter open-top floating roof storage tanks.
Sixteen oil companies are involved in the project which is Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): Mildly polar
co-ordinated by Resource Protection International. The flammable liquid used as a component in unleaded LASTFIRE test is designed specifically to determine foam gasoline. Alcoseal and FP70 Plus are UL Listed for use performance related to storage tank fires. Separate nozzle types are used to simulate different application techniques.
MEX: See Medium Expansion.
LEX: See Low Expansion.
MIL-F: US military specification MIL-F-24385F. Limited to
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): Cryogenic flammable liquid
testing AFFF and so cannot be used for more advanced consisting mostly of methane. The recommended fire FFFP foams. Today largely superceded at civilian airports protection comprises a specialist high expansion foam by new ICAO foam standard. See Qualified Products List.
system (eg. Angus Fire LNG Fixed Turbex System).
Ministry of Defence (MOD): UK Minstry of Defence
Lloyd’s Register (LR): World’s leading ship classification
publishes Defence Standards 42-40 (hydrocarbon type society. Approves foam concentrates and foam equipment foams) and 42-41 (alcohol resistant foams).
for marine and offshore applications. Also undertakesindependent witness testing.
Monitor: A portable, fixed or truck-mounted device to which
Low-Expansion (LEX): Foam with expansion ratio in the
a large-throughput foam nozzle or cannon is attached to allow the operator to direct the water or foam as required.
eg. Angus Fire Streamline range.
Lowest Use Temperature (LUT): The lowest temperature
at which foam concenetrate can be used through
MSDS: See Material Safety Data Sheet.
conventional equipment such as venturi proportioningdevices.
MTBE: See Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether.
LPM: Litres per minute.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): US
Phase Separation: What happens when AR-AFFF
organisation that is committed to protecting people, separates into two phases - a thin phase (water and solvent) property, and the environment from the effects of fire. It and a thick phase (hydrated polymer).
has a membership of over 60,000 from over 85 countries.
It develops, publishes, and disseminates many standards Pick-Up Rate: The percentage of foam concentrate mixed
relating to foam (eg. NFPA 11 Standard for Low-Expansion or introduced into the water supply line to produce foam solution. Also referred to as Induction Rate or EductionRate or Proporioning Rate.
NATO: See North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
Polar Sovent: A liquid whose molecules possess a
Newtonian: Foam concentrate that displays constant
permanent electric moment (eg. alcohols, amines, ethers, esters, aldehydes, ketones). In fire fighting any flammableliquid that destroys standard foam is generally referred to NFPA: See National Fire Protection Association.
as a polar solvent. Polar solvents are generally misciblewith water.
Non-Aspirated: Foam with expansion ratio in the range
1-2:1. The only aeration is the result of air entrainment
Polymer: Water-soluble ingredient in Alcoseal and AR-
and impact. Only film-forming foam concentrates are AFFF that comes out of solution when brought into contact suitable for non-aspirating applications. Also referred to with polar solvent flammable liquids to form a physical barrier or “raft” that separates the foam blanket from the polarsolvent. Also called Gum.
Non-Newtonian: Foam concentrate that displays different
viscosity at different shear rates.
Polymer-Free: Modern AR-FFFP (eg. Niagara) no longer
use polymer to achieve alcohol resistance.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO): Paris-based
alliance of over 15 countries near or on the North Atlantic
Portable Foam Equipment: eg. Hi-Combat Range. Foam
Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Provides joint action production equipment that is easily transportable by hand.
in time of war, and joint military and economic cooperationin time of peace. Issues stock numbers for foam Portable Foam Inductor: Inductor that is easily
OECD: See Organisation of Economic Cooperation and
Post-Fire Security: Ability of foam to prevent heat sources
from re-igniting fuel after extinguishment.
Organisation of Economic Cooperation and
Pour Point: The lowest temperature at which foam
Development (OECD): Paris-based economic think-tank
concentrate is fluid enough to pour. Generally a few degrees for the world’s richest nations. Publishes guidelines for the environmental testing of chemicals such as foamconcentrates.
Preburn Time: The time between ignition of a fire and the
commencement of foam application.
Oscillating Monitor: eg. Angus Fire Streamline OM-80.
Monitor designed to automatically sweep from side to side.
Premix: A mixture of foam concentrate and water in the
Commonly used for aircraft hangar and offshore helideck correct proportions which can be stored for a specified OTFR: Open-Top Floating Roof tank.
Protein (P): Foam concentrate based on natural protein
foaming agent. eg. Nicerol. Also called Standard Protein
P: See Protein.
pH: Measurement of acidity to alkalinity on a scale of 1 to
Proportioner: A device that introduces foam concentrate
14. Neutral is 7. Acidic is less than 7. Alkaline is greater Also referred to as Inductor or Eductor.
Proportioning Rate: The percentage of foam concentrate
RIV: See Rapid Intervention Vehicle.
mixed or introduced into the water supply line to producefoam solution. Also referred to as Induction Rate or Eduction S: See Syndet.
Rate or Pick-Up Rate. UL 162 (7th Edition) and NFPA 11(1994) both state that foam proportioning must be not less SCBA: Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus.
than the recommended concentration, and no more than30% above the recommended concentration, or 1% above SHE: Safety, Health and Evironment.
the recommended concentration, whichever is less. Whatthis means is that 1% concentrates must be proportioned Sediment: The proportion in percentage by volume of solid
in the range 1.0 - 1.3%; 3% concentrates must be matter which can be centrifuged out of a foam concentrate.
proportioned in the range 3-0 - 3.9%; and 6% concentrates Also called Sludge or Undissolved Solids.
must be proportioned in the range 6.0 - 7.0%.
Semi-Fixed: Foam equipment that is easily transportable
Pseudoplastic: A non-Newtonian foam concentrate that
and operates without supervision. eg. Angus Fire Anderson displays a decreasing viscosity with an increasing shear Semi-Subsurface Injection: A system used to the
Pump: Foam concentrate pumps are usually either positive
protection of fixed roof hydrocarbon and water soluble fuel displacement pumps (recommended by NFPA for foam storage tanks where foam is directed to the fuel surface concentrates) or centrifugal foam pumps (limited to low from the bottom of the tank through a flexible hose normally QPL: See Qualified Products List.
SG: See Specific Gravity.
Qualified Products List: AFFF products (eg. Tridol M 3)
Shear-Thinning: A non-Newtonian foam concentrate that
that have been qualified under US military specificaition displays a decreasing viscosity with an increasing shear RIV: Rapid Intervention Vehicle.
Shear Rate: The rate at which foam is subjected to
shearing.
RCM: See Remote Control Monitor.
Sludge: See Sediment.
Refractometer: A device used to measure the amount of
foam concentrate in solution. This device operates on the
SOLAS: See International Maritime Organization.
principle of measuring the velocity of light that travelsthrought the foam solution.
Specific Gravity (SG): Density of foam concentrate
divided by density of water. Liquids with an SG less than
Remote Control Monitor: eg. Angus Fire Sreamline RCM.
one are lighter than water and will therefore float on water.
Commonly used to protect jetties, offshore platforms, oil Those with an SG greater than one are heavier than water tankers, chemical carriers, and on fire fighting tugs.
RFG: See Rimseal Foam Generator.
Spray: See Foam Spray.
RFP: See Rimseal Foam Pourer.
Spreading Coefficient (SC): A foam solution that has a
spreading coefficient greater than zero is film-forming.
RI: Refractive Index. See Refractometer.
Defined as the surface tension of cylohexane minus thesurface tension of foam solution minus the interfacial Rimseal Foam Generator (RFG): Device permanently
tension of cyclohexane and foam solution.
installed on floating roof storage tank that is designed toproduce aspirated foam from foam solution.
Sprinkler, Foam-Water Type: An air aspirating open type
sprinkler constructed to discharge water or foam-water
Rimseal Foam Pourer (RFP): Device permanently
solutions (eg. Angus Fire K40 Mk2 and K20 Mk2).
installed on floating roof storage tank that is designed todischarge aspirated foam gently on to the rimseal area.
Sprinkler, Standard: A non-air aspirating type sprinkler
Type I Discharge Outlet: Discharge devices that conduct
that discharges water or film-forming foam solutions.
and deliver foam gently on to the liquid surface without Stability: A term used with foam concentrates to determine
submergence of the foam or agitation of the surface.
the performance and security of a foam blanket.
Examples include porous Moeller tubes and foam troughsalong the inside of a tank wall. Generally considered Storage Stability: The ability of foam concentrate to
obsolete because nearly all currently manufactured foams withstand long-term storage under varying environmental are suitable for use with Type II discharge outlets. Some older AR foams (eg. Polydol) still require gentle applicationby Type I discharge outlets.
Stovepipe: A device intended to provide an open area of
free burn during a burnback test.
Type II Discharge Outlet: Discharge devices that do not
deliver foam gently on to the liquid surface but are designed
Sub-Surface Injection: A technique used for the protection
to minimise submergence of the foam or agitation of the of fixed roof hydrocarbon fuel storage tanks where fuel- surface. Examples include top pourer sets, rimseal foam resistant aspirated foam is injected into the base of the pourers, base injection equipment, or applying the foam tank and rises through the fuel to the surface to effect off a backboard or the wall of a tank.
extinguishment. Also called Base Injection.
Type III Discharge Outlet: Discharge devices that deliver
Surface Tension: The tension in the interface between
foam foam directly on to the surface of the burning liquid in foam solution and air. Unit is dyne/cm which is equivalent a manner that causes general agitation. Examples include to mN/m. Typical values are water 72 dyne/cm, Protein hand-held branchpipes, monitors, and foam-water 40 dyne/cm, FluoroProtein 20-30 dyne/cm, FFFP/AFFF UL: See Underwriters Laboratories.
Surfactant: Abbreviation for Surface Active Agent. Chemical
that reduces the surface tension of water. Examples used
ULG: See Unleaded Gasoline.
in foam concentrates include Hydocarbon Surfactants (alsocalled Detergent) and Fluorocarbon Surfactant.
Ullage: A space that should be allowed above a foam
concentrate in a bulk storage tank to accommodate the
Synthetic: Foam whose main ingredient is synthetic
differences in thermal expansion coefficient between the detergent. eg. Syndet, AFFF, AR-AFFF.
tank construction material and the foam concentrate.
Generally a meaure of 5 to 10% of the tank volume is Syndet (S): eg. Expandol. A detergent-based foam
concentrate that can be used to high expansion but offerslimited burnback and heat resistance.
Unaspirated: Foam with expansion ratio in the range 1: 1
to 2:1. Only film-forming foam concentrates such as
Thixotropic: A non-Newtonian foam concentrate that
Niagara, Alcoseal, Petroseal, and Tridol S are suitable for displays a decrease in viscosity with time while it is non-aspirating applications. Also called Non-aspirated.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL): US organisation with a
Top Pourer Set: eg. Angus Fire TPS. A permanently
high reputation for independent assurance of foam installed device that generates foam from foam solution concentrate and foam equipment product quality. The and introduces it into storage tanks through a glass vapour- names of companies that have demonstrated an ability to sealing membrane. Also called Foam Chamber.
manufacture produts that meet UL requirements arepublished annually in the UL Fire Protection Equipment Training Foam: Foam concentrate that is formulated
Directory. The standard used to evaluate products is UL 162 Standard for Foam Equipment and Liquid Concentrates(7th edition).
Transit Time: The time taken for foam solution to pass
from the point where foam concentrate is induced into the
Undissolved Solids: See Sludge.
water supply to where aeration takes place.
United States Coast Guard (USCG): US Government
Department of Transportation organisation that approves
foam concentrates and foam equipment.
Unleaded Gasoline (ULG): Gasoline in which lead has
Viscosity: The thickness of a liquid or its ability to flow.
been replaced with, for example, an oxygenate such as Normally measured in Ostwald U-tube viscometers giving kinematic viscosities in Centistokes (cs) which areequivalent to mm2/sec (SI units). Viscosities can also be USG: United States Gallons.
quoted in a wide range of other units, most commonly asdynamic viscosity in Centipoise or Poise. Kinematic USGPM: United States Gallons Per Minute.
Viscosity is the same as Dynamic Viscosity divided byDensity. eg. Water at 20oC with density 1g/cm3, kinematic USCG: See United States Coast Guard.
viscosity = 1 cs, and dynamic viscosity = 1 centipoise.
Variable Inductor: A portable foam inductor capable of
VS: Vapour Suppression.
inducing foam at various percentages, usually in the range1% to 6%.
WASP: Wide-range Accurate Sprinkler Proportioner. eg.
Angus Fire WASP System. A foam concentrate induction
Vapour Suppression: The use of foam to suppress
system designed to inject automatically the correct quantity hazardous vapours or prevent ignition in the event of an of foam concentrate into a water stream over a wide range accidental spillage of a hazardous liquid.
of variable flows and pressures in closed-head foam/watersprinkler systems.
Venturi: A constricted portion of a pipe or tube which will
increase water velocity, thus momentarily reducing its
WEP System: Water Expansion Pumping Systems. Today
pressure, and simultaneously creating a vacuum.
Wicking Effect: Occurs when non-aspirated AFFF applied
to unignited spillage of low volatility/high flash point fuels
(eg. aviation kerosene) causese fuel to ignite more readily.
The right is reserved to vary or modify any specification without prior notice.
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Source: http://alarmsystems.ph/old/prods/fd/Foam%20Jargons.pdf

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